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Next-Generation Network Services

Book Description

A guide to building service-oriented networks to differentiate and grow your business 

  • Understand the changing landscape of the telecommunications industry and what technologies can lead to business and revenue growth

  • Examine the rise of IP in LAN, WAN, wireless, and global networking applications

  • Learn about the multiservice network architecture, including next-generation ATM, IP/MPLS, MSPP, and MSSP platforms

  • Discover the strategic advantage offered by VPN technologies, including IPsec VPNs, SSL VPNs, wireless VPNs, site-to-site VPNs, Layer 3 and Layer 2 MPLS VPNs, VPLS, multicast VPNs, and multiservice VPNs

  • Get introduced to optical technology components and optical features including SONET/SDH, RPR, DWDM, CWDM, optical Ethernet, and IP over optical

  • Evaluate metropolitan and long-haul optical networks to accommodate rising broadband demands

  • Learn the fundamentals of wireline networks, including narrowband, ISDN, Frame Relay, Digital Loop Carrier, Broadband xDSL, cable, and Ethernet in residential applications

  • Unleash the power of mobility, cellular, and wireless LAN technologies

  • A new era of network services has evolved to meet the needs of IP-centric networking requirements and customer opportunity. The emphasis is on service as IP has become a prolific communications portal through which to deliver interactive solutions that improve business execution, tie the individual consumer into commerce, and extend market reach by removing the last barriers of time and distance.

    Next-Generation Network Services presents an overview of converged IP network services, focusing on opportunities for service differentiation and introducing current service-oriented technology. These technologies allow service providers and large enterprises to build and operate networks that provide local, long-haul, mobile, and global data and Internet services to businesses and consumers.

    This book explores the service provider opportunity in the new era, discussing what has changed and why a service-centric focus is the new ascendancy. This book introduces an extensive portfolio of network technologies and explains the market advantages and the service value of each solution, including IP, multiservice, virtual private network (VPN), optical, wireline, and wireless networks.

    Whether you are a network architect or engineer driving service innovation within a service provider or enterprise network, or you are a network executive or technology analyst looking to gain a broad overview of the telecommunications sector, Next-Generation Network Services offers you insight into the evolving internetworking technologies that will shape the future of network growth.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedications
    2. About the Author
      1. About the Technical Reviewers
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. Icons Used in This Book
    5. Command Syntax Conventions
    6. Introduction
      1. Purpose of This Book
      2. Who Should Read This Book?
      3. How This Book Is Organized
    7. 1. Communicating in the New Era
      1. New Era of Networking
      2. The Fences Are Down
      3. Technological Winners
        1. IP Everywhere
        2. Optical Anywhere
        3. Wireless Through the Air
      4. Building Blocks for Next-Generation Networks
        1. IP Networks
        2. Multiservice Networks
        3. VPNs
        4. Optical Networks
        5. Wireline Networks
        6. Wireless Networks
      5. Using Next-Generation Network Services
        1. Network Infrastructure Convergence
        2. Services Convergence
        3. From Technology Push to Service Pull
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. End Notes
      8. Resources Used in This Chapter
    8. 2. IP Networks
      1. IP Past, Present, and Future
        1. IP Influence and Confluence
        2. IP Version 4
        3. IP Version 6
      2. IP Network Convergence
      3. Local IP Networks: LANs
        1. LAN Technologies
        2. Ethernet—From Zero to 10 Gigabits in 30 Years
        3. IP Routing
          1. Routing IP Packets
          2. Globally Significant Addressing
          3. Error Recovery (Reliability)
          4. Flow Control Using Windowing
          5. Application Multiplexing
        4. LAN Switching
          1. Layer 2 Switching
          2. Layer 3 Routing for Layer 2 Scalability
          3. Multilayer LAN Switching
          4. Optimizing Multilayer LAN Switching
      4. Long IP Networks: WANs
        1. WAN Bandwidth
        2. Wide Area Changes
          1. Regulatory Policy Changes
          2. Architectural Changes
        3. Wide Area Technologies and Topologies
          1. Frame Relay
          2. VPNs
          3. Metro Ethernet
      5. Mobile IP Networks
        1. Wireless IP LANS
          1. Private WLANs
            1. Wireless LAN Standards
            2. Wireless LAN Capacity
            3. Wireless Digital-Access Technologies
            4. Wireless LAN Security
          2. Public Wireless LANs
        2. Mobility Networks
          1. Packet Gateways Running on Router Platforms
          2. SS7 Signaling over IP Solutions
          3. IP RAN Transport
          4. Integrating Complementary WLAN 802.11 Technology
          5. Packet-Based VoIP
          6. IP and MPLS at the Core of Mobility Networks
          7. Cisco Mobility Exchange Framework
      6. Global IP Networks
        1. Global Capacity
        2. Globally Resilient IP
        3. The Internet—A Network of Networks
      7. Beyond IP
      8. Technology Brief—IP Networks
        1. Technology Viewpoint
        2. Technology at a Glance
        3. Business Drivers, Success Factors, Technology Application, and Service Value at a Glance
      9. End Notes
      10. References Used in This Chapter
    9. 3. Multiservice Networks
      1. The Origins of Multiservice ATM
      2. Next-Generation Multiservice Networks
        1. Next-Generation Multiservice ATM Switching
        2. Cisco Next-Generation Multiservice Switches
          1. Cisco BPX 8600 Series Switches
          2. Cisco MGX 8250 Edge Concentrator Switch
          3. Cisco MGX 8800 Series Switches
          4. Cisco MGX 8900 Series Switches
          5. Cisco IGX 8400 Series Switches
          6. Comparing Cisco Next-Generation ATM Multiservice Switches
      3. Multiprotocol Label Switching Networks
        1. Frame-Based MPLS
          1. Frame-Based MPLS Components and Terminology
          2. Frame-Based MPLS Functionality
        2. Cell-Based MPLS
          1. Cell-Based MPLS ATM Components
          2. Cell-Based MPLS ATM LSR and eLSR Functionality
          3. Implementing Cell-Based MPLS on Cisco ATM Multiservice Switches
        3. MPLS Services
        4. MPLS Benefits for Service Providers
        5. MPLS Example Benefits for Large Enterprises
      4. Cisco Next-Generation Multiservice Routers
        1. Cisco CRS-1 Carrier Routing System
          1. CRS-1 Hardware Design
            1. Line Card Shelf
            2. Fabric Chassis
          2. Cisco CRS-1 Multishelf System
          3. Cisco CRS-1 16-Slot Single-Shelf System
          4. Cisco CRS-1 8-Slot Single-Shelf System
        2. Cisco IOS XR Software
        3. Cisco XR 12000/12000 Series Routers
          1. XR 12000/12000 Architecture
          2. Cisco XR 12000/12000 Capacities
      5. Multiservice Core and Edge Switching
        1. Multiservice Provisioning Platform (MSPP)
        2. Cisco ONS 15454 E Series Ethernet Data Card
          1. Cisco ONS 15454 G Series Ethernet Data Card
          2. Cisco ONS 15454 ML Series Ethernet Data Card
          3. Cisco ONS 15454 CE Series Ethernet Data Card
        3. Multiservice Switching Platforms (MSSP)
      6. Technology Brief—Multiservice Networks
        1. Technology Viewpoint
        2. Technology at a Glance
        3. Business Drivers, Success Factors, Technology Application, and Service Value at a Glance
      7. End Notes
      8. References Used in This Chapter
    10. 4. Virtual Private Networks
      1. Frame Relay/ATM VPNs: Where We’ve Been
      2. IP VPNs: Where We’re Going
      3. IP Security (IPSec)
        1. IPSec Protocols for Data Integrity
          1. Authentication Header (AH)
          2. Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)
        2. IPSec Data-Forwarding Modes
          1. Tunnel Mode
          2. Transport Mode
        3. Summarizing IPSec Technologies
      4. Access VPNs
        1. IPSec VPNs for Remote Access
          1. Software-Based IPSec VPN Clients
          2. Remote-Site IPSec VPN Firewalls
          3. Hardware IPSec VPN Clients
          4. Remote-Site, IPSec-Enabled Routers
        2. Secure Socket Layer (SSL) VPN for Remote Access
        3. Wireless Remote-Access VPNs
          1. Software-Based Wireless VPNs
          2. Hardware-Based Wireless VPNs
          3. Wireless VPN Security Considerations
        4. MPLS VPNs for Remote Access
          1. Remote Access to MPLS VPN Features and Functionality
          2. Benefits of Remote Access to MPLS VPNs
      5. Intranet VPNs
        1. IPSec Site-to-Site VPNs
        2. Additional Intranet IPSec VPN Designs
          1. Hub-and-Spoke VPNs
          2. Full-Mesh On-Demand VPNs with TED
          3. Dynamic Multipoint VPNs
          4. IPSec Design Components
        3. MPLS Layer 3 VPNs
          1. VPN Any-to-Any Connectivity
        4. MPLS Layer 2 VPNs
          1. Layer 2 Any Transport over MPLS
          2. VPLS (Layer 2 Ethernet Multipoint Services)
            1. The Need for VPLS
          3. VPLS Logical Model
            1. Hierarchical VPLS
            2. Cisco IOS MPLS VPLS
        5. Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol version 3 (L2TPv3) VPNs
        6. Multicast VPNs (MVPNs)
          1. The Need for Multicast VPNs for MPLS
          2. Introduction to Cisco Multicast VPNs (MVPNs)
          3. Multicast VRFs (mVRFs)
          4. Multicast Tunnel Interface (MTI) and Multicast Distribution Tree (MDT)
          5. Multicast Domains (MDs)
          6. Source Specific Multicast (SSM)
          7. Inter-AS MVPNs
          8. Extranet MVPNs
      6. Extranet VPNs
      7. Multiservice VPNs over IPSec
      8. VPNs: Build or Buy?
        1. Enterprise-Managed VPNs
        2. Provider-Managed VPNs
      9. Technology Brief—Virtual Private Networks
        1. Technology Viewpoint
        2. Technology at a Glance
        3. Business Drivers, Success Factors, Technology Application, and Service Value at a Glance
      10. End Notes
      11. References Used in This Chapter
      12. Recommended Reading
    11. 5. Optical Networking Technologies
      1. Light—Where Color Is King
      2. Understanding Optical Components
        1. Light and Lambdas
        2. Electromagnetic Spectrum
        3. Light Emitters
        4. Optical Fiber
          1. Multimode Fiber
          2. Single-Mode Fiber
        5. Light Receivers
      3. Understanding Optical Light Propagation
      4. Optical Networks—Over the Rainbow
        1. WDM
        2. DWDM
          1. Optical Network Impairments
            1. Optical Power Loss
            2. Dispersion
              1. Chromatic Dispersion
              2. Polarization Mode Dispersion
            3. Additional Impairments
          2. Common Fiber Types
          3. DWDM Design Considerations
            1. DWDM Channel Count
            2. Channel Plans
            3. Transponders
            4. Establishing Balance in DWDM Design
          4. Intelligent, Integrated DWDM
        3. CWDM
      5. Understanding SONET/SDH
        1. SONET/SDH Origins and Benefits
        2. SONET and SDH Hierarchy
          1. SONET Hierarchy
          2. SDH Hierarchy
          3. SONET/SDH Network Elements
        3. Packet over SONET/SDH
        4. SONET/SDH Challenges with Data
      6. Understanding RPR and DPT
        1. RPR/802.17 Architecture
        2. DPT Using SRP Architecture
        3. RPR and DPT Benefits
      7. Optical Ethernet
        1. Gigabit Ethernet and 10GE over Optical Networks
          1. Gigabit Ethernet for Optical Networks
          2. 10 Gigabit Ethernet for Optical Networks
        2. Ethernet over Next-Generation SONET/SDH
          1. Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) Standard
          2. Virtual Concatenation (VCAT)
          3. Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS)
        3. Ethernet over RPR/DPT
        4. Ethernet Directly over Optical Fiber
          1. Gigabit Ethernet over Optical Fiber
          2. Gigabit Ethernet Using Pluggable Optics
          3. 10 Gigabit Ethernet Pluggable Optics
      8. Optical Transport Network (ITU-T G.709 OTN)
        1. IP over Optical
        2. Unified Control Plane
      9. Technology Brief—Optical Networks
        1. Technology Viewpoint
        2. Technology at a Glance
        3. Business Drivers, Success Factors, Technology Application, and Service Value at a Glance
      10. End Notes
      11. References
    12. 6. Metropolitan Optical Networks
      1. Business Drivers for Metropolitan Optical Networks
      2. Functional Infrastructure
        1. Metro Access
          1. Business Access
          2. Residential Access
          3. Passive Optical Networks (PONs)
        2. Metro Edge
          1. The Metro Edge Evolves
          2. Intelligence Moves to the Metro Edge
          3. Connecting Metro Access to Metro Core
          4. Increasing Bandwidth and Services in the Metro Edge
        3. Metro Core
          1. Defining Today’s Metro Core
          2. Scaling Core Bandwidth
          3. Scaling Core Topology
          4. Connecting Metro Edge to Service POP
        4. Service POP
        5. Metro Regional
      3. Metro SONET/SDH
        1. Virtual Concatenation (VCAT)
        2. Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)
        3. Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS)
        4. Moving Packets over Metro SONET/SDH
      4. Metro IP
        1. Resilient Packet Ring (RPR): Packet Power for the Metro
          1. Bandwidth Efficiency
          2. Auto-Topology Discovery and High Resiliency
          3. Infrastructure Transparency
          4. IP Service Enablers
        2. Dynamic Packet Transport (DPT): The Cisco RPR Solution
        3. IP/MPLS in the Metro
      5. Metro DWDM
        1. Drivers for Metro DWDM
        2. Metro DWDM Technology
          1. Tunable DWDM for the Metro
          2. Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexing (ROADM) for the Metro
        3. Metro DWDM Design Considerations
          1. Topologies
          2. Fiber Infrastructure
          3. Amplification/Regeneration
          4. Per-Channel Capacity
          5. Channel Count
        4. Metro CWDM
        5. Metro DWDM-Enabled Services
      6. Metro Ethernet
        1. Ethernet—from LAN to MAN
        2. Metro Ethernet Services
          1. Ethernet Private Line (EPL)
          2. Ethernet Wire Service (EWS)
          3. Ethernet Relay Service (ERS)
          4. Ethernet Private Ring Service (EPR)
          5. Ethernet Multipoint Service (EMS)
          6. Ethernet Relay Multipoint Service (ERMS)
        3. Comparing Metro Ethernet Services
        4. Taking Metro Ethernet to the Market
        5. Service Orienting Metro Ethernet
      7. Metro MSPP, MSSP, and MSTP
        1. MSPP
        2. MSSP
        3. Multiservice Transport Platform (MSTP)
      8. Metro Storage Networking
        1. Fibre Channel
        2. Enterprise Systems Connection (ESCON)
        3. Fiber Connection (FICON)
      9. Technology Brief—Metropolitan Optical Networks
        1. Technology Viewpoint
        2. Technology at a Glance
        3. Business Drivers, Success Factors, Technology Application, and Service Value at a Glance
      10. End Notes
      11. References Used in This Chapter
    13. 7. Long-Haul Optical Networks
      1. Understanding Long-Haul Optical Networks
        1. Networks of Nodes
        2. Cisco Long-Haul Technologies
          1. Cisco ONS 15808 DWDM System
          2. Cisco ONS 15454 MSTP
        3. Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexing (ROADM)
        4. Long-Haul DWDM
          1. Waveguide Challenges
          2. Lasers for the Long Haul
          3. Tunable Optical Components
          4. Optical Amplification
          5. Optical Regeneration
          6. Optical Wavelengths
          7. Optical Power Budget
          8. Considerations for an Optical Power Budget
          9. Understanding dB and dBm
      2. Extended Long-Haul Optical Networks
        1. Advanced Fibers
        2. Use of the L Band
        3. Raman Amplification
        4. Forward Error Correction (FEC)
        5. Modulation Formats
      3. Ultra Long-Haul Optical Networks
        1. Highly Accurate Lasers
        2. Dispersion Management
        3. Amplification
        4. OXC Architectures
        5. Data Modulation
      4. Submarine Long-Haul Optical Networks
        1. Submarine Network Fiber Types
        2. Submarine Fiber Amplifiers
      5. Optical Cross-Connects (OXCs)
        1. Optical to Electrical to Optical (OEO)
        2. Optical to Optical to Optical (OOO)
          1. OOO Requirements
          2. OOO Services
          3. OOO Challenges
        3. Hybrid OOO and OEO Technologies
      6. Technology Brief—Long-Haul Optical Networks
        1. Technology Viewpoint
        2. Technology at a Glance
        3. Business Drivers, Success Factors, Technology Application, and Service Value at a Glance
      7. End Notes
      8. References Used in This Chapter
    14. 8. Wireline Networks
      1. Narrowband—Squeezing Voice and Data
        1. Residential Loop for Analog Transmission
        2. Going Digital with PCM and TDM
        3. Narrowband Aggregation for DS1 and E1
        4. ISDN
          1. ISDN BRI
          2. ISDN PRI
          3. SS7
          4. ISDN Challenges
        5. Frame Relay
        6. Narrowband Aggregation Layer and Digital Loop Carriers
      2. Broadband—Pushing Technology to the Edge
        1. DSL
          1. ADSL
            1. ADSL Modem Technology
            2. ADSL Multiplexing Standards
            3. ADSL Filter
            4. ADSL Data Rates
            5. Distance Limitations
            6. Selecting DSL Service
          2. ADSL2 and ADSL2+
          3. SHDSL
          4. VDSL and VDSL2
        2. DSLAM Broadband Aggregation Layer
          1. Digital Subscriber Loop Access Multiplexer (DSLAM)
          2. Broadband Remote Access Server (BRAS)
        3. Cable
          1. Cable Technology for Broadband Media
          2. Cable Industry Standards and Initiatives
            1. DOCSIS
            2. PacketCable
          3. Cable Modem Termination System (CMTS)
        4. Ethernet to the Masses
          1. 802.3ah Ethernet in the First Mile over Copper (EFMC)
          2. 802.3ah Ethernet in the First Mile over Point-to-Point Fiber (EFMF)
          3. 802.3ah Ethernet in the First Mile over Passive Optical Networks (EFMP)
          4. 802.3ah Ethernet in the First Mile Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (EFM OAM)
          5. Ethernet—New Access Choices for Providers
      3. Technology Brief—Wireline Networks
        1. Technology Viewpoint
        2. Technology at a Glance
        3. Business Drivers, Success Factors, Technology Application, and Service Value at a Glance
      4. End Notes
      5. References Used in This Chapter
      6. Recommended Reading
    15. 9. Wireless Networks
      1. Cellular Mobility Basics
        1. Analog Cellular Access Technology
        2. Digital Cellular Access Technologies
          1. TDMA
          2. CDMA
          3. OFDM
        3. Cellular Standards
          1. GSM
          2. CDMA2000
          3. PCS
          4. UMTS
          5. IMT-2000
        4. Generation Upon Generation
          1. 1G Systems
          2. 2G Systems
          3. 2.5G Systems
          4. 3G Systems
          5. Beyond 3G to 4G Systems
        5. Mobile Data Overlay
          1. HSCSD
          2. GPRS
          3. EDGE
          4. CDMA2000 Family for Mobile Data
            1. CDMA2000 1x
            2. CDMA2000 1xEV-DO
            3. CDMA2000 1xEV-DV
          5. WCDMA
          6. TD-SCDMA
          7. High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)
          8. Comparing Mobile Data Rates
        6. Mobile Radio Frequency Spectrum
        7. Navigating the Mobile Spectrum
      2. Wireless LANs
        1. 802.11 Physical Layer (PHY) Techniques
          1. Diffused Infrared
          2. FHSS
          3. DSSS
        2. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
        3. 802.11—11 Mbps and Beyond
          1. 802.11b
          2. 802.11a
          3. 802.11g
          4. Comparing 802.11 Standards
        4. 802.16
        5. Wireless Personal Area Networks
          1. Bluetooth
          2. Ultra-Wideband (UWB)
        6. Wireless Optics
        7. Fixed Wireless
          1. VOFDM
          2. MMDS
          3. LMDS
        8. Satellite Wireless
      3. Technology Brief—Wireless Networks
        1. Technology Viewpoint
        2. Technology at a Glance
        3. Business Drivers, Success Factors, Technology Application, and Service Value at a Glance
      4. End Notes
      5. References Used in This Chapter