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New Media Influence on Social and Political Change in Africa

Book Description

While transitioning from autocracy to democracy, media in Africa has always played an important role in democratic and non-democratic states; focusing on politicians, diplomats, activists, and others who work towards political transformations. New Media Influence on Social and Political Change in Africa addresses the development of new mass media and communication tools and its influence on social and political change. While analyzing democratic transitions and cultures with a theoretical perspective, this book also presents case studies and national experiences for media, new media, and democracy scholars and practitioners.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Book Series
  5. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editorial Advisory Board
  6. Preface
  7. Section 1: The Politics of Change: Traditional Media, New Journalism and the Struggle for Reform
    1. Chapter 1: New Media and the Question of African Democracy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. GENERAL INTRODUCTION
      3. THE DEMOCRACY/MEDIA NEXUS: AFRICA’S “LOST” DECADES
      4. A NEW MEDIA LANDSCAPE: IS IT AFRICA’S PROMISED “FOURTH WAVE”?
    2. Chapter 2: Moroccan Media in Democratic Transition
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. HISTORY OF MOROCCAN MEDIA
      4. 3. LEGAL ENVIRONMENT
      5. 4. POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
      6. 5. MEDIA, DEMOCRACY AND ACCESS TO MEDIA CONTENT
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 3: Selective Liberalization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEVELOPMENTS TOWARDS LIBERALIZATION IN AFRICAN MEDIA POLICY
      4. COUNTER-READINGS: SIGNS OF INCREASED STATE CONTROL
      5. AN OVERVIEW OF THE ETHIOPIAN MEDIA SITUATION SINCE 1991
      6. IMPROVEMENTS IN ETHIOPIAN MEDIA LEGISLATION
      7. RESTRUCTURING OF THE STATE MEDIA
      8. A NEW COMMUNICATION STRATEGY FOR THE GOVERNMENT
      9. OTHER TENDENCIES IN ETHIOPIAN MEDIA GOVERNANCE
      10. CONCLUDING DISCUSSION
      11. ACRONYMS
    4. Chapter 4: Articulations and Rearticulations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: THE MEDIA LANDSCAPE IN RWANDA
      4. INTERNATIONAL MEDIA ASSISTANCE IN RWANDA
      5. MEDIA STRENGTHENING IN RWANDA - IREX, USAID AND UNESCO
      6. INTERTEXTUALITY
      7. ARTICULATION AND REARTICULATION: NODAL POINTS AND ANTAGONISMS
      8. GENRE
      9. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 5: Fanning the Flames of Fear
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK: LIBERAL THEORY OF PRESS FREEDOM
      4. HISTORY OF POST COLONIAL KENYA
      5. LIBERAL MEDIA’S ROLE IN DEMOCRACY
      6. METHOD
      7. CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS
      8. FINDINGS AND IMPLICATIONS
      9. DISCUSSION
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
    6. Chapter 6: Looking Beyond Elections
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: THE INTERWOVEN RELATIONSHIP OF MEDIA FREEDOM AND DEMOCRACY
      3. THE CONCEPTUALISATION OF MEDIA FREEDOM
      4. THE TRANSITION PROCESS AND POLITICS: HOW DID WE GET HERE?
      5. POLICY FRAMEWORK AND THE MEDIA ENVIRONMENT
      6. THE MASS MEDIA AND DEMOCRATIC CONSOLIDATION IN NIGERIA: A DISCUSSION
      7. NATIONAL BROADCASTING COMMISSION (NBC) FAIRNESS CLAUSE, THE MEDIA FREEDOM AND DEMOCRATIZATION
      8. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    7. Chapter 7: Press Freedom, Media Regulation, and Journalists’ Perceptions of their Roles in Society
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STATEMENT OF PURPOSE AND METHODOLOGY
      4. POLITICAL OVERVIEW: 1990s TO DATE
      5. PRESS FREEDOM
      6. ROLES OF THE MEDIA IN A DEMOCRACY: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      7. ZAMBIAN AND GHANAIAN JOURNALISTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR ROLES IN SOCIETY
      8. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 8: When the History Turns Stronger than the Rhetoric
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FIRSTBORN AND LASTBORN IN THE THIRTY YEARS’ WAR
      4. THE NAMIBIAN MEDIASCAPE
      5. APRIL 27, 2009: TWO WORLDS
      6. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES
      7. THE FIRST DEFINITION: SLOW TO CHANGE
    9. Chapter 9: Cultural Pluralism and Democratic Ideation- An African Story
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONSTRUCTING A NEW PARADIGM OF CULTURAL PLURALISM AND DEMOCRATIC IDEATION
      4. REVISITING ETHNICITY IN SOUTH AFRICA: IN SEARCH OF PLURALISM
      5. MODELS OF ETHNIC MINORITY MEDIA
      6. RADIO BROADCASTING, PUBLIC CULTURAL TRUTHS AND COLLECTIVE CONSCIOUSNESS
      7. RECONCEPTUALISING ‘PUBLIC’ SERVICE BROADCASTING
      8. RELIVING THE BABELIAN EXPERIENCE: ETHNIC BELONGING AND LANGUAGE BROADCASTING
      9. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 10: The Changing State of the South African Nation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. SPEECH ANALYSIS
      5. MEDIA RECEPTION ANALYSIS
      6. CONCLUSION
  8. Section 2: Technologies of Change: Understanding Africa’s New Media Landscape
    1. Chapter 11: Revolution 2.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE PARADOXICAL EGYPTIAN MEDIA LANDSCAPE PRIOR TO THE 2011 REVOLUTION
      4. NEW MEDIA, CIVIC ENGAGEMENT, AND POLITICAL MOBILIZATION DURING THE 2011 REVOLUTION
      5. ONE YEAR AFTER THE REVOLUTION: THE POLITICAL AND COMMUNICATION CHANGES AND CHALLENGES
      6. CONCLUDING REMARKS
    2. Chapter 12: Twitter Frames
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE JANUARY 25 MOVEMENT AND SOCIAL MEDIA
      4. RESEARCH RATIONALE AND QUESTIONS
      5. RESEARCH METHOD: FINDING THE “INFLUENTIALS”
      6. TWITTER’S INFORMATION SHARING
      7. HYPERLINKING FUNCTION OF TWEETING
      8. MOBILIZATION ON TWITTER: A FRAMING ANALYSIS PERSPECTIVE
      9. DIAGNOSTIC FRAMING
      10. PROGNOSTIC FRAMING
      11. MOTIVATIONAL FRAMING
      12. FINAL REMARKS
    3. Chapter 13: A Grassroots Approach to the Democratic Role of the Internet in Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ICT-FOR-DEVELOPMENT: A CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE
      4. RE-CONCEPTUALIZING THE DEMOCRATIC ROLE OF ICTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      5. THE CASE OF MOROCCO
      6. METHODOLOGY
      7. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 14: Twitter and Africa’s ‘War on Terror’
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TWITTER, AFRICA, AND BEYOND: SELECTED LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHOD
      5. DISCUSSION AND FINDINGS
      6. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 15: Use of New ICTs as “Liberation” or “Repression” Technologies in Social Movements
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE AND DEFINITION OF TERMS
      4. GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE, FREE-EXPRESSION AND RESTRICTIONS
      5. NEW ICTS IN SOCIAL MOVEMENTS: KENYA AND EGYPT
      6. SUMMARY AND GENERAL CONCLUSIONS
      7. SHORTCOMINGS AND AREAS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
    6. Chapter 16: Social Media and Youth Interest in Politics in Kenya
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE PLACE OF THE YOUTH ON THE POLITICAL LANDSCAPE OF KENYA
      4. SOCIAL MEDIA AS A POLITICAL TOOL OF COMMUNICATION
      5. SOCIAL MEDIA, NEW THREATS
      6. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      7. METHODOLOGY
      8. FINDINGS
      9. POLITICAL CONTENT IN YOUTH DISCUSSIONS IN SOCIAL MEDIA
      10. SIGNIFICANCE OF FACEBOOK AS A SOURCE OF POLITICAL INFORMATION FOR THE YOUTH
      11. TRENDS IN YOUTH RELIANCE ON SOCIAL MEDIA FOR POLITICAL INFORMATION
      12. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 17: Twitter as Virtual Battleground
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A BRIEF LOOK AT RECENT SOMALI HISTORY
      4. EARLY USES OF MEDIA
      5. @HSMPRESS
      6. GLARING OMISSIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 18: Political Use of Internet During the Benin 2011 Presidential Campaign
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2011 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS: THE KEY ISSUES AT STAKE
      4. SOCIOLOGICAL AND TECHNICAL CONTEXT OF THE INTERNET
      5. THE MAIN INTERNET TOOLS USED TO CAMPAIGN
      6. THE THREE CANDIDATES’ WEBSITES
      7. THE BLOGGING IN THE ONLINE CAMPAIGNS (OF THE CANDIDATES)
      8. SOCIAL NETWORKS
      9. YOUTUBE AND DAILYMOTION
      10. AN INADEQUATE SPEECH FOR THE INTERNET
      11. HACKING INTO WEBSITES: ANOTHER WAR BETWEEN YAYI AND HOUNGBEDJI
      12. A TOOL DEVELOPED FOR THE ELITE AND BENINESE DIASPORA
      13. CONCLUSION
      14. WEBSITES
    9. Chapter 19: The Impact of Social Media on the Social, Political and Economic Environments in Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON SOCIETY
      4. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA
      5. THE ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN THE 2011 NIGERIAN ELECTIONS
      6. THE ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN THE KONY2012 MOVEMENT
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
    10. Chapter 20: Public Opinion on Nigeria’s Democracy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PUBLIC OPINION AS A DIMENSION OF DEMOCRACY
      4. DEMOCRACY IN AFRICA
      5. DEMOCRACY IN POST-APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA
      6. THE STUDY
      7. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
      8. WHY THE ARAB SPRING STOPPED IN THE DESERT
      9. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    11. Chapter 21: New Media and the Changing Public Sphere in Uganda
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. UGANDA’S COMMUNICATIVE SPACE
      4. BROADCASTING
      5. THE PRESS
      6. NEW MEDIA
      7. THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK AND THE FUTURE OF NEW MEDIA
      8. THE EMERGENCE OF NEW MEDIA IN UGANDA
      9. SOCIAL NETWORKING STILL IN THE INFANCY STATE
      10. RIOTS AND PROTESTS: NEW MEDIA IN UGANDA COMES OF AGE
      11. UGANDAN NEW MEDIASCAPE: A NEW PUBLIC SPHERE OR A CASE OF NEW WINE IN OLD BOTTLES?
      12. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 22: Rethinking the Democratization Role of Online Media
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE MEDIA CONTEXT AND DEMOCRATIZATION STRUGGLES SINCE INDEPENDENCE
      4. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) CONTEXT
      5. MEDIA AND DEMOCRACY NEXUS: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      6. ONLINE MEDIA: ‘ALTERNATIVE PUBLIC SPHERES’ OR PRIVATE SPHERES?
      7. ONLINE MEDIA CONSUMPTION HABITS AND PATTERNS
      8. PARTICIPATION IN ONLINE FORUMS AND COLUMNS
      9. ONLINE PUBLICATIONS AND DEMOCRATIZATION
      10. ETHICAL CHALLENGES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR DEMOCRACY
      11. CONCLUDING REMARKS
    13. Chapter 23: Social Media, New ICTs and the Challenges Facing the Zimbabwe Democratic Process
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MEDIA-INDUCED SOCIAL UNREST AND PRE-EMPTIVE CENSORSHIP
      4. SOCIAL MEDIA, THE FIFTH ESTATE AND THE CONTRADICTIONS OF RE-PRESENTATION
      5. ZANU PF IDEOLOGUES AND THE APPROPRIATION OF THE ARAB SPRING REVOLUTION
      6. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK: DEMOCRATISING THE PUBLIC SPHERE
      7. PREPAREDNESS FOR SOCIAL MEDIA INDUCED MASS ACTION
      8. CIVIL SOCIETY AND CITIZEN MONITORING OF THE DEMOCRATIC PROCESS
      9. KUBATANA AND THE MOBILE PHONE ACTIVISM
      10. LIMITATIONS OF THE NEW SOCIAL MEDIA: HIGH CALL COSTS RENDERED THE PROJECT RESTRICTIVE
      11. THE SOCIAL MEDIA AND DIPLOMATIC MONITORING OF ZIMBABWE
      12. WHY THERE CANNOT BE NORTH AFRICA OR DID IT HAPPEN IN ZIMBABWE?
      13. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 24: Of New Media Influence on Social and Political Change in Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AFRICA IN THE THROES OF CONSTANT TRANSFORMATION
      4. INTRINSIC POWER OF NEW (AND SOCIAL) MEDIA TO INITIATE SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CHANGE
      5. IDENTITY OF EMPLOYERS OF ‘NEW’ (AND SOCIAL) MEDIA IN SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
      6. HAVE ‘NEW’ (AND SOCIAL) MEDIA REPLACED THE ‘ALTERNATIVE’ AND ‘OLD’ MEDIA?
      7. OLD AND NEW MEDIA CAN BE TOOLS OF SOCIAL INCOHESION
      8. THE AFRICAN STATE IN THE ERA OF ‘NEW’ MEDIA
      9. WHY DID THE ARAB SPRING TERMINATE IN THE DESERT?
      10. IS THIS VOLUME THE FINAL ANSWER?
  9. Compilation of References
  10. About the Contributors