Competition from emerging and developing countries, challenges related to energy and water, the continuing increase in the global population and the obligation to be sustainable are all impacting developed countries such as the United States, France, etc. Manufacturing has been almost totally neglected by these developed countries and thus there is a strong need to review R&D and the development and industrialization processes. This is a prerequisite for maintaining and improving welfare and quality of life. The industrialization process can be defined as the process of converting research or laboratory experiments into a physical tool capable of producing a product of value for customers of specified markets. Such a process implies knowledge of BAT (best available techniques) in chemical engineering, plant design, production competitiveness, the proper utilization of tools (toolbox concept) such as value assessment, value engineering, eco-design, LCA (lifecycle analysis), process simulation, modeling, innovation and appropriate metrics usage. These are mandatory to ensure commercial success and covered by the authors of this book.