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Networking Bible

Book Description

Everything you need to set up and maintain large or small networks

Barrie Sosinsky

Networking Bible

Create a secure network for home or enterprise

Learn basic building blocks and standards

Set up for broadcasting, streaming, and more

The book you need to succeed!

Your A-Z guide to networking essentials

Whether you're setting up a global infrastructure or just networking two computers at home, understanding of every part of the process is crucial to the ultimate success of your system. This comprehensive book is your complete, step-by-step guide to networking—from different architectures and hardware to security, diagnostics, Web services, and much more. Packed with practical, professional techniques and the very latest information, this is the go-to resource you need to succeed.

  • Demystify the basics: network stacks, bus architectures, mapping, and bandwidth

  • Get up to speed on servers, interfaces, routers, and other necessary hardware

  • Explore LANs, WANs, Wi-Fi, TCP/IP, and other types of networks

  • Set up domains, directory services, file services, caching, and mail protocols

  • Enable broadcasting, multicasting, and streaming media

  • Deploy VPNs, firewalls, encryption, and other security methods

  • Perform diagnostics and troubleshoot your systems

  • Note: The ebook version does not provide access to the companion files.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
    2. About the Author
    3. Credits
    4. Acknowledgments
    5. Introduction
    6. 1. Network Basics
      1. 1. Networking Introduction
        1. 1.1. Defining Computer Networking
        2. 1.2. Network Type Overview
        3. 1.3. Transmission Types
          1. 1.3.1. Point-to-point communication
          2. 1.3.2. Broadcast communication
        4. 1.4. Topologies
          1. 1.4.1. Physical topologies
            1. 1.4.1.1. Bus systems
            2. 1.4.1.2. Star networks
            3. 1.4.1.3. Rings
            4. 1.4.1.4. Mesh networks
            5. 1.4.1.5. Trees or hierarchical networks
          2. 1.4.2. Hybrid topologies
          3. 1.4.3. Logical topologies
            1. 1.4.3.1. Logical daisy chain topology
            2. 1.4.3.2. Logical star topology
            3. 1.4.3.3. Logical mesh topology
        5. 1.5. Summary
      2. 2. The Network Stack
        1. 2.1. Standard Development Organizations
        2. 2.2. The OSI Reference Model
        3. 2.3. How Layers Communicate
        4. 2.4. The Physical Layer
        5. 2.5. The Data Link Layer
        6. 2.6. The Network Layer
        7. 2.7. The Transport Layer
        8. 2.8. The Session Layer
        9. 2.9. The Presentation Layer
        10. 2.10. The Application Layer
        11. 2.11. The TCP/IP Reference Model
        12. 2.12. Comparing the OSI and TCP/IP Reference Models
        13. 2.13. Summary
      3. 3. Architecture and Design
        1. 3.1. Network Architecture and Topology
          1. 3.1.1. Point-to-point
            1. 3.1.1.1. Physical point-to-point connections
            2. 3.1.1.2. Virtual point-to-point connections
            3. 3.1.1.3. Packet switched or transient connections
            4. 3.1.1.4. Switched connections
        2. 3.2. Switched and Packet Networks
        3. 3.3. Bus Architectures
          1. 3.3.1. Network segments
          2. 3.3.2. Collision domains
          3. 3.3.3. Signal termination
        4. 3.4. Connection Points
        5. 3.5. Peer-to-Peer Networks
        6. 3.6. Client-Server Networks
        7. 3.7. Multi-Tiered Networks
        8. 3.8. Thin Client/Server
          1. 3.8.1. Terminal servers
          2. 3.8.2. X Window networks
        9. 3.9. Summary
      4. 4. Network Discovery and Mapping
        1. 4.1. Network Discovery
          1. 4.1.1. Node advertisement
          2. 4.1.2. Browsing
          3. 4.1.3. Polling
          4. 4.1.4. Connections
        2. 4.2. Simple Network Management Protocol
        3. 4.3. Windows Management Instrumentation
        4. 4.4. Mapping
        5. 4.5. Summary
      5. 5. Bandwidth and Throughput
        1. 5.1. Bandwidth and Capacity
          1. 5.1.1. Beads flow through a pipe of syrup
          2. 5.1.2. Signaling
          3. 5.1.3. Bandwidth
          4. 5.1.4. Sampling theory
        2. 5.2. Multiplexing
          1. 5.2.1. Time Division Multiplexing
          2. 5.2.2. Frequency Division Multiplexing
          3. 5.2.3. Other multiplexing technologies
        3. 5.3. Flow Control
        4. 5.4. Traffic Engineering
          1. 5.4.1. Packet shaping
          2. 5.4.2. Leaky Bucket algorithm
          3. 5.4.3. Token Bucket algorithm
        5. 5.5. Quality of Service
        6. 5.6. Summary
    7. 2. Hardware
      1. 6. Servers and Systems
        1. 6.1. Network Server Types
        2. 6.2. Capacity and Loading
          1. 6.2.1. Three approaches
          2. 6.2.2. Solution frameworks
            1. 6.2.2.1. Microsoft Operations Framework
            2. 6.2.2.2. Microsoft Solutions Framework
        3. 6.3. Server and Systems Sizing
          1. 6.3.1. Defining levels of service
            1. 6.3.1.1. Response time
            2. 6.3.1.2. Throughput
            3. 6.3.1.3. Availability
            4. 6.3.1.4. Reliability
            5. 6.3.1.5. Scalability
            6. 6.3.1.6. Adaptability
            7. 6.3.1.7. Security
          2. 6.3.2. Quantifying performance
            1. 6.3.2.1. Performance relationships
            2. 6.3.2.2. Eliminating bottlenecks
            3. 6.3.2.3. Network modeling
          3. 6.3.3. Server upgrades
        4. 6.4. Summary
      2. 7. The Network Interface
        1. 7.1. What Is a Network Interface?
          1. 7.1.1. Physical network interfaces
          2. 7.1.2. Logical network interfaces
        2. 7.2. Network Addressing
          1. 7.2.1. Physical addresses
          2. 7.2.2. Logical addresses
        3. 7.3. Configuring Network Interfaces
        4. 7.4. Bindings and Providers
        5. 7.5. Isolation and Routing
          1. 7.5.1. Physical isolation
          2. 7.5.2. Protocol isolation
        6. 7.6. Bus Interfaces for NICs
          1. 7.6.1. A sample network adapter
          2. 7.6.2. Network drivers
        7. 7.7. Summary
      3. 8. Transport Media
        1. 8.1. Wired Media
          1. 8.1.1. Wiring the physical plant
          2. 8.1.2. Twisted pair
          3. 8.1.3. Coaxial cable
          4. 8.1.4. Ethernet wiring
          5. 8.1.5. Fiber-optic cable
            1. 8.1.5.1. Attenuation and dispersal
            2. 8.1.5.2. Physical description
            3. 8.1.5.3. Fiber-optic networks
        2. 8.2. Wireless
          1. 8.2.1. Electromagnetic radiation
          2. 8.2.2. Information and transmission
          3. 8.2.3. Wireless connections
            1. 8.2.3.1. Radio links
            2. 8.2.3.2. Microwave links
        3. 8.3. Summary
      4. 9. Routing, Switching, and Bridging
        1. 9.1. Circuit versus Packet Switching
        2. 9.2. Layer 1 and Layer 2 Connection Devices
          1. 9.2.1. Passive hubs
          2. 9.2.2. Repeaters
        3. 9.3. Switches
        4. 9.4. Bridges
        5. 9.5. Routers
          1. 9.5.1. Control plane
          2. 9.5.2. Forwarding plane
          3. 9.5.3. Routing topologies
          4. 9.5.4. Optimization methods
          5. 9.5.5. Distance vector routing
            1. 9.5.5.1. The Bellman-Ford algorithm
            2. 9.5.5.2. Count-to-infinity
            3. 9.5.5.3. Routing Information Protocol
            4. 9.5.5.4. Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector Routing
          6. 9.5.6. Link state routing
            1. 9.5.6.1. Dijkstra's algorithm
            2. 9.5.6.2. Open Shortest Path First
            3. 9.5.6.3. Intermediate System to Intermediate System Routing
          7. 9.5.7. Path vector routing
            1. 9.5.7.1. A path vector example
            2. 9.5.7.2. The Border Gateway Protocol
          8. 9.5.8. Network loops
          9. 9.5.9. The Spanning Tree Protocol
            1. 9.5.9.1. Node/bridge hierarchy
            2. 9.5.9.2. Network segment costs
            3. 9.5.9.3. Dynamic optimization
            4. 9.5.9.4. Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
        6. 9.6. Onion Routers
          1. 9.6.1. Tor
          2. 9.6.2. Tor clients
          3. 9.6.3. Hidden services
        7. 9.7. Gateways
        8. 9.8. Summary
    8. 3. Network Types
      1. 10. Home Networks
        1. 10.1. Features of a Home Network
        2. 10.2. Broadband Connections
        3. 10.3. Wireless Connections
        4. 10.4. Wired Connections
          1. 10.4.1. Ethernet
          2. 10.4.2. Phone lines
          3. 10.4.3. Power over Ethernet
          4. 10.4.4. HomePlug Powerline
            1. 10.4.4.1. HomePlug modulation
            2. 10.4.4.2. Frames and sequences
            3. 10.4.4.3. Security
        5. 10.5. Home Network Servers
        6. 10.6. Summary
      2. 11. Peer-to-Peer Networks and Personal LANs
        1. 11.1. Peer-to-Peer Networks
          1. 11.1.1. Pure P2P networks
            1. 11.1.1.1. Small world networks
            2. 11.1.1.2. Gnutella
            3. 11.1.1.3. Freenet
          2. 11.1.2. Hybrid P2P systems
            1. 11.1.2.1. Napster
            2. 11.1.2.2. Torrents
        2. 11.2. Friend-to-Friend Networks
        3. 11.3. Bus Networking
          1. 11.3.1. Universal serial bus
          2. 11.3.2. FireWire
          3. 11.3.3. Bluetooth
            1. 11.3.3.1. Connections
            2. 11.3.3.2. Profiles
        4. 11.4. Summary
      3. 12. Local Area Networking
        1. 12.1. Introduction
          1. 12.1.1. The IEEE 802 LAN standards
          2. 12.1.2. Broadcast channels
        2. 12.2. Ethernet
          1. 12.2.1. Ethernet frames
            1. 12.2.1.1. Frame structure
            2. 12.2.1.2. Burst mode
            3. 12.2.1.3. VLAN frames
          2. 12.2.2. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection
          3. 12.2.3. Full-duplex operation
        3. 12.3. Token Ring Networks
        4. 12.4. Fiber Distributed Data Interface Networks
        5. 12.5. Automation Networks
          1. 12.5.1. X10 and home automation
          2. 12.5.2. Process control systems
            1. 12.5.2.1. Modbus
            2. 12.5.2.2. BACnet and LonTalk
            3. 12.5.2.3. OPC
        6. 12.6. Summary
      4. 13. Wide Area Networks and Backbones
        1. 13.1. What Is a WAN?
        2. 13.2. Circuit Switching Networks
          1. 13.2.1. The Public Switched Telephone Network
          2. 13.2.2. Integrated Services Digital Network
          3. 13.2.3. Digital Subscriber Line
          4. 13.2.4. Cable network
        3. 13.3. T- and E-Carrier Networks
        4. 13.4. Synchronous Optical Networking
          1. 13.4.1. SONET architecture
          2. 13.4.2. Framing
          3. 13.4.3. Packet over SONET
        5. 13.5. Packet Switching Networks
        6. 13.6. X.25 Networks
        7. 13.7. Switched Multi-megabit Data Services
        8. 13.8. Asynchronous Transfer Mode
        9. 13.9. Frame Relay
        10. 13.10. Multi Protocol Label Switching
        11. 13.11. The Internet and Internet2
          1. 13.11.1. Internet Exchange Points
          2. 13.11.2. Internet2
        12. 13.12. Summary
      5. 14. Wi-Fi Networks
        1. 14.1. Wireless Networking
          1. 14.1.1. Wi-Fi networks
        2. 14.2. IEEE 802.11x Standards
          1. 14.2.1. 802.11 legacy
          2. 14.2.2. 802.11y
          3. 14.2.3. Modulation
            1. 14.2.3.1. Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum
            2. 14.2.3.2. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum
            3. 14.2.3.3. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
          4. 14.2.4. 802.11 protocol
            1. 14.2.4.1. Collision avoidance
            2. 14.2.4.2. 802.11 frame structure
            3. 14.2.4.3. Connection example
        3. 14.3. Wireless Access Points and Gateways
          1. 14.3.1. Repeaters and bridges
          2. 14.3.2. Wireless Distribution System
        4. 14.4. Wireless Routers and Gateways
          1. 14.4.1. Router configuration
          2. 14.4.2. Router upgrades
        5. 14.5. OLPC XO Wireless Network
        6. 14.6. Antennas
          1. 14.6.1. Antenna characteristics
          2. 14.6.2. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output
        7. 14.7. Wireless Software
        8. 14.8. Security
          1. 14.8.1. Wired Equivalent Privacy
          2. 14.8.2. Wi-Fi Protected Access
        9. 14.9. Summary
      6. 15. Storage Networking
        1. 15.1. Storage Networking
        2. 15.2. Storage Network Types
        3. 15.3. SANs versus NAS
          1. 15.3.1. Business Continuance Volumes
          2. 15.3.2. Storage virtualization
        4. 15.4. The Shared Storage Networking Model
          1. 15.4.1. The shared tape extension
          2. 15.4.2. The Storage Domain
          3. 15.4.3. Aggregation
          4. 15.4.4. Device models
        5. 15.5. Fibre Channel Networks
          1. 15.5.1. Fibre Channel standards
          2. 15.5.2. Port designations
          3. 15.5.3. The Fibre Channel Protocol
            1. 15.5.3.1. Fibre Channel traffic management
            2. 15.5.3.2. Fibre Channel flow control
          4. 15.5.4. Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loops
          5. 15.5.5. Fibre Channel Switched fabrics
            1. 15.5.5.1. Fibre Channel addressing
            2. 15.5.5.2. Zoning
        6. 15.6. Storage over IP
          1. 15.6.1. iSCSI protocol
          2. 15.6.2. Fibre Channel over IP
          3. 15.6.3. Internet Fibre Channel Protocol
        7. 15.7. Storage Area Network Management
          1. 15.7.1. Internet Storage Name Service
        8. 15.8. Summary
      7. 16. High-Speed Interconnects
        1. 16.1. High-Performance Computing
        2. 16.2. Beyond Gigabit Ethernet
          1. 16.2.1.
            1. 16.2.1.1. 10GBase-T
            2. 16.2.1.2. Higher-Speed Gigabit Ethernet
        3. 16.3. TCP Offloading Engines
        4. 16.4. Zero Copy Networks
          1. 16.4.1. Virtual Interface Architecture
          2. 16.4.2. InfiniBand
        5. 16.5. Network Clusters
          1. 16.5.1. Load balancing
          2. 16.5.2. Grid systems
        6. 16.6. Summary
    9. 4. TCP/IP Networking
      1. 17. Internet Transport Protocol
        1. 17.1. Transmission Control Protocol
        2. 17.2. Packet Structure
          1. 17.2.1. Header fields
          2. 17.2.2. Flags
          3. 17.2.3. Checksum field
          4. 17.2.4. Control fields
          5. 17.2.5. Data field
        3. 17.3. Protocol Operation
        4. 17.4. Connections
        5. 17.5. Flow Control
          1. 17.5.1. Sliding windows
          2. 17.5.2. Congestion control
          3. 17.5.3. Multiplexing
        6. 17.6. User Datagram Protocol
        7. 17.7. Ports
        8. 17.8. Problems with TCP
        9. 17.9. Summary
      2. 18. The Internet Protocols
        1. 18.1. Internet Protocol Overview
        2. 18.2. Internet Protocol Version 4
          1. 18.2.1. Addressing
            1. 18.2.1.1. Dividing the namespace
              1. 18.2.1.1.1. Classes
              2. 18.2.1.1.2. Classless Inter-Domain Routing
              3. 18.2.1.1.3. Regional Internet Registries
            2. 18.2.1.2. Reserved addresses
            3. 18.2.1.3. Zero Configuration addressing
            4. 18.2.1.4. IP datagrams
        3. 18.3. Subnetting
        4. 18.4. Setting an IP Address
          1. 18.4.1. Static addressing
          2. 18.4.2. Dynamic addressing
        5. 18.5. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
          1. 18.5.1. Configuration
          2. 18.5.2. Securing DHCP
          3. 18.5.3. Bootstrap Protocol
        6. 18.6. Internet Control Message Protocol
        7. 18.7. Internet Protocol Version 6
          1. 18.7.1. Addressing
            1. 18.7.1.1. IPv6 compressed notation
            2. 18.7.1.2. IPv6 calculators
            3. 18.7.1.3. Dual-stack IPv6/IPv4 addresses
            4. 18.7.1.4. Address scopes and zones
          2. 18.7.2. IPv6 datagrams
          3. 18.7.3. IPv6 Neighbor Discovery
          4. 18.7.4. ICMPv6
        8. 18.8. Summary
      3. 19. Name Resolution Services
        1. 19.1. HOSTS Files
        2. 19.2. Address Resolution Protocol
          1. 19.2.1. ARP requests
          2. 19.2.2. Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
          3. 19.2.3. Viewing the ARP cache
        3. 19.3. Network Basic Input/Output System
        4. 19.4. Windows Internet Name Service
        5. 19.5. Domain Name System
          1. 19.5.1. DNS requests
          2. 19.5.2. DNS topology
          3. 19.5.3. Resource records
        6. 19.6. Name Resolution versus Directory Services
        7. 19.7. Summary
    10. 5. Applications and Services
      1. 20. Network Operating Systems
        1. 20.1. What Is a Network Operating System
          1. 20.1.1. Protocols and services
          2. 20.1.2. General versus Special-Purpose NOS
        2. 20.2. NOS Systems and Software
          1. 20.2.1. UNIX
            1. 20.2.1.1. POSIX
            2. 20.2.1.2. STREAMS and sockets
            3. 20.2.1.3. Single UNIX specification
          2. 20.2.2. Linux
            1. 20.2.2.1. Distributions
            2. 20.2.2.2. LAMP
            3. 20.2.2.3. Linux Standard Base
          3. 20.2.3. Solaris
          4. 20.2.4. Novell NetWare and Open Enterprise Server
          5. 20.2.5. Windows Server
        3. 20.3. Summary
      2. 21. Domains and Directory Services
        1. 21.1. Directory Services and Domains
          1. 21.1.1. Banyan VINES
          2. 21.1.2. Domain types
          3. 21.1.3. Interoperability
        2. 21.2. Domain Servers
        3. 21.3. Directory Services
          1. 21.3.1. Synchronization and replication
          2. 21.3.2. Single sign on
          3. 21.3.3. Namespaces
          4. 21.3.4. Policy engines
          5. 21.3.5. Role-Based Access Control
          6. 21.3.6. Identity management
        4. 21.4. X.500 and LDAP
          1. 21.4.1. Network Information Service
          2. 21.4.2. LDAP servers
          3. 21.4.3. LDAP Data Interchange Format
          4. 21.4.4. Novell eDirectory
          5. 21.4.5. Distinguished Names
        5. 21.5. Microsoft Active Directory
          1. 21.5.1. Replication
        6. 21.6. Summary
      3. 22. File Services and Caching
        1. 22.1. Network Attached Storage
          1. 22.1.1. Features
          2. 22.1.2. NAS versus SAN
          3. 22.1.3. Network file caching
        2. 22.2. File Service Protocols
          1. 22.2.1. Network File System
          2. 22.2.2. Server Message Block/Common Internet File System
        3. 22.3. Samba
          1. 22.3.1. Samba security
          2. 22.3.2. Samba name resolution and browse lists
          3. 22.3.3. Samba on Ubuntu
        4. 22.4. Distributed File System
        5. 22.5. Summary
      4. 23. Web Services
        1. 23.1. The Hypertext Transfer Protocol
          1. 23.1.1. HTTP requests
          2. 23.1.2. HTTP status codes
          3. 23.1.3. Static versus dynamic pages
        2. 23.2. Web Services
        3. 23.3. Service Oriented Architectures
        4. 23.4. Summary
      5. 24. Mail Protocols
        1. 24.1. The Three Main Protocols
          1. 24.1.1. Polled e-mail
          2. 24.1.2. Push e-mail
        2. 24.2. Message Parts
        3. 24.3. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
          1. 24.3.1. Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
            1. 24.3.1.1. Base64 encoding
            2. 24.3.1.2. MIME rendering
        4. 24.4. Post Office Protocol
          1. 24.4.1. Web mail clients
        5. 24.5. Internet Message Access Protocol
        6. 24.6. Mail Servers
        7. 24.7. Setting Up a Mail Client
        8. 24.8. Summary
      6. 25. Streaming Media
        1. 25.1. How Streaming Works
          1. 25.1.1. Streaming versus progressive downloads
          2. 25.1.2. Unicasting versus multicasting
        2. 25.2. Streaming Protocols
          1. 25.2.1. Real-Time Streaming Protocol
          2. 25.2.2. Real-Time Transport Protocol
          3. 25.2.3. Real-Time Control Protocol
          4. 25.2.4. Synchronized Markup Integration Language
          5. 25.2.5. Encoding
        3. 25.3. Streaming Servers
          1. 25.3.1. Streaming file formats
          2. 25.3.2. Players
          3. 25.3.3. Flash
          4. 25.3.4. Silverlight
        4. 25.4. Summary
      7. 26. Telephony and VoIP
        1. 26.1. Telephony
        2. 26.2. Private Branch Exchange Systems
          1. 26.2.1. Asterisk
          2. 26.2.2. Cisco Unified Communications Manager
          3. 26.2.3. Microsoft Response Point
        3. 26.3. Voice over Internet Protocol
          1. 26.3.1. Analog telephone adapters
          2. 26.3.2. Internet Protocol phones
          3. 26.3.3. VoIP protocols
            1. 26.3.3.1. Skinny Call Control Protocol
            2. 26.3.3.2. Real-Time Transport Protocol and Real-Time Transfer Control
            3. 26.3.3.3. Session Traversal Utilities for NAT
            4. 26.3.3.4. The H.323 Protocol
            5. 26.3.3.5. Inter-Asterisk eXchange Protocol
            6. 26.3.3.6. Media Gateway Control Protocol
        4. 26.4. Computer Telephony Integration
        5. 26.5. Video Telephony
          1. 26.5.1. Mobile VoIP
          2. 26.5.2. Webcams
        6. 26.6. Summary
    11. 6. Network Security
      1. 27. Security Protocols and Services
        1. 27.1. Network Security Overview
          1. 27.1.1. Network vulnerabilities
          2. 27.1.2. The National Vulnerability Database
          3. 27.1.3. Points of Attack
          4. 27.1.4. Principles of secure network design
        2. 27.2. Location Awareness and Network Access Protection
        3. 27.3. Internet Security Protocols
          1. 27.3.1. IPsec
          2. 27.3.2. Transport Layer Security
          3. 27.3.3. HTTPS
        4. 27.4. Encryption and Cryptography
          1. 27.4.1. Brute force and ignorance
          2. 27.4.2. Symmetric key algorithms
            1. 27.4.2.1. Block ciphers
            2. 27.4.2.2. Stream ciphers
            3. 27.4.2.3. Hash functions
          3. 27.4.3. Asymmetric or public key algorithms
          4. 27.4.4. Kerberos
        5. 27.5. Summary
      2. 28. Firewalls, Gateways, and Proxy Servers
        1. 28.1. Firewalls
          1. 28.1.1. Firewall features
            1. 28.1.1.1. Personal firewalls
            2. 28.1.1.2. Router firewalls
            3. 28.1.1.3. Hardware firewalls
            4. 28.1.1.4. Server firewalls
            5. 28.1.1.5. Security gateways
          2. 28.1.2. Network zones
          3. 28.1.3. Stateless filters
          4. 28.1.4. Stateful filters
          5. 28.1.5. Application filters
          6. 28.1.6. Deny by default
          7. 28.1.7. Network Address Translation
        2. 28.2. Proxy Servers
          1. 28.2.1. Transparent proxy servers and honeypots
          2. 28.2.2. Reverse proxy servers
        3. 28.3. Summary
      3. 29. Virtual Private Networks
        1. 29.1. VPN Technologies
          1. 29.1.1. VPN types
          2. 29.1.2. VPN links
          3. 29.1.3. Site-to-site topologies
          4. 29.1.4. VPN hardware
          5. 29.1.5. VPN software
            1. 29.1.5.1. The Windows Server 2008 VPN Service
            2. 29.1.5.2. The Vista client
        2. 29.2. Encryption
        3. 29.3. Tunneling
        4. 29.4. Tunneling Protocols
          1. 29.4.1. Generic Routing Encapsulation
          2. 29.4.2. IPsec tunnels
          3. 29.4.3. Secure Sockets Layer/Transport Layer Security
          4. 29.4.4. Point-to-Point tunneling protocols
            1. 29.4.4.1. Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
            2. 29.4.4.2. Layer 2 Forwarding Protocol
            3. 29.4.4.3. Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol
        5. 29.5. Summary
    12. 7. Network Management and Diagnostics
      1. 30. Network Management
        1. 30.1. The Importance of Network Management
          1. 30.1.1. FCAPS
          2. 30.1.2. Fault management
            1. 30.1.2.1. Event log files
            2. 30.1.2.2. Alarms
            3. 30.1.2.3. Event correlation
          3. 30.1.3. Configuration management
            1. 30.1.3.1. Consoles
            2. 30.1.3.2. Software lifecycles and deployments
              1. 30.1.3.2.1. State 1. Systems are newly acquired and current.
              2. 30.1.3.2.2. State 2. Systems are in inventory or to be deployed.
              3. 30.1.3.2.3. State 3. Systems are aging and must be monitored.
              4. 30.1.3.2.4. State 4. Systems require a patch or minor upgrade that must be applied.
              5. 30.1.3.2.5. State 5. Systems are obsolete and must be significantly upgraded.
              6. 30.1.3.2.6. State 6. Systems are obsolete and must be replaced.
          4. 30.1.4. Accounting and administration
          5. 30.1.5. Performance management
          6. 30.1.6. Security management
        2. 30.2. Network Management Software Categories
        3. 30.3. Network Frameworks
        4. 30.4. Summary
      2. 31. Network Diagnostic Commands
        1. 31.1. Network Diagnostics
        2. 31.2. Network Commands
          1. 31.2.1. Command line tools
        3. 31.3. Network Shells
          1. 31.3.1. The Windows NetShell
          2. 31.3.2. Telnet sessions
          3. 31.3.3. PowerShell
        4. 31.4. Summary
      3. 32. Remote Access
        1. 32.1. Remote Access
          1. 32.1.1. Remote connection protocols
          2. 32.1.2. Remote access services
          3. 32.1.3. Remote desktops
        2. 32.2. RADIUS Servers
          1. 32.2.1. RADIUS sessions
          2. 32.2.2. RADIUS roaming
          3. 32.2.3. The Diameter protocol
        3. 32.3. Summary
      4. A. TCP - UDP Port Assignments