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Networking and Telecommunications: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications

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Networking and Telecommunications: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications exhibits the most up-to-date collection of research results and recent discoveries in the transfer of knowledge access across the globe. Considering the burgeoning need for global contact and communication, this significant publication provides a one-stop reference for researchers, administrators, executives, and practitioners.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editor-in-Chief
  3. Associate Editors
  4. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. List of Contributors
  6. Preface
  7. I. Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. 1.1. Critical Trends, Tools, and Issues in Telecommunications
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ANALYTICAL TOOLS AND MODELS
      4. MIX SHIFTS
      5. OPERATIONAL TOOLS AND MODELS
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. 1.2. Basics of Telecommunications Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN COMPONENTS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT - DEFINITION OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT
      5. TELECOMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS
        1. Fault Management
        2. Configuration Management
        3. Account Management
        4. Performance Management
        5. Security Management
      6. MANAGED OBJECTS AND MANAGEMENT INFORMATION BASES
        1. Managed Objects
        2. Management Information Base (MIB)
      7. TELECOMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT PROTOCOLS
        1. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
        2. Open System Interconnection Management Protocols
        3. Management Protocols for Mobile Internet
      8. A SIMPLIFIED EXAMPLE ON TELECOMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS
      9. FUTURE TRENDS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. 1.3. A History of Computer Networking Technology
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS
      4. FUTURE
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. 1.4. Inter disciplinarity in Telecommunications and Networking
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH
      4. INTERDISCIPLINARITY IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING
      5. INTERDISCIPLINARITY AND THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INTERDISCIPLINARY TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    5. 1.5. Measures of Network Structure
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. PROPERTIES, TOPOLOGIES, AND MEASURES OF NETWORK STRUCTURE
        1. Graph Theory
        2. Network Topologies
        3. Measures Of Network Structure
        4. Examples of Networks
      4. DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. 1.6. Wireless Communications: Is the Future Playing Out as Predicted?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Understanding Technological Progress
          1. The Laws
        2. Technologies
        3. Summary of Technological Progress
        4. Economics and Social issues
        5. Structural Issues
          1. Regulatory Issues
          2. The Predictions
        6. How the Future is unfolding
      3. REFERENCES
    7. 1.7. A Survey on Classical Teletraffic Models and Network Planning Issues for Cellular Telephony
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Motivation
        2. Goals and Organization
      3. THE ARRIVAL PROCESS
        1. Fresh traffic
        2. Handoff traffic
      4. CHANNEL HOLDING TIME
        1. Analysis
        2. Simulations
        3. Field studies
        4. Is there a link Between different tools?
      5. QUALITY OF SERVICE
      6. ON QUEUING MODELS
        1. BlockeD Calls Policy
        2. BCL Model and Erlang-B
        3. The Cell as a Delay System
        4. A More General Model
      7. FURTHER REMARKS
        1. Macrodiversity
        2. Discontinuous Transmission
        3. Multiservice
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    8. 1.8. Convergence of the Internet and Telecommunications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONVERGENCE
        1. Network Layers Model
        2. Economic, Regulatory, and Technological Environments
      4. COMPETITION ISSUES
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. 1.9. Converged Networks and Seamless Mobility: Lessons from Experience
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. HISTORICAL CONTEXT
        1. Shifting sands : Emerging Paradigm
        2. Level 1: Technological Platform Convergence and the Fuse Agent
        3. Level 2: Industry Convergence
        4. Level 3: Service Convergence
      3. NEXT GENERATION NETWORKS (NGNS): THE FUTURE IS NOW
      4. NGNS: THE CASE OF FIXED-MOBILE CONVERGENCE (FMC)
        1. FMC Wider Convergence Context
        2. Towards an FMC Definition
        3. FMC standards
          1. FMC: Selected Offers
      5. RESOURCE-BASED VIEW (RBV) THEORY
      6. THE BT FUSION CASE
      7. LESSONS LEARNED FOR RAPID NGN ADOPTION
        1. Lesson 1: Commercialization
        2. Lesson 2: Regulation
        3. Lesson 3: Technology and Devices
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. 1.10. E-Services: Characteristics, Scope and Conceptual Strengths
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-SERVICES AS CONVERGENCE OF SERVICES AND GOODS
      4. E-SERVICES: DEFINITIONS, CHARACTERISTICS AND THEORETICAL APPROACHES
        1. E-Service Definitions
        2. Characteristics of E-services
        3. Theoretical Approaches to E-services
      5. E-SERVICES CHALLENGES
        1. Codification of Knowledge
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    11. 1.11. Local Networks in Global Markets
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. CLUSTERS AND INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS
      3. ITALIAN-TYPE INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS
      4. INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS IN A GLOBAL ECONOMY
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. 1.12. Analysis of the Forces Reshaping the Mobile Internet Businesss
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Modeling of Competitive Business Environments
        2. Clashing Mobile and Internet Businesses
      4. MODELING THE TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE MOBILE INDUSTRY
        1. Structure of the Discussion
        2. Value Network Structure and Power Positions
        3. Ownership of Critical Assets and Competencies
        4. Business Model Transformation
        5. Service Demand and End-User Needs
        6. Emergence of Supporting Infrastructure
        7. Regulation of and Policy on Mobile Internet
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTES
      8. APPENDIX A. SMARTPHONE SERVICE POSITIONING
    13. 1.13. Dark Optical Fiber Models for Broadband Networked Cities
      1. INTRODUCTION: THE BROADBAND PERSPECTIVE
      2. NETWORKED CITIES: TOWARDS A GLOBAL AND SUSTAINABLE INFORMATION SOCIETY
      3. DARK FIBER SOLUTIONS: CHALLENGES AND LIMITATIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. 1.14. Multi-Layer Network Performance and Reliability Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Related work
        2. Summary
      3. NETWORK PERFORMABILITY EVALUATION
        1. The Theoretical Problem
          1. Note on Terminology
          2. Time Interpretation
        2. Approximate Evaluation
          1. State Generation Algorithms
        3. Bounds on the cdf
        4. A Hybrid State Generation Algorithm
          1. Efficiency
          2. Claim 1
          3. Claim 2
      4. HIERARCHICAL NETWORK MODEL
        1. Example for an Ip-Over-Optical Network
          1. Traffic Layer
          2. Transport Layer Nodes
          3. Transport Layer Links
          4. Physical Layer Spans
          5. Other Components
        2. Attributes for Graph Elements, Multi-Mode components
          1. Attributes
          2. Multi-Mode Components
          3. Combination
        3. Markov Models for Components
      5. PERFORMANCE MEASURES AND RISK
        1. Traffic Measures
        2. Monotonicity
        3. Incorporating Time
        4. Risk and the Pareto Frontier
      6. NETWORK RESTORATION IN PERFORMANCE MEASURES
        1. Uncapacitated Minimum-cost Routing
        2. Optimal Routing
        3. Speeding Up the Routing Computation For Large State Spaces
          1. Improvement 1: Affected Node Pairs
          2. Improvement 2: Matrix Caching
      7. THE nperf TOOL
      8. APPLICATIONS AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
          1. Access/Backbone Topology
          2. How the Networks were Designed
          3. What We Evaluate
        1. Lost Traffic
        2. Router Enhancements
          1. Hitless Upgrades
          2. Port Protection
        3. Risk Assessment
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTES
    15. 1.15. Data Mining in the Telecommunications Industry
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS
        1. Telecommunications Marketing
        2. Telecommunications Fraud Detection
        3. Telecommunication Network Fault Isolation and prediction
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. 1.16. Environments for Virtual Enterprise Integration
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REQUIREMENTS FOR VIRTUALENTERPRISE INTEGRATION
        1. Networking and Reconfiguration Dynamics: The VE Enablers
        2. Transaction Costs And Leakage Of Private Information: The Ve Disablers
      4. ENVIRONMENTS FOR VIRTUAL ENTERPRISE INTEGRATION
        1. Electronic Marketplaces
        2. Virtual Industry Clusters
        3. Electronic Institutions
        4. Breeding environments
        5. Market of resources
      5. MARKET OF RESOURCES FOR VIRTUAL ENTERPRISE INTEGRATION
        1. Virtual Enterprise Integration using the Market of Resources
        2. The Market Of Resources Structure
      6. VALIDATING THE MARKETOF RESOURCES
        1. Using the "Traditional" Web-Based Method
        2. Using An E-Marketplace
        3. Using a Prototype for the Market of Resources
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTE
    17. 1.17. Market of Resources for Health Care Teleservices Management
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE FRAMEWORK FOR A MARKET OF RESOURCES FOR HEALTH CARE TELESERVICES MANAGEMENT
      4. A MARKET OF RESOURCES FOR HEALTH CARE SERVICES MANAGEMENT
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    18. 1.18. Consequences and Strategic Implications of Networked Enterprise and Human Resources
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
        1. ICT Use Oriented to Knowledge Creation
        2. ICT Use Orientated to Communication and Cooperation Behavior
      3. THE EMERGENCE OF THE NETWORKED ENTERPRISE AND ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN RESOURCES: THE EMERGENCE OF NEW FLEXIBLE LABOUR STRUCTURES AND JOB CONTRACTS
      4. FUTURE TRENDS AND CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    19. 1.19. Standards, Patents and Mobile Phones: Lessons from ETSI's Handling of UMTS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEVELOPMENT OF ETSI'S IPR POLICY
        1. GSM Standardization
        2. Development of ETSI's IPR POLICY
      4. UMTS STANDARDIZATION
        1. Phase 1: Early Research (1990-1995)
      5. Phase 2: Drafting the UMTS Standard (1995-1999)
        1. Phase 3: Implementation And Refinement (1999-present)
      6. AN ANALYSIS OF UMTS PATENTS
        1. IPR Impact On Firms Implementing UMTS
        2. Differences In Firm Patent Strategies
          1. Timing
          2. Targeting
          3. Technological Diversity
        3. Comparing Impact Of Ipr Upon Gsm And Umts
          1. Patenting Strategies
      7. ASSESSING THE ETSI IPR POLICY
        1. Claimed Weaknesses
          1. Disclosure, Notification and Claiming
          2. Technology Selection
          3. Licensing Terms and Conditions
          4. Cumulative Effects, Including Royalty Stacking and Transaction Costs
          5. Transparency of Essential Patents
          6. Transparency and Predictability of License Terms
          7. Third Party IPR Holders
        2. ETSI's Review of its IPR Policy (2005-2006)
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTE
    20. 1.20. Static and Dynamic Efficiency in the European Telecommunications Market: The Role of Regulation on the Incentives to Invest and the Ladder of Investment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF INVESTMENT LADDER
      3. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS
        1. Survey of Recent Studies
        2. Results
        3. Type I Countries (Spain, France and Italy)
        4. Type II Countries (Germany and Finland)
        5. Type III Countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden and Uk)
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      6. ENDNOTES
  8. II. Development and Design Methodologies
    1. 2.1. Design and the Virtual Organization
      1. DESIGN CONTEXT OF AFFIRMATION AND EVOLUTION
      2. DESIGN: A TASK IN THE CONTEXT OF VIRTUAL ORGANIZATIONS
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
      5. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. 2.2. Experiences in Building Mobile E-Business Services: Service Provisioning and Mobility
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. CURRENT SITUATION
        1. Problem Statement
      3. SOLUTION DESCRIPTION
        1. Objectives
        2. Overview
          1. The Terminal Domain
          2. The Mobile Operator/Service Aggregator Domain
      4. SEMANTIC SUPPORT SERVICES: DETAILS
        1. The Service Registration Authority
        2. The Matchmaker
          1. Design-Time
          2. Publishing-Time
          3. Run-Time
      5. ALTERNATIVES
      6. COST AND BENEFITS
      7. RISK ASSESSMENT
      8. FUTURE TRENDS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. ENDNOTES
    3. 2.3. Nature-Inspired Informatics for Telecommunication Network Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MINIMUM SPANNING TREES
        1. Spanning Trees
          1. Generic MST Problems
          2. Degree-Constrained MST
          3. Multi-Criteria MST
          4. Labeling and Capacitated MST
          5. Prize Collecting MST
        2. Steiner Tree
        3. Remarks and Conclusions
      4. RELIABLE NETWORKS
        1. Topology Design Based On Reliability Estimation
        2. Connectivity Problems
          1. K-Connectivity Problems
          2. Augmentation Problem
          3. Maximum Edge-Disjoint Paths
        3. Remarks And Conclusions
      5. LOCAL AREA NETWORKS AND BACKBONE NETWORKS
        1. Lan Design And Backbone Location
        2. Remarks And conclusions
      6. CELLULAR AND WIRELESS NETWORKS DESIGN
        1. Antennae Placement
        2. Wireless Network Design
        3. Remarks and Conclusions
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      9. REFERENCES
    4. 2.4. A Framework for Semi-Autonomous Servers in the Wireless Network Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MODEL DESCRIPTION
        1. Data Mining
        2. Distributed Query Processing
        3. The Description of the Group and Query Mobility (GQM)
      5. THE MERGE ITEMSET ALGORITHM (MIA)
      6. THE GENERAL SERVER DEPENDENCY APPROACH
      7. THE DECOMPOSITION METHOD
      8. THE SERVICE OPERATION APPROACH
      9. THE ISA
      10. THE QUERY PROCESSING METHODS
      11. THE SEMI-AUTONOMOUS SERVER PROCESSING ALGORITHM (SSPA)
      12. RULES OF SERVER DEPENDENCY FOR EACH SERVICE (SSD)
      13. SIMULATION
        1. Set Up
        2. Experiments
      14. FUTURE WORK
      15. CONCLUSION
      16. REFERENCES
    5. 2.5. Data Dissemination and Query Routing in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SURVEY OF EXISTING RESEARCH
        1. Overlay Topology
          1. Location-Aware Structure
          2. Location-Agnostic Structure
          3. Exploiting Peer Heterogeneity
        2. Query Routing for Data Discovery
          1. Physical Network Routing
          2. Guided Query Routing
        3. Data Propagation
          1. Supporting User Mobility
          2. Epidemic Dissemination
          3. Cooperative Caching
      4. MOBILE PEER-TO-PEER DATA DISSEMINATION AND QUERY ROUTING
        1. Overlay Model
        2. Content Synopses
        3. Content-Driven Routing
        4. Adaptive Data Dissemination Strategies
        5. Adaptive Synopses Dissemination Parameters
        6. Dynamic Peer Behavior
      5. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
      7. REFERENCES
    6. 2.6. Hybrid Trust Structure in Self-Organizing Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORKS
      4. DEFINITIONS AND BACKGROUND
        1. Authority
        2. Endorsement
        3. Super-Node
      5. HYBRID CERTIFICATION STRUCTURE
      6. PRIVATE INFORMATION EXCHANGE (PIE) PROTOCOL
      7. QUANTITY ANALYSIS
        1. Trust Gain
        2. End-to-End Trust With Authority Endorsements
        3. Caveman Model
      8. SIMULATION
      9. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS
      10. REFERENCES
    7. 2.7. Formal Methods in Cross Layer Modeling and Optimization of Wireless Networks: State of the Art and Future Directions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. ISO/OSI and TCP/IP Protocol Stacks Principles
        2. The Cross-Layering Paradigm
      3. OVERVIEW OF WIRELESS NETWORKS
        1. Existing Architectures
        2. Performance Metrics for Optimization
      4. MODELING OF CROSS-LAYER INTERACTIONS
        1. Need for Formal, Quantitative Modeling
        2. System Design Issues
          1. Utility
          2. Prices
          3. System Optimization
          4. Design Guidelines
        3. Cross-Layer Modeling Techniques
          1. Quantifying the Cross-Layer Interactions
          2. ECLSA: Experimental Cross Layer Sensitivity Analysis
          3. CLRSM: Cross-Layer Response Surface Modeling
          4. Game Theoretic Approaches
        4. Considerations
      5. CROSS-LAYER OPTIMIZATIONS AND SIGNALING
        1. Cross-Layer Signaling Architectures
        2. Cross-Layer Standardization Activities
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    8. 2.8. Performance Evaluation of Energy and Delay Aware Quality of Service (QoS) Routing Protocols in Mobile Adhoc Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. ENERGY AND DELAY AWARE PROTOCOLS
        1. Delay
        2. Energy
        3. Energy and Delay Extension in Aodv and Dsr
      5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
        1. Performance Metrics
        2. Packet Delivery Ratio
        3. End-to-End Delay
        4. Remaining Energy
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    9. 2.9. Definition and Analysis of a Fixed Mobile Convergent Architecture for Enterprise VoIP Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINITION OF THE BUSINESS ZONE
      4. THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE BUSINESS ZONE
        1. Analysis of the Architecture at the IP Level
        2. Analysis of the Architecture at the Link Layer
      5. ADMISSION OF A UMA VOICE FLOW IN THE BUSINESS ZONE
        1. The Conditions of Admission of a 'UMA Voice' Flow in the Business Zone
          1. Calculation of the Available Rate for Conveying the 'UMA Voice' Flows Over the Virtual Channel 'Voice'
            1. The Conditions of Admission of a 'UMA Voice' Flow
            2. The Admission Protocol of a 'UMA Voice' Flow
      6. METHOD TO AUTOMATICALLY UPDATE THE WIFI NETWORK TOPOLOGY CONTAINED IN THE MIH SERVER NETWORK BASE AND IN THE MOBILE TERMINAL LOCAL NETWORK BASE
        1. Structure of a WiFI Entry of the Mobile Terminal Local Network Base
        2. Structure of a WiFI Entry of the MIH server Network Base
        3. Validation of the Information Provided by a Mobile Terminal
        4. Reliability of Update Transmissions
        5. Avoiding the Flooding of the MIH Server and Flooding of the Mobile Terminals
        6. Avoiding Bursts of Packets in the Networks
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS
      8. REFERENCES
    10. 2.10. Cross-Layer Radio Resource Management Protocols for QoS Provisioning in Multimedia Wireless Networks.
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Radio Resource Management for Wireless Systems
        2. Conventional Layered Packet Scheduling Protocols
        3. Conventional Layered Admission Control Algorithms
          1. CAC Algorithms Based on a Maximal Number of Users
          2. CDMA-Oriented CAC Algorithms
            1. Interference-CAC
            2. Power-Based CAC
            3. SIR-Based CAC
            4. Class-Based and Hybrid CAC Schemes
        4. Cac Schemes Design and Recommendations
      4. THE CROSS-LAYER DESIGN FOR SUPPORTING MULTIMEDIA SERVICES IN WIRELESS
        1. The Concept of Cross-Layer Design
        2. Cross-Layered Resource Allocation Protocols
      5. PROTOCOLS DESIGNS: CONSTRAINTS AND SOLUTIONS
        1. Cross—Layered Scheduling Protocols Architecture
        2. Priority Function Model
      6. A CROSS-LAYERED CALL ADMISSION CONTROL ARCHITECTURE
      7. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CROSS-LAYERED RRM PROTOCOLS
        1. Simulation Platform
        2. Network System Configuration
        3. Mobility Model
        4. Traffic Model
        5. Discussion
      8. REFERENCES
    11. 2.11. Genetic Algorithm to Solve Multi-Period, Multi-Product, Bi-Echelon Supply Chain Network Design Problem
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE SURVEY
      4. RESEARCH GAP ANALYSIS
        1. Aim
        2. Objectives
        3. Scope
        4. Problem Structure
        5. Problem Definition
        6. Methodology
          1. Assumptions
          2. Constraints
          3. Notations
        7. Mathematical Model
      5. METHODOLOGY OF GADIM
        1. Steps in Crossover
        2. Other Methodologies
          1. Complete Enumeration
          2. LINDO
          3. CPLEX
      6. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLEFOR GADIM
      7. RESULTS
        1. Results Obtained Through GA
      8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. REFERENCES
    12. 2.12. Open Infrastructure for aNationwide Emergency Services Network
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OPENNESS OF NESN
      4. ESN INFRASTRUCTURE
        1. Standards Based
        2. End-2-End
        3. Modified End-2-End
        4. Management Structureg
        5. Network Structure
        6. Priority Service with Admission Control
      5. VALUE OF AN OPEN ESN
      6. ACTION RESULTS
        1. FCC's Response to Failed Auction
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTE
      10. APPENDIX I
        1. A Simple Probabilistic Model
  9. III. Tools and Technologies
    1. 3.1. Mobility and Enterprise 2.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WEB 2.0 AND ENTERPRISE 2.0
      4. CHALLENGES OF ACCESSING TACIT KNOWLEDGE
      5. WIRELESS AND MOBILITY: TECHNOLOGY TRENDS
        1. Wireless LAN
        2. Mobile communications
      6. A NEW ERA: MOBILE BROADBAND LIFE AND THE MILLENIALS
        1. Mobile Broadband life
        2. The Millennials and the next Business generation
      7. MOBILITY AND ENTERPRISE 2.0 IN ACTION
        1. Integrated communication and collaboration for Healthcare
        2. Participatory Learning in Higher Education
        3. Mobile video social networking application for emergency services
      8. CONCLUSION
        1. GLOSSARY
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
    2. 3.2. Rembassy: Open Source Tool For Network Monitoring
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STATE OF THE ART
      4. ARCHITECTURE
        1. General Vision
        2. Oabject-Based Management
        3. Communications System
        4. Components
        5. Core
        6. Plug-ins
        7. Web Interface
      5. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SYSTEM
        1. Characteristics of the Environment that is to be Monitored
        2. Rembassy Configuration
        3. Monitoring with Rembassy
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    3. 3.3. International Internet Interconnection Service in Asia-Pacific Region
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. IIS AND INTERCONNECTION AGREEMENTS
      4. THE ASIA-PACIFIC IIS MARKET AND THE DIGITAL DIVIDE
      5. IIS MARKET AND AGREEMENT ISSUES
        1. Inequity Issues
        2. IBps' Anti-Competitive Behavior
        3. The Threat of Internet 'Balkanization'
      6. DISCUSSION: ASIA-PACIFIC IIS MARKET
        1. The Regional Perspective on the IIs Market
        2. International Perspective in IIs Debate
      7. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      8. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      9. ENDNOTES
    4. 3.4. Basic Concepts of Mobile Radio Technologies
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. DIGITAL RADIO NETWORKS
        1. General Basics of Mobile Radio Technology
        2. Wireless Local Area Networks (IEEE 802.11)
        3. Wireless Personal Area Networks (Bluetooth)
        4. Network Standards For Wide-area Communication Networks
      3. TECHNOLOGIES FOR MOBILE INFORMATION SERVICES
      4. WAP
        1. Bluetooth
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
    5. 3.5. Strategic Technology Options in the Wireless Industry: A Case Study for U.S. Wireless Carriers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. U.S. Wireless Market
        2. Technology Options for U.S. Wireless Carriers
          1. Historical Evolution of Wireless Technologies
        3. Options for Technology Migration
        4. GSM-Based Network Migration Path
        5. CDMA-Based Network Migration Path
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND THE MODEL
        1. Real Options Theory
          1. Concepts
          2. History and Applications
          3. Real Options in ICT
        2. A Model for Assessing Technology Options
          1. Definitions and Assumptions
          2. Technology Transition Option Value
          3. Decision Criteria Rule
      4. SIMULATION AND RESULTS ANALYSIS
        1. Research Design
        2. Data Collection
      5. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
        1. GSM-Based Migration Path
        2. Cdma-Based migration Path
      6. STRATEGIC DECISIONS FOR TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTION
        1. Stage i: Analog to 2G
        2. Stage ii: 2G to 2G (intra-Generation migration)
        3. Stage III: 2g to 3g (Inter-Generation Migration)
      7. CONCLUDING REMARKS
        1. Managerial Implications and Contribution
        2. Limitation and Future Research
      8. REFERENCES
    6. 3.6. Modeling and Simulation of IEEE 802.11g using OMNeT++
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF OMNET++
      4. OMNET++: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE
      5. SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS AND SETUP
      6. INSTALLATION
      7. INET FRAMEWORK
      8. MODELING THE NETWORK
        1. OMNeT++ Architecture
        2. Developing a Simulation Model
        3. Configuring a Simulation Model
        4. Running a Simulation Model
      9. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
      10. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
      11. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. 3.7. An Introduction to Optical Access Networks: Technological Overview and Regulatory Issues for Large-Scale Deployment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EXISTING BROADBAND SOLUTIONS AND THE NEED FOR MORE BANDWIDTH
      4. OPTICAL ACCESS NETWORKS
      5. TYPES OF PASSIVE OPTICAL NETWORKS
      6. WDM-PONS
      7. DEPLOYMENT OF OPTICAL ACCESS NETWORKS IN ASIA AND THE US: A SUCCESS STORY
      8. EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTES
    8. 3.8. A Wireless Mesh Network Platform for Vehicle Positioning and Location Tracking
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
        1. Wireless Vehicle Tracking
        2. Wireless Mesh Networks
      4. ARCHITECTURE AND OPERATIONS OF THE PROPOSED TRAFFIC MONITORING PLATFORM
      5. IMPLEMENTATION AND FIELD TESTING OF THE PLATFORM
      6. DISCUSSION ON LARGE-SCALE DEPLOYMENT OF THE PLATFORM
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    9. 3.9. Conducting Forensic Investigations of Cyber Attacks on Automobile In-Vehicle Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. THE NEED FOR IN-VEHICLE NETWORK SECURITY AND FORENSICS
      5. BACKGROUND
        1. Wireless Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Scenario
        2. In-Vehicle Network
        3. Administrative Functions
      6. ATTACKER MODEL AND FORENSIC DESIGN GOALS
        1. Cyber Attacker
        2. Forensic Design Goals
      7. REQUIREMENTS FOR A FORENSIC INVESTIGATION OF CYBER ATTACKS
        1. Event Detection Requirements
        2. Forensic Data Requirements
        3. State Information Requirements
        4. Forensic Investigation of an In-Vehicle Network
        5. The Readiness Phase
        6. The Deployment Phase
          1. The Physical Crime Scene Investigation Phase
          2. The Digital Crime Scene Investigation Phase
          3. The Presentation Phase
      8. DISCUSSION AND FUTURE WORK
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    10. 3.10. Online Remote Control of a Wireless Home Automation Network
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COMPUTER CONTROLLED HOME AUTOMATION
      4. HOME AUTOMATION NETWORK HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION
        1. Base Unit
        2. GP1 Units
        3. GP2 Units
      5. HOME AUTOMATION NETWORK SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION
        1. Website Software
        2. Base Unit Microcontroller Firmware
        3. GP2 Unit Microcontroller Firmware
      6. SYSTEM TESTING
        1. Transmission Characteristics Test
        2. Hardware Test & Software Tests
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    11. 3.11. Adaptive Codec Selection for VoIP in Multi-Rate WLANs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. VOIP OVER WLANS
        1. Voice over Ip systems: From Encoding to Media Transmission
          1. What Composes a VoIP System?
          2. Codecs
          3. Session Management Using SIP
          4. Media Transmission on the Internet: RTP/RTCP
          5. Measuring Quality for VoIP
            1. Mean Opinion Score (MOS)
            2. E-Model
        2. IEEE 802.11 Background
          1. The DCF MAC Protocol
          2. A Multi-Rate PHY Layer
          3. QoS Enhancements: EDCA
        3. Voice capacity in Hotspot WLANs
          1. Downlink Starvation
          2. Multi-Rate Channel
          3. Simultaneously Presence of TCP Flows
      3. COPING WITH THE MULTI-RATE EFFECT
        1. Main Approaches
        2. The Codec Adaptation Approach
        3. A Cross-Layer Codec Adaptation Algorithm Implementation
          1. Monitoring
          2. Adaptation
          3. newCodec ⇐ drop(currentCodec, changeTotal)Recovery
          4. Implementation Issues (Delay)
        4. Distributed vs. Centralized Architecture
        5. Performance Results
          1. Scenario Description
          2. Result Analysis
            1. No Codec Adaptation Algorithm
            2. Distributed Implementation of the Codec Adaptation Algorithm
            3. Centralized Implementation of the Codec Adaptation Algorithm
      4. OPEN ISSUES AND FUTURE GUIDELINES
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    12. 3.12. QoS Provisioning Framework in IP-Based VPN
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. REFERENCE MODEL OF PE-BASED L3 IP VPNS
      3. A FRAME WORK FOR QOS PROVISIONING IN PE-BASED L3 VPNS
        1. VPN Service Level Agreement
        2. Packet Scheduling and Queue Management
        3. Traffic Engineering and Qos Routing
        4. VPN QoS Management
      4. SECURITY ISSUES
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. 3.13. Compact Array Antenna: Omni-, Sector, and Adaptive Modes of Compact Array Antenna
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ESPAR ANTENNA DESIGN
      4. OMNIPATTERN FORMING
      5. SECTOR BEAMFORMING
        1. Single-Source Power Maximization
        2. Experimental Results of Sector Beamforming
      6. ADAPTIVE BEAMFORMING
        1. Trained Adaptive Beamforming
          1. Criterion and Trained Algorithm
          2. Experimental Results of Trained Algorithm
        2. Blind Adaptive Beamforming
          1. Criterion and Blind Algorithm
          2. Experimental Results of Blind Algorithm
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
  10. IV. Utilization and Application
    1. 4.1. ICT Policies in Africa
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. AFRICAN AND ICT POLICY FORMATION
        1. Objective of African ICT Policies
        2. Sectoral Application of African ICT Policies
      4. IMPLEMENTATION OF ICT POLICIES
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. 4.2. Activity-Based Costing in the Portuguese Telecommunications Industry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING
      4. THE CASE STUDY
        1. Marconi
        2. Marconi's Activity-Based Costing System
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      7. ENDNOTES
    3. 4.3. Finland: Internationalization as the Key to Growth and M-Commerce Success
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: FINLAND, THE MOBILE PIONEERING COUNTRY
      3. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF FINNISH DEVELOPMENT
      4. INTERNATIONALIZATION FRAMEWORK FOR M-COMMERCE COMPANIES
      5. MOBILE MEDIA AS THE SOURCE FOR INNOVATION AND GROWTH OF M-COMMERCE
      6. SUCCESSFUL MINI-CASES IN FINLAND'S MOBILE SECTOR
        1. Sulake Labs, www.sulake.com
          1. Year of founding: 1999
            1. Short Description of Activities
            2. Status as of Early 2005
        2. Sumea, www.sumea.com
          1. Year of founding: 1999
            1. Short Description of Activities
            2. Status as of Early 2005
        3. Digia, www.digia.com
          1. Year of founding: 1997
            1. Short Description of Activities
            2. Status as of Early 2005
        4. Sofia Digital, www.sofiadigital.fi
          1. Year of founding: 2000
            1. Short description of activities
            2. Status as of early 2005
        5. Satama Interactive, www.satama.com
          1. Year of founding: 1997
            1. Short description of activities
            2. Status as of Early 2005
        6. Movial, www.movial.fi
          1. Year of founding: 2001
            1. Short Description of Activities
            2. Status as of Early 2005
      7. TECHNOLOGICAL AND MANAGERIAL LESSONS FROM FINLAND'S MOBILE EXPERIENCE
      8. QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
      9. DEDICATION
      10. REFERENCES
    4. 4.4. A European Virtual Enterprise on Collaborative Data Mining and Decision Support
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND: METHODOLOGY FOR COLLABORATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING
      3. MAIN SOLEUNET ACHIEVEMENTS
        1. Business
        2. Case Studies and Applications
        3. Research
        4. Education
        5. Infrastructure
      4. POSITIONING OF SOLEUNET IN THE E-COLLABORATION SPACE
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
    5. 4.5. Impact of Broadband VoIP on Telecoms: A Cross-Country Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VOIP: A SYNOPSIS
        1. VoIP Risks
        2. VoIP Limitations vs. Advantages
      4. BROADBAND
        1. Broadband in Germany
        2. Broadband in India
      5. IMPACT OF VOIP: A CROSS COUNTRY ANALYSIS
      6. OUTLOOK
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    6. 4.6. Emergency Messaging to General Public via Public Wireless Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SCOPE AND BACKGROUND
      4. WIRELESS MESSAGING TECHNOLOGIES
      5. DECISION MAKING PROCESSES AND METHODOLOGY
      6. WARNING OR ALARM PROCESSES
      7. REQUIREMENTS VALIDATION FROM CASES
      8. USER REQUIREMENTS AND SATISFACTION BY SMS OR CELL BROADCAST MESSAGING
      9. ALARM SITUATION CONGESTION TRAFFIC ANALYSIS
      10. COST BENEFIT AND RISK ANALYSES
      11. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER WORK
      12. REFERENCES
    7. 4.7. Comparison of Policies for Epidemic Broadcast in DTNs under Different Mobility Models
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SYSTEM AND MOBILITY MODELS
        1. System Model
        2. Mobility Models
      4. FAMILY OF BROADCAST PROTOCOLS
        1. Zero-Knowledge Approaches
        2. Local-Knowledge Approaches
          1. Local Suppression
        3. Merging the Approaches
      5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
        1. Simulation Environment
        2. Simulation Results
          1. Random Waypoint Model
          2. Aggregation Model
          3. Swarm Model
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    8. 4.8. Testbed Implementation of a Pollution Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Network for the Protection of Public Spaces
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. RELATED WORK
      3. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      4. DETAILED SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
      5. WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK TESTBED
        1. Exploring Different Technology options for Wireless sensor Network
        2. Pollution Sensors
        3. Wireless Sensor Network Testbed
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      7. REFERENCES
    9. 4.9. Role of Telecommunications in Precision Agriculture
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CURRENT STATE OF AFFAIRS
      4. GPS AND PRECISION STEERING
      5. REMOTE SENSING VIA AIRCRAFT
      6. PRESCRIPTION FARMING
      7. CURRENT AND FUTURE TELECOMMUNICATION CAPABILITIES
        1. Current Services
        2. Future Services
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      10. ENDNOTE
    10. 4.10. Building Enterprise Network Infrastructure for a Supermarket Store Chain
      1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
      2. ORGANIZATIONAL BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
        1. Enterprise Network planning
        2. Enterprise Network Design
        3. Enterprise Network Implementation
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
        1. ABC's Net I period (1993-1997)
          1. Net I -Wide Area Network (WAN)
          2. Net I -Local Area Network (LAN)
          3. Net I -Challenges and Issues
        2. ABC's Net II period (1998-present)
          1. Net II -Wide Area Network
          2. Net II -Local Area Network
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES / PROBLEMS FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTE
      8. GLOSSARY
    11. 4.11. Use of Traffic Separation Techniques for the Transport of HSPA and R99 Traffic in the Radio Access Network with Differentiated Quality of Service
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PROBLEM DESCRIPTIONS
      4. CONCEPT OF TRAFFIC SEPARATION
      5. CONFIGURATIONS OF HSRA AND R99 TRAFFIC SERARATION
      6. SIMULATION MODEL
      7. IMRACT OF ARRLYING TRAFFIC SERARATION
        1. Simulation Scenarios
        2. Impact of Traffic Separation
        3. Impact of MDCR settings for UBR+ VP/VC
        4. Dimensioning Results
      8. COMRARING DIFFERENT CONFIGURATIONS FOR TRAFFIC SERARATION
        1. Simulation Scenarios
        2. Performances Analysis
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
    12. 4.12. Optimizing IT Implementation by Using the Enterprise Architecture Approach (EA): The Case of a Telecommunications Operator
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Challenges for Business and IT: Agility
        2. Information Fragmentation: Is consolidation
        3. Integrated Information System Development: Process Orientation
        4. A Holistic Approach: Enterprise Architecture
      4. FROM BUSINESS LEVEL TO EXECUTION (IT) LEVEL BY UTILIZING THE ENTERRRISE ARCHITECTURE ARRROACH
        1. Issues, Controversies, Problems
        2. Evidence, Solutions, Recommendations
      5. CASE STUDY: PROCESS-ORIENTED WORK FLOW IMPLEMENTATION BY INTEGRATING E-TOM REFERENCE MODEL AND THE EA APPROACH AT AURORA1
        1. Project Scope and Desired Results
        2. Implementation Details
        3. Project Deliverables
        4. Future steps
        5. Findings and Conclusion
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTES
    13. 4.13. Revisiting the Gatekeeping Model: Gatekeeping Factors in European Wireless Media Markets
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE GATEKEEPING LITERATURE
      4. A NEED FOR MODEL UPGRADING
        1. Methodology
      5. ON LINE RESEARCH FINDINGS
        1. Findings on All Media Gatekeeping Pillars
      6. THE INDIVIDUAL LEVEL
      7. THE PROFESSIONAL ROUTINES LEVEL
      8. THE ORGANIZATION LEVEL
      9. THE EXTRA-MEDIA LEVEL
      10. IDEOLOGY/CULTURE
      11. EUROPE WIRELESS MEDIA GATEKEEPING FACTORS
      12. DISCUSSION
      13. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      14. REFERENCES
  11. V. Organizational and Social Implications
    1. 5.1. Digital Disempowerment in a Network Society
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Network Society
        2. The Embedded Infrastructure
        3. Exclusionary Forces
      3. POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE DIGITAL DIVIDE FOR ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT
      4. THE NONTRIVIAL NATURE OF LOW PARTICIPATION IN NETWORK SOCIETY
      5. THE GLOBAL DIGITAL DIVIDE
        1. Implications of the Gaps
      6. THE EMERGENCE OF STRUCTURAL INEQUALITIES
      7. DIRECTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTE
    2. 5.2. Localization, Culture, and Global Communication
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. LAYERS OF LOCALIZATION
        1. Technological Infrastructure Layer
        2. Grammatical Layer
        3. Semantic Layer
        4. Graphic and Iconic Representation Layer
        5. Business Conventions and Practices Layer
        6. Social and Communication Layer
        7. Cultural Layer
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
    3. 5.3. Evaluating Organisational Readiness for Virtual Collaboration
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. VIRTUAL ORGANISATIONS
      3. READINESS
        1. E-Readiness (McConnell, 2000).
        2. Virtual Corporation Readiness (Bauer & Koszegi, 2003)
        3. Virtual Organisation Readiness (Impact, 1998)
      4. MODEL DEVELOPMENT
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. APPENDIX 1. VERI: VIRTUAL ENTERPRISE READINESS INSTRUMENT
      8. APPENDIX 2
        1. Virtual Enterprise Readiness Instrument Survey
        2. Enablement
        3. Virtual Enterprise Readiness Instrument Survey
        4. Enablement
      9. KEY TERMS
    4. 5.4. Evaluating Virtual Organisational Preparedness
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. VIRTUAL ORGANISATIONS
      3. PREPAREDNESS
        1. Virtual Organising (Venkatraman & Henderson, 1998)
        2. Business Process Change (Guha et al., 1997)
        3. Strategic Positioning (Porter, 2001)
      4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
      5. REFERENCES
      6. APPENDIX 1
        1. VOPI: Virtual Operations Preparedness Instrument
      7. APPENDIX 2
        1. Virtual Operations Preparedness Instrument Survey
        2. Communication
        3. Virtual Operations Preparedness Instrument Survey
        4. Communication
      8. KEY TERMS
    5. 5.5. On the Internationalization of the Wireless Telecommunications Industry: A Market-Based Analysis of Six European Service Providers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OVERVIEW OF THE SIX TSPS
      4. ANALYSIS METHOD
      5. CONCLUSION AND DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      6. REFERENCES
    6. 5.6. Strategic Metamorphoses of ICT Sector for Human Development in India
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Review of Literature
          1. 1. Transformation of Telecom Market Structure
          2. 2. Improved Telecommunication: Density and Coverage
          3. 3. Modernization of the Policy and Regulatory Environment
          4. 4. Propelling Employment Generation
          5. 5. Fostering Inclusive Growth
          6. 6. Enhanced Accessibility To Market Information in Rural Areas
          7. 7. Improvement in the Quality of Life
          8. 8. Technological Leapfrogging
          9. 9. Business Networking
        2. Policy Trajectory: Future Focus
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
    7. 5.7. Broadband in America: A Policy of Neglect is Not Benign
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. A PERMANENT DIGITAL DIVIDE OR ANOTHER MISSION ACCOMPLISHED?
        1. From Digital Divide to Falling Behind on Broadband
        2. Purpose and Outline of the Paper
      3. THE GOAL OF UBIQUITOUS, AFFORDABLE ADEQUATE COMMUNICATIONS SERVICE
        1. The Legal Framework
        2. The Social and Economic Framework
      4. THE ENDURING DIGITAL DIVIDE
        1. Internet Penetration has Stalled
        2. Empirical Evidence on the Importance of Connectedness
      5. FALLING BEHIND ON BROADBAND
        1. Falling off the Cutting Edge
        2. Efforts to Explain Away the Inconvenient Truth
      6. THE POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF FALLING BEHIND
        1. A Policy of Neglect is not Benign
        2. The Importance of Price
        3. The Broad Policy Palate
        4. The Bush Administration
        5. The Clinton Administration
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
      10. KEY TERMS DEFINITIONS
    8. 5.8. Factors Affecting Broadband Adoption for Mainstream Consumers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE OVERVIEW
      4. PHILOSOPHY AND RESEARCH METHOD
        1. Preliminary Findings
        2. The Complexity of the Purchase Decision
        3. Connecting the Emerging Themes with the Literature
      5. DISCUSSION AND LIMITATIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    9. 5.9. Mixing and Matching Organizational Network Legitimacy Practices to China's Telecommunication Market
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ANALYZING NETWORK CHARACTERISTICS AND LEGITIMACY
      5. ORGANIZATIONAL REPUTATION AND AFFECTS ON LEGITIMACY
      6. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      7. MANAGING LEGITIMACY ORIENTATIONS AND MATCHING COMPLIMENTARY ASSETS
        1. Global Oriented Legitimacy (GOL)
        2. Provincial and State Oriented Legitimacy (PASOL)
        3. Partner-Orientated Legitimacy (POL)
        4. Customer Oriented Legitimacy (COL)
      8. NETWORK LEGITIMACY IN CHINA'S TELECOMMUNICATIONS MARKET: THE CASE OF MOTOROLA (CHINA) ELECTRONICS LTD
        1. Legitimacy, Melding and Fusion of Co-Specialized Resources
        2. Legitimacy, Commitment and R&D Integration
        3. Legitimacy and the Nation's Ambitions
        4. Legitimacy and the Prospect of the Local Market
        5. Legitimacy and the Public Welfare Imperatives
      9. FUTURE TRENDS, ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS
    10. 5.10. Creating an Analytical Lensfor Understanding Digital Networks in Urban South Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DESIGNING COMMUNITY WEB SITES IN DURBAN
      4. UNDERSTANDING (SOUTH) AFRICAN URBAN SPACES: ON HUMAN AGENCY, ''BELONGING'' AND ''BECOMING''1
      5. THE VIEW FROM EVERYWHERE2
      6. THE VIEW FROM EVERYWHERE AND NOWHERE: THE ANALYTICAL CONTRIBUTION OF ACTOR-NETWORK THEORY
        1. Methodological Conclusions: Reflecting on Community Web Site Development in Durban
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
      10. KEY TERMS
    11. 5.11. Mobile Community Networks: Evolution and Challenges
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COMMUNITY NETWORKS
        1. Communities and Community Networks
        2. Categorization of Community Networks
      4. TOWARDS MOBILE COMMUNITY NETWORKS
      5. TYPOLOGY OF MOBILE COMMUNITY NETWORKS
      6. ARCHITECTURE OF MOBILE COMMUNITY NETWORKS
        1. Challenges in Designing Mobile Community Networks
          1. Light Weight Architectures
          2. Collaboration Mode
          3. Trust and Security
          4. Community Management
          5. Context Awareness
          6. Adaptation
          7. Data and Information Management
          8. Communication
          9. Ubiquitous Interaction
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    12. 5.12. The Need for a Well-Managed Technology Infrastructure
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BARRIERS AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
        1. Barrier #1
        2. Barrier #2
        3. Barrier #3
      3. REFERENCE
    13. 5.13. Network Cooperation: Development Cooperation in the Network Society
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE NETWORK SOCIETY
      3. ICT4D 2.0
      4. CHARACTERIZING NETWORK COOPERATION
        1. The Development Project as a Network
        2. Types of Networks for Development Cooperation
      5. MANAGING DEVELOPMENT NETWORKS
        1. Enabling vs. Representational Networks
          1. Network Analysis
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    14. 5.14. Telecommunication Customer Demand Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Concept of Customer Value
        2. Determination of Customer Value Hierarchy Model by CVD Method
      4. CUSTOMER DEMAND DISCRIMINATION WITH ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
        1. Data Preparation and the CVD Analysis Definition of Customer Value Layer in Telecommunication Industry
        2. Data Collection: An Example in Mobile Telecommunication Industry
        3. Mobile Customer Value Hierarchy: An Example in Mobile Telecommunication Industry
        4. Significant Attributes of Customer Value Hierarchy
        5. The Principles of Significant Attributes Analysis
        6. The Process of Data Analysis: An Example in Mobile Telecommunication Industry
        7. Telecommunication Customer Demand Discrimination Modeling
        8. The Principle of Modeling of Customer Demand Discrimination
        9. Customer Demand Knowledge Acquisition: an Example in Mobile Telecommunication Industry
        10. Methodology Comparison: An Experiment in Mobile Telecommunication Industry
      5. RECOMMENDATION APPROACH BASED ON CUSTOMER DEMAND DISCRIMINATION
        1. Recommending Product Category
        2. Get Customer Demand Knowledge
        3. Discovering Customer's Goal
        4. Recommending Product Item
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
    15. 5.15. Telecommunication Customer Detainment Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DESIGN OF TELECOMMUNICATION CUSTOMER DETAINMENT MANAGEMENT PROCESS
      5. TELECOMMUNICATION CUSTOMER CHURN PREDICTION
        1. Investigation and Sampling
        2. Data Understanding and Data Preparation
        3. I. Significance of Variable Selection
        4. II. Principles of Variable Selection
        5. Principle 1: The Classifying Abilities of the Variables Should be High
        6. AUC (Area Under ROC Curve) Method
        7. Principle 2: Mutual Information between Variables should be Relatively Low
        8. III Variable Selection Process
        9. Modeling
        10. Model Evaluation
        11. Model Adjustment
      6. IDENTIFICATION OF CHURN CUSTOMERS
        1. Model Prediction Matrix
        2. Cost/Profit Matrix
        3. Identification of churned customer Group
      7. DETAINMENT RESPONSE HIERARCHY ANALYSIS ON CHURNED CUSTOMER
        1. Churned Customer Value Analysis
        2. Detainment Response Hierarchy Analysis on Churned Customer
      8. DESIGN CUSTOMER DETAINMENT STRATEGY
      9. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR CUSTOMER DETAINMENT STRATEGY
        1. (1) Calculation for Direct Revenue
          1. Direct Revenue
        2. (2) calculation of detainment cost
          1. Implementation Cost
          2. Customer Maintaining Cost
          3. Network Resource Cost
          4. Incline Cost
          5. IT Cost
        3. (1) model-based feasibility Analysis for customer detainment strategy
        4. Detainment Strategy Evaluation and Continuous Optimization
      10. FUTURE TRENDS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      13. REFERENCES
      14. KEY TERMS
    16. 5.16. The Impact of Customer Churnon Social Value Dynamics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TELECOMMUNICATION SOCIAL NETWORK
        1. Concept of the Telecommunication Social Network
        2. Strength of Relationship
      4. SOCIAL VALUE OF CUSTOMERS AND THEIR NEIGHBOURHOOD
        1. Social Values of Nodes
        2. Neighbourhoods
      5. NETWORK EFFECT OF CUSTOMER CHURN
        1. Churn
        2. Dynamics of Social Ualues
      6. EXPERIMENTS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    17. 5.17. Consumer Response to High Technology Mobile Phones in Emerging Markets
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
        1. Growth of Information Technologies
        2. Customer Value and Technology
        3. Technology Services and Consumer Behavior
      3. MOBILE PHONES TECHNOLOGIES AND MARKET BEHAVIOR IN MEXICO
      4. HYPOTHESES
      5. STUDY DESIGN
      6. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
        1. Attributes of Respondents
        2. Consumer Preferences Towards Product and Services
        3. Economic Issues Guiding Buying Behavior
        4. Variable Correlations
        5. Retailers Perspectives in Selling Mobile Phones
      7. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS
      8. SUGGESTED MARKETING PLAN
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
    18. 5.18. Electronic Intermediaries Managing and Orchestrating Organizational Networks Using E-Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
        1. Intermediaries
        2. E-Services
      4. RESEARCH APPROACH
      5. CASE STUDY: CONSUMER ELECTRONICS COMPANY
        1. Background
        2. Intermediary Position
        3. E-Services
      6. DISCUSSION AND EVALUATION
        1. The Rise of Orchestration Intermediaries
        2. E-Services for Network Orchestration
        3. The Added Value of the Orchestrating Intermediary
      7. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
    19. 5.19. Adaptive IT Architecture as a Catalyst for Network Capability in Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND IN GOVERNMENT AND IT CHALLENGES
      4. ACE FRAMEWORK
      5. THE CITY'S STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY PLAN
      6. INDEPENDENT EVALUATION OF THE 311 SYSTEM
        1. Evaluation Approach
        2. Evaluation of Direct and Indirect Impact
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    20. 5.20. Student Success in a University Introductory Networks and Telecommunications Course: Contributing Factors
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. REFERENCES
    21. 5.21. E-Learning with the Network: The Importance of 'Always On' Connectivity
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE WORLD OF E-LEARNING: DEFINITIONS, APPROACHES, AND TECHNOLOGIES
        1. What is E-Learning
        2. Informal and Formal E-Learning Approaches
        3. E-Learning Tools and Technologies
        4. E-Learning and "Temporary" Virtual Communities
      4. E-LEARNING SUCCESS FACTORS
          1. Content
          2. Context
          3. Culture
          4. Characteristics
          5. Computing
          6. Communication
          7. Collaboration
          8. Control
      5. OBSTACLES TO UNDERSTANDING E-LEARNING OUTCOMES
      6. TOWARDS A MORE CONNECTED APPROACH IN E-LEARNING
      7. LOOKING FORWARD
      8. REFERENCES
    22. 5.22. Managing E-Relationships in a Supply Network
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Literature Review
        2. Theoretical Foundation
      3. RESEARCH APPROACH
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
        1. The Interaction Environment
        2. China's Telecom Industry in the Global Competitive Environment
        3. Organisational Context: TelcoX
        4. The Adaptation of the Customer Service System
        5. Supply Relationships Establishments
      5. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
        1. Relationship Perspective: Dynamics of Interactions
        2. Cultural Perspective: Dynamics of Culture
        3. Emerging Concept of the Guanxi-Platform
        4. Technological Perspective: Dynamics of Internet-Technology-in-Use
        5. Structurational Perspective: Structuring E-Supply Relationships
        6. A Synthesised Framework on E-supply Relationships in the Network Context
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    23. 5.23. Application of Parametric Cost Estimation Model to Telecommunication Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BENEFIT OF A PARAMETRIC COST MODEL
      4. PARAMETRIC LINK COST MODEL
      5. MODEL DEVELOPMENT USING GER
      6. NETWORK COST OPTIMIZATION; RESOLVING CDC
      7. APPLICATION FOR INTERCONNECTION PRICE DETERMINATION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
    24. 5.24. Effects of Digital Convergence on Social Engineering Attack Channels
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOCIAL ENGINEERING
      4. SOCIAL ENGINEERING ON CONVERGED NETWORKS
        1. Social Engineering Attacks Involving Physical Presence
        2. Social Engineering Via Email, News, and Instant Messenger
        3. Phishing
        4. Social Engineering Using Removable Media
        5. Social Engineering Via Telephone and Voice Over IP Networks
      5. SOLUTIONS AND COUNTERMEASURES TO SOCIAL ENGINEERING ATTACKS
        1. Anti-Phishing Techniques
        2. Voice Analytics
        3. Blacklisting
        4. Penetration Testing
        5. Data Filtering
        6. Reverse Social Engineering
        7. User Education
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
  12. VI. Managerial Impact
    1. 6.1. An Exploratory, Longitudinal Study of Factors Influencing Development of a Networked Company1
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. AN EXPLORATORY, LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF FACTORS INFLUENCING DEVELOPMENT OF A NETWORKED COMPANY
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. The Context
        2. The Roles of a Network Partner
      4. THE NETWORKED PARTNERS IN PART
      5. CH2M HILL
        1. Zachry Construction Corporation
      6. METHODOLOGY
      7. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
      8. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
      9. FINDINGS
        1. Trend Analysis
        2. Variance Comparison
        3. Internal Comparison of PART 1996 to PART 2000
        4. External Comparison of PART 2000 to the ODS Database
        5. External Comparison of PART 2000 to the ODS Benchmark
        6. Factors Effecting the Development of PART, the Networked Company
      10. CONTRIBUTIONS, FINDINGS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ENDNOTE
      13. APPENDIX: WAVE TWO—QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
    2. 6.2. Distributed Work Arrangements Supporting Organizational Needs
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. PARAMETERS SURROUNDING DWA
      4. APPROPRIATENESS
      5. PRODUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF KNOWLEDGE WORKER
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
    3. 6.3. Management of a Virtual Construction Management Services Company
      1. NETWORKING AND VIRTUAL COMPANIES IN GENERAL
      2. MODELS ENABLING CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT (CM) SERVICES
      3. DYNAMICS OF A VCMSC
      4. VIABLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF A VCMSC
        1. Project Owner Relation Management System (PORMS)
        2. Project Offering and Bidding Management System (POBMS)
        3. Project Design and Engineering Management System (PDEMS)
        4. Networked project procurement Management system (NPPMS)
        5. Construction Planning, Execution, and Control Management System (CPECMS)
        6. Commissioning and After Sales Services Management System (CASSMS)
        7. Network Nurturing Management System (NNMS)
      5. CORE COMPETENCES FOR ENSURING THE INTEGRATED VIABLE MANAGEMENT OF A VCMSC
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
    4. 6.4. Management of Distributed Project Teams in Networks
      1. DISTRIBUTED PROJECTS
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MANAGEMENT OF DISTRIBUTED PROJECT TEAMS
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
    5. 6.5. Complexity Factors in Networked and Virtual Working Environments
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
        1. Organisational Context of the Study
        2. Networked and Virtual Environments
      3. ORGANIZATIONAL EXPANSION TOWARD THE VIRTUALITY
        1. Complexity Factors of Networked and Virtual Work
        2. Networked and Virtual Work at the TUAS
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
    6. 6.6. Can Virtual Networks Encourage Knowledge Absorptive Capacity?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCEPTUALISATION OF EXTERNAL KNOWLEDGE ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY
        1. Dimensions of Absorptive Capacity
      4. ANTECEDENTS OF ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY
      5. EMBEDDEDNESS IN VIRTUAL NETWORKS
      6. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN EMBEDDEDNESS IN VIRTUAL NETWORKS AND ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY
        1. External Factors
          1. Degree of Environmental Turbulence
          2. Level of Environmental Externalities
          3. Existence of Technological Opportunities
          4. Characteristics of Knowledge on Other Companies
          5. Geographical Distance
          6. Cultural Diversity
      7. RELATIONAL AND SOCIAL CAPABILITIES
      8. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. ENDNOTES
    7. 6.7. Developing an Innovative Curriculum to Prepare Networking Professionals for the Global Marketplace
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. EMBEDDING NETWORKING EXPERIENCES IN THE CURRICULUM
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS
    8. 6.8. Service Offerings for Fixed-Mobile Convergence Scenario: An Integrated Operator Case
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PLAYERS IN THE FMC SERVICE GAME
      4. MOTIVATION AND STRATEGIC CONSIDERATIONS OF AN INTEGRATED OPERATOR
      5. FMC FRAMEWORK AND INVESTMENTS
        1. UMA/GAN Architecture and Cost Elements
        2. IMS Architecture
        3. IMS Dimensioning
      6. OPEX CONSIDERATIONS
      7. FMC SERVICE OFFERINGS
        1. Geographical-Economic Modeling
      8. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
    9. 6.9. Designing Contracts for Business Networks
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND: A LANGuAGE-ACTION PERSPECTIVE ON ORGANIZATIONS
      3. THE STATIC PART OF A TPA
      4. THE DYNAMIC PART OF A TPA
        1. Collaboration Model and Business Rules
      5. A CASE STUDY
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
    10. 6.10. Analyzing the Disruptive Potential in the Telecommunications Industry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE CONCEPT OF DISRUPTIVE POTENTIAL
        1. The Disruptive Technology Theory
        2. Critique and Advancement of Christensen'S Disruptive Technology Theory
        3. Analysis of Emerging Technologies Using the Concept of Disruption
      4. MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND METHODOLOGY TO ANALYZE THE DISRUPTIVE POTENTIAL
      5. POTENTIAL DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS ANALYZED EX ANTE
        1. Examples of potential Disruptive Technologies in Telecommunications
        2. The Disruptive potential of WLAN for the MNOs
      6. FUTURE TRENDS AND CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS
  13. VII. Critical Issues
    1. 7.1. A Strategy for Enterprise VoIP Security
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BENEFITS OF VOIP
      4. VoIP MODELS
      5. VoIP UTILIZATION IN EDUCATION
      6. VOIP IMPLEMENTATION CONCERNS
      7. VoIP SECURITY CONCERNS
      8. VOIP QUALITY OF SERVICE (QOS)
      9. VOIP SECURITY ASSURANCE STRATEGIES
      10. DISASTER RECOVERY AND VOIP
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS
    2. 7.2. Access Security in UMTS and IMS
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND OVERVIEW
      3. ACCESS SECURITY IN UMTS
        1. Distribution of Authentication Vector
        2. Authentication and Key Establishment
      4. ACCESS SECURITY IN IMS
      5. GPRS AUTHENTICATION
      6. IMS AUTHENTICATION
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
        1. Security Management in Heterogeneous Network
        2. Security-Mobility Management Interaction and Security-Energy Tradeoff
        3. Higher Security Protocols
        4. Security Protocols Performance
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
    3. 7.3. Applied Cryptography for Security and Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SYMMETRIC-KEY BASED PROTOCOLS FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
        1. Security Protocols for Sensor Networks
          1. (SPINs)
        2. Localized Encryption Authentication
          1. Protocol (LEAP)
        3. Link Layer Security Protocol: TinySec
      4. PUBLIC-KEY BASED PROTOCOLS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
        1. Background on Elliptic Curve Cryptography
        2. Ecc Implementation for Wireless Sensor Networks
        3. Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Key Establishment Scheme
        4. Identity Based Encryption
        5. Key Establishment Using IBE
        6. IBE Implementation Examples and Issues
      5. SECURITY IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
        1. Key Management
        2. Confidentiality and Privacy
        3. Authentication and Integrity
        4. Data Freshness
      6. OPEN ISSUES AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    4. 7.4. Time-Based Confidentiality Enhancement Scheme for Mobile Wireless Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SYSTEM MODEL AND RELATED WORK
        1. System Model
        2. Related Work and Our Contribution
      4. TRANSMIT CONFIDENTIAL DATA BY EXPLOITING NODE MOBILITY
        1. Secret Sharing Scheme
        2. Transmit Data Over Time
      5. PROBABILITY ANALYSIS
        1. Isotropic Random Walk Model
        2. Probability Analysis
      6. A CASE STUDY WITH NUMERICAL RESULTS
      7. SIMULATION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    5. 7.5. Trust-Based SAODV Protocol with Intrusion Detection, Trust Management and Incentive Cooperation in MANETs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
        1. Security-Based Protocols
        2. Intrusion Detection
        3. Trust Management
        4. SAODV Protocol
        5. Route Discovery Phase
        6. Route Maintenance Phase
        7. Signature and Hop Count Mechanism Simplification
        8. Considerations on Double Signature Mechanism in SAODV
        9. Hop Counting Mechanism Simplification in the Route Reply Phase
        10. Trust Management
        11. Credit Management and Node Collaboration Grade
        12. Credits Management to Promote Cooperation
        13. Performance Evaluation
        14. Simulation Parameters and Scenario
        15. Simulation Results
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      6. REFERENCES
    6. 7.6. Vehicular Networks Security: Attacks, Requirements, Challenges and Current Contributions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SERVICES AND ARCHITECTURES
        1. Services
        2. Architectures
      4. ATTACKS IN VEHICULAR NETWORKS
        1. Attacks Classification
        2. Attacks Examples
      5. SECURITY REQUIREMENTS AND SECURITY CHALLENGES
      6. ANALYSIS OF RELATED WORKS
        1. Main Contributions
      7. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    7. 7.7. On Peer-to-Peer Location Management in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. THE PLM PROTOCOL
        1. The Mobility-Assisted Location Information Dissemination
        2. The Hop Number Threshold Selection
        3. The On-Demand Query Mechanism
        4. The Kalman-Filter Based Location Prediction
        5. Discussions
      5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
        1. Simulations Results Based on Realistic Traces
        2. Coupled with Routing Protocol
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    8. 7.8. Evaluating QoS in a Multi-Access Wireless Network
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTRODUCTION
        1. Coupling Strategies for Umts and WLAN
        2. Loose Coupling
        3. Tight Coupling
        4. Very Tight Coupling
        5. Trade-Off with Coupling Strategies
      4. QUALITY OF SERVICE IN MULTI-ACCESS NETWORKS
        1. UMTS Supported Services
        2. UMTS QoS Architecture
          1. UMTS Bearer Service
          2. PDP Contexts
        3. WLAN QoS
        4. WLAN Supported Services
        5. WLAN QoS Architecture
          1. IEEE 802.11e
        6. Qos in Multi-System Networks
          1. Multi-System Services and Classes
      5. MULTI ACCESS TESTBED
        1. User Equipment/Mobile Terminal (UE/MT)
      6. UTRAN
        1. Core Network
      7. WLAN AP
          1. IEEE 802.11 Controlled Environment
        1. Application Server
      8. EVALUATING INTERACTIVE TRAFFIC IN A HETEROGENEOUS WIRELESS NETWORK
        1. JRRM Admission Control Algorithm
        2. Scenario Setup and Evaluation Criteria
        3. Evaluating Interactive Traffic over UMTS
        4. Evaluation of Interactive Traffic over WLAN
        5. The UMTS Benefits of Admitting WWW Users to WLAN
          1. Blocking and Reject Ratio Results
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    9. 7.9. A Concept for Mobile Ad-Hoc Messaging Networks (AMNet)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ROUTING IN MOBILE NETWORKS
      4. AMNET CONCEPT
      5. AMNET IMPLEMENTATION
        1. AMNET Protocols
        2. Devices for AMNET
        3. A Prototype Simulation
        4. Simulation Results
      6. APPLICATIONS IN AMNETS
        1. Categorization
        2. Sample Applications
          1. Electronic Bulletin Board
          2. Community Features
          3. An Environment for Ubiquitous, Pervasive, Mobile E-Learning
          4. Car Traffic Notification Service
        3. Security Issues
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    10. 7.10. Ad Hoc Networks Testbed Using a Practice Smart Antenna with IEEE802.15.4 Wireless Modules
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Directional MAC Protocols
        2. SWAMP
          1. Neighbor Discovery
          2. Antenna Models
          3. Access Modes
      4. MAIN THRUST OF THE CHAPTER
        1. Testbed
          1. ESPAR Antenna
          2. IEEE802.15.4/ZigBee Wireless Module
          3. System Configuration
        2. SWAMP Experiment
          1. OC-Mode Evaluation
          2. EC-Mode Evaluation
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    11. 7.11. On the Impact of Network Dynamics on a Discovery Protocol for Ad-Hoc Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A DISCOVERY PROTOCOL FOR AD-HOC NETWORKS
        1. Attenuated Bloom Filters (ABF)
        2. Protocol Specification
      4. MODELING PRELIMINARIES
        1. Network Structures
          1. Grid Structure
          2. Circle Structure
        2. Connectivity in Ad-Hoc Network Models
        3. Modeling Assumptions of Circular Structured Networks
        4. i-hop Communication Range in Circular Structured Networks
        5. Mean Multi-hop Node Degree of Circular Structured Networks
      5. ANALYSIS OF DYNAMIC CONNECTIVITY
        1. Grid Structure
          1. Node Disappearance
          2. Node Appearance
          3. One Node Moving
        2. Circular Structure
          1. Simulation Setup
          2. Node Disappearance
          3. Node Appearance
          4. Packet Loss
          5. A Moving Node
      6. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
      8. REFERENCES
    12. 7.12. A GPS Based Deterministic Channel Allocation for Cellular Network in Mobile Computing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ROLL OF GPS IN CHANNEL ALLOCATION
      4. THE PROPOSED MODEL
      5. ASSUMPTIONS
      6. THE MODEL
        1. Co-channel Interference constraint
      7. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
        1. The Algorithm
      8. THE EXPERIMENTS
        1. Simulation parameters
        2. Blocked Hosts Experiment
        3. Handoff Failures Experiment
        4. Comparative Study
        5. Comparison of the Blocked Hosts
        6. Comparison of Handoff failures
      9. OBSERVATIONS AND CONCLUSION
        1. Observations of the Experiments
        2. Observations on Comparative Study
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    13. 7.13. Modeling and Simulation of Self-Similar Traffic in Wireless IP Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PROPERTIES OF LONG-RANGE DEPENDENT SELF-SIMILAR PROCESSES
      4. STEADY-STATE SIMULATION OF SELF-SIMILAR QUEUING SYSTEMS
      5. LIMITED RELATIVE ERROR SIMULATION OF BUFFER OVERFLOW
      6. LRE ALGORITHM PERFORMANCE AND SIMULATION RESULTS
        1. Sequential Generators of Self-Similar Traffic in Wireless IP Networks
        2. Fixed-Length Sequence Generators of Self-Similar Traffic in Wireless IP Networks
      7. FGN-DW ALGORITHM PERFORMANCE AND SIMULATION RESULTS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    14. 7.14. A Distributed Dynamic Channel Allocation Scheme in Cellular Communication Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. DCA TECHNIQUES
      5. SIGNAL INTERFERENCE IN CCNS
      6. THE AWC ALGORITHM
      7. THE PROPOSED DDCA SCHEME
      8. PERFORMANCE MEASURES
      9. SIMULATIONS AND RESULTS
        1. Scenario #1. Uniform Loads
        2. Scenario #2: Non-Uniform Traffic Load
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    15. 7.15. A Ranging Process in IEEE 802.16 Relay System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Frame Structure of IEEE 802.16e OFDMA system
        2. Ranging Process
        3. Frame Structure of IEEE 802.16 Relay System
        4. Ranging process of IEEE 802.16 Relay system
      4. PROBLEM STATEMENT AND SOLUTION OF THE EXISTING RANGING ALGORITHM IN IEEE 802.16 RELAY SYSTEM
        1. Problem Statement of the Existing Ranging Transmit Power Control Algorithm
        2. Proposed Ranging Transmit Power Control Algorithm
        3. Standard Modification
      5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
        1. Simulation Parameters
        2. Metrics of Performance Evaluation
        3. Detection Miss and Miss Detection
        4. Estimation Success
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    16. 7.16. Distributed Algorithms for Delay Bounded Minimum Energy Wireless Broadcasting
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. SYSTEM MODEL
      5. INTEGER PROGRAMMING FORMULATION
      6. DISTRIBUTED TREE EXPANSION (DTE) ALGORITHM
        1. Example
      7. DISTRIBUTED LINK SUBSTITUTION (DLS) ALGORITHM
        1. Example
      8. NUMERICAL RESULTS
      9. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTES
      12. APPENDIX A: PSEUDOCODE OF DTE INITIALIZATION
      13. INFORMATION COLLECTION PHASE
      14. INFORMATION DISSEMINATION PHASE
      15. RESTORE DELAY PROCEDURE
      16. APPENDIX B: PSEUDOCODE OF DLS
      17. INITIAL TREE CONSTRUCTION PHASEM
    17. 7.17. Game Theory for PHY Layer and MAC Sublayer in Wireless Telecommunications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GAME THEORY FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS
        1. What is a Game?
        2. To Optimize or to Play a Game?
        3. The Basic Elements of a Game: Players, Strategies and Benefit
        4. Playing a Communications Game: Cooperation and Equilibrium
        5. Specific Types of Games
      4. FUNDAMENTAL RESULTS IN GAME THEORY FOR WIRELESS COMMNICATIONS
      5. PHYSICAL LAYER
        1. Power Control and Management
        2. Interference Avoidance
      6. MAC SUBLAYER
        1. The Backoff Attack Problem
        2. Random Access Protocols
      7. SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT AND SPECTRUM SHARING
      8. COOPERATIVE DIVERSITY
      9. CROSS-LAYER DESIGN
      10. FUTURE TRENDS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      13. REFERENCES
      14. KEY TERMS
    18. 7.18. An Ontology-Based P2P Network for Semantic Search
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE TWO-TIER SEMANTIC P2P NETWORK
      4. OVERVIEW
      5. ONTOLOGY-BASED SEMANTIC CLUSTERING
      6. THE UPPER-TIER NETWORK
      7. THE LOWER-TIER NETWORK
      8. QUERY ROUTING
      9. EVALUATION
        1. Simulation Model and Metrics
        2. Simulation Results
      10. PROTOTYPE MEASUREMENT
      11. RELATED WORK
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
    19. 7.19. Modeling a Multi-Agents System as a Network: A Metaphoric Exploration of the Unexpected
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Structure Generation in Complex Systems
      3. THE GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERIZATION
      4. THE TOPOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION
        1. Network Coefficients
          1. Continuous Clustering
          2. Residuality Coefficient
      5. RESULTS
        1. Geometrical Characterization of the S&P500 Stock Market
        2. Topological Characterization of the Resulting Networks of Stocks
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      7. REFERENCES
    20. 7.20. Error Probability for Coherent Modulations in Rician Fading Channel
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COMMUNICATION LINK MODEL
      4. UNIFIED APPROACH FOR SEP ANALYSIS
      5. DERIVATION OF SEP
        1. Rician Fading channel
        2. Rayleigh Fading Channel
      6. ANALYTICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    21. 7.21. Novel Results on MBMS Service Provisioning in UMTS/WLAN Heterogeneous Architectures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PRELIMINARIES
        1. Overview of UMTS and MBMS
        2. Overview of 802.11 Based WLANs and WLAN Multicasting
        3. Basics Of UMTS/WLAN Interworking
      4. MBMS SERVICES IN UMTS/WLAN HETEROGENEOUS SYSTEMS
        1. The proposed Architecture for MBMs Broadcast services
        2. The Proposed Architecture for MBMs Multicast services
        3. Unicast Delivery Mode
        4. Multicast Delivery Mode
        5. MBMs Handover in WLAN/UMTs Heterogeneous systems
          1. MBMS Handover from UMTS to WLAN
          2. MBMS Handover from WLAN to UMTS
        6. MBMS—Compatible WLAN MAC Protocol.
        7. MBMs Qos Mapping in the WLAN segment
      5. SIMULATION RESULTS
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
  14. VIII. Emerging Trends
    1. 8.1. Next-Generation Strategic Business Model for the U.S. Internet Service Providers: Rate-Based Internet Subscription
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
      4. INPUT DATA ANALYSIS
        1. Hypotheses
        2. Pilot Sampling
      5. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    2. 8.2. Handoff Management in Next Generation Wireless Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Objective and Context
        2. Issues and challenges of Handoffs in next Generation Mobile networks
          1. Seamless Handoff
          2. Desirable Handoff Features
          3. Handoff Process
            1. Handoff Decision
            2. Radio Link Transfer
            3. Channel Assignment
          4. Voluntary and Obligatory Handoff
        3. Related Work
        4. Contributions
        5. Organization of the Chapter
      3. NEURAL NETWORK-BASED VERTICAL HANDOFF MANAGER
        1. A Vertical Handover Decision Function
        2. Vertical Handoff Manager Architecture
          1. Network Handling Manager
          2. Feature Collector
          3. Artificial Neural Network (ANN)
      4. NUMERICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      5. SUMMARY AND OPEN PROBLEMS
      6. REFERENCES
    3. 8.3. Structural Changes and Regulatory Challenges in the Japanese Telecommunications Industry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY IN JAPAN
        1. Development of competition into the Local Market
        2. Diffusion of Broadband Internet
        3. Diffusion of cellular and the internet Access via cellular
        4. Decline of POTS
        5. Development of Media convergence Based on Layered structure
      5. REGULATORY CHALLENGES
        1. Essential Facilities Regulation
          1. DSL and Essential Facilities Regulation
          2. Is FTTH Essential?
      6. A UNIVERSAL SERVICE SYSTEM
        1. Universal Service System in Japan
        2. Actual USF operation
        3. Evaluation of 2006 Reform
      7. NEW UNÍVERSAL SYSTEM DESÍGN
        1. Flat-Rate pricing system for Broadband Internet
          1. Internet and the Tragedy of the Commons
          2. Diffusion of the Broadband Internet and Network Neutrality
          3. Problems for Each Layer
          4. Realistic Solution to the Tragedy of the Commons
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
      11. KEY TERMS
    4. 8.4. Service Innovation Management:New Service Development Strategies in the Telecommunication Industry Test Template for Data Mining Publications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. NATURE OF THE INDUSTRY
      5. ECONOMICAL SIZES OF MAINER TLC COMPANIES IN GREECE
      6. THE TLC CASE METHODOLOGY
      7. RESULTS OF THE EXPLORATORY RESEARCH
      8. CONCEPTUAL MODEL
      9. THE FOUR PRIMARY DOMAINS OF SERVICE PROVIDER STRATEGIES
        1. Financial strategies
        2. Planning Strategies
        3. Operational Strategies
        4. Marketing strategies
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS
    5. 8.5. Digital Rights Management for Untrusted Peer-to-Peer Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. P2P Networks
        2. Digital Rights Management
        3. DRM for P2P Networks
        4. Motivation and Design Goals
        5. Prior Research
      4. DESIGN
        1. Design Decisions
          1. A Hybrid Approach
          2. Entities
          3. Content Distribution
          4. Model for Reselling
          5. Content Packaging
          6. Use of PKI
          7. License Distribution
          8. Independence from the Underlying P2P Network
          9. Need for Client Software
          10. Portability
          11. BOBE Resistance
        2. Architecture
          1. Content Wrapper
          2. Functional Architecture
      5. IMPLEMENTATION
        1. Secure Super Peer (SSP)
          1. Multiple Connections
          2. Identification of Users
          3. User Interface
          4. Class Diagram
        2. Wrapper creator software
          1. Design Pattern
          2. Wrapper as an Executable Archive
          3. Format of Unencrypted Metadata
          4. User-Interface
        3. Wrapper Access software
          1. Archive Extraction
          2. User-Interface
          3. Class Diagram
      6. SECURITY ANALYSIS
        1. SSP Security Features
          1. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
          2. SSP Authentication Through SSL
          3. Secure Data Exchange Through SSL
          4. SSL Implementation in P2PRM
          5. Master Key Generation and Encryption
        2. Security Features of Wrapper Creator Software
          1. Content Encryption
          2. License with Content
          3. BOBE Resistance
          4. Secure Connection to SSP
        3. Security Features in Wrapper Access Software
          1. Unauthorized Access
          2. Hard Disk Storage
          3. Secure Connection to SSP
      7. TESTING
      8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
    6. 8.6. A Cross-Layer Model for Video Multicast Based TCP-Adaptive FEC over Heterogeneous Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VIDEO MULTICAST SYSTEM MODEL
        1. Video Traffic
        2. Network Model
        3. Error Control
      4. PROPOSED CROSS-LAYER MODEL
        1. Wireless channel Model
        2. Adaptive TCP Throughput Formula
        3. Optimal FEC Codes
        4. Optimal TCP-Adaptive FEC Over Wireless
        5. Temporal Video Model
      5. NUMERICAL RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    7. 8.7. A Novel Secure Video Surveillance System Over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Wireless Networks
          1. Ad Hoc Solution
          2. Security Issues
          3. Routing Protocol
          4. Network Processor
      4. A NOVEL SECURE VIDEO SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM
        1. Framework Design of Wireless Networks
          1. Video Processing
        2. System Security Management
          1. Confidentiality
          2. Authentication
          3. Reactive Protection Scheme
          4. Key Distribution
      5. SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
        1. Testing Environment
        2. Experiments on Key Embedding Algorithm
        3. Simulation of routing protocols
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS
    8. 8.8. How does Telemedicine Benefit from Broadband Technologies?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. A LOOK TO BROADBAND BACKGROUND
      5. THE MARKET HIGHLIGHTS
      6. POPULATION GROWTH
      7. BROADBAND AND SOCIAL BENEFITS
        1. E-Health Highlights
      8. TELEMEDICINE EXPERIENCES IN EU
        1. Early De-Hospitalization Cost Benefits
        2. Basic Hypothesis
        3. Project Data
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTE
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. 8.9. Improvement of Simulative Analysis in Ad Hoc Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORKS
      4. SIMULATION ANALYSIS
      5. FOURIER ANALYSIS
      6. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY
        1. Methodology Application Example
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    10. 8.10. Performance and Complexity Evaluation of OTR-UWB Receiver
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. UWB APPLICATIONS
      4. BASIC OF UWB PULSES
      5. OTR-UWB SYSTEM
        1. Transmitter Structure
        2. Channel Model
        3. Receiver structure
      6. ACQUISITION APPROACHES IN UWB COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
        1. Detection-Based
        2. Estimation-Based
      7. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION
        1. Mean Acquisition Time Analysis
        2. Hardware Complexity
        3. Simulation Results
      8. DSP ALGORITHM OF BASEBAND IMPLEMENTATION
      9. FPGA IMPLEMENTATION
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. REFERENCES
    11. 8.11. Integrating Sensor Nodes into a Middleware for Ambient Intelligence
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
        1. State of the Art
        2. State of the Practice
      4. APPLICATION EXAMPLE
      5. DAISI ARCHITECTURE
        1. Configuration Component
        2. Application Component Model
        3. Configuration Process
          1. Discovering Components Regarding their Functional Requirements
          2. Selecting the Best Components Depending on the Current Context
          3. Selecting Correct Component Bindings
      6. INTEGRATION APPROACH
        1. Generic Device Bay
        2. Device Bay Architecture
        3. Dynamic Loading of Stubs and Code Generation
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTE
    12. 8.12. Buffer Control Techniques for QoS Provisioning in Wireless Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Buffer Management Techniques
          1. Backlog Controllers
            1. Random Early Detection
            2. RED in Wireless Networks
          2. Threshold Policies
          3. Droppers
            1. Tail Drop
            2. Push-Out Techniques
        2. Joint Buffer Management and Scheduling
        3. Playback and Rate Control
      4. BUFFER CONTROL USING THE SFM/IPA FRAMEWORK
        1. The SFM/IPA Framework
        2. A Node with Two Classes of Traffic and QoS Support
        3. The Equivalent Stochastic Fluid Model
        4. IPA Derivatives
          1. Classification of Time Periods
          2. Computation of IPA Derivatives
          3. Relation Between the Sensitivity Estimators of the Performance Metrics
      5. SIMULATION AND RESULTS
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES