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Network Warrior, 2nd Edition

Book Description

This book starts where certification exams leave off. Network Warrior provides a thorough and practical guide to the entire network infrastructure. You'll learn how to deal with real Cisco networks, rather than the hypothetical situations presented on exams like the CCNA. Revised and updated for the latest Cisco technology, including the Nexus 7000 series, this second edition takes you step by step through the world of routers, switches, firewalls, and more.

Table of Contents

  1. Network Warrior
    1. Preface
      1. Who Should Read This Book
      2. Conventions Used in This Book
      3. Using Code Examples
      4. We’d Like to Hear from You
      5. Safari® Books Online
      6. Acknowledgments
    2. 1. What Is a Network?
    3. 2. Hubs and Switches
      1. Hubs
      2. Switches
        1. Switch Types
        2. Planning a Chassis-Based Switch Installation
          1. Rack space
          2. Power
          3. Cooling
          4. Installing and removing modules
          5. Routing cables
    4. 3. Autonegotiation
      1. What Is Autonegotiation?
      2. How Autonegotiation Works
      3. When Autonegotiation Fails
      4. Autonegotiation Best Practices
      5. Configuring Autonegotiation
    5. 4. VLANs
      1. Connecting VLANs
      2. Configuring VLANs
        1. CatOS
        2. IOS Using VLAN Database
        3. IOS Using Global Commands
        4. Nexus and NX-OS
    6. 5. Trunking
      1. How Trunks Work
        1. ISL
        2. 802.1Q
        3. Which Protocol to Use
        4. Trunk Negotiation
      2. Configuring Trunks
        1. IOS
        2. CatOS
        3. Nexus and NX-OS
    7. 6. VLAN Trunking Protocol
      1. VTP Pruning
      2. Dangers of VTP
      3. Configuring VTP
        1. VTP Domains
          1. IOS
          2. CatOS
          3. NX-OS
        2. VTP Mode
          1. IOS
          2. CatOS
          3. NX-OS
        3. VTP Password
          1. IOS
          2. CatOS
          3. NX-OS
        4. VTP Pruning
          1. IOS
          2. CatOS
          3. NX-OS
    8. 7. Link Aggregation
      1. EtherChannel
        1. EtherChannel Load Balancing
        2. Configuring and Managing EtherChannel
          1. EtherChannel protocols
          2. CatOS example
          3. IOS example
          4. NX-OS example
      2. Cross-Stack EtherChannel
      3. Multichassis EtherChannel (MEC)
      4. Virtual Port Channel
        1. Initial vPC Configuration
        2. Adding a vPC
    9. 8. Spanning Tree
      1. Broadcast Storms
      2. MAC Address Table Instability
      3. Preventing Loops with Spanning Tree
        1. How Spanning Tree Works
      4. Managing Spanning Tree
      5. Additional Spanning Tree Features
        1. PortFast
        2. BPDU Guard
        3. UplinkFast
        4. BackboneFast
      6. Common Spanning Tree Problems
        1. Duplex Mismatch
        2. Unidirectional Links
        3. Bridge Assurance
      7. Designing to Prevent Spanning Tree Problems
        1. Use Routing Instead of Switching for Redundancy
        2. Always Configure the Root Bridge
    10. 9. Routing and Routers
      1. Routing Tables
      2. Route Types
      3. The IP Routing Table
        1. Host Route
        2. Subnet
        3. Summary (Group of Subnets)
        4. Major Network
        5. Supernet (Group of Major Networks)
        6. Default Route
      4. Virtual Routing and Forwarding
    11. 10. Routing Protocols
      1. Communication Between Routers
      2. Metrics and Protocol Types
      3. Administrative Distance
      4. Specific Routing Protocols
        1. RIP
        2. RIPv2
        3. EIGRP
        4. OSPF
        5. BGP
    12. 11. Redistribution
      1. Redistributing into RIP
      2. Redistributing into EIGRP
      3. Redistributing into OSPF
      4. Mutual Redistribution
      5. Redistribution Loops
      6. Limiting Redistribution
        1. Route Tags
        2. A Real-World Example
          1. Another method
    13. 12. Tunnels
      1. GRE Tunnels
      2. GRE Tunnels and Routing Protocols
      3. GRE and Access Lists
    14. 13. First Hop Redundancy
      1. HSRP
      2. HSRP Interface Tracking
      3. When HSRP Isn’t Enough
      4. Nexus and HSRP
      5. GLBP
        1. Object Tracking in GLBP
    15. 14. Route Maps
      1. Building a Route Map
      2. Policy Routing Example
        1. Monitoring Policy Routing
    16. 15. Switching Algorithms in Cisco Routers
      1. Process Switching
      2. Interrupt Context Switching
        1. Fast Switching
        2. Optimum Switching
        3. CEF
      3. Configuring and Managing Switching Paths
        1. Process Switching
        2. Fast Switching
        3. CEF
    17. 16. Multilayer Switches
      1. Configuring SVIs
        1. IOS (4500, 6500, 3550, 3750, etc.)
        2. Hybrid Mode (4500, 6500)
        3. NX-OS (Nexus 7000, 5000)
      2. Multilayer Switch Models
    18. 17. Cisco 6500 Multilayer Switches
      1. Architecture
        1. Buses
        2. Enhanced Chassis
        3. Vertical Enhanced Chassis
        4. Supervisors
          1. MSFC
          2. PFC
          3. Models
        5. Modules
          1. Module interaction
          2. Module types
            1. Ethernet modules
            2. FWSMs
            3. CSMs
            4. NAM
            5. Intrusion Detection System modules
            6. FlexWAN modules
            7. Communication Media Modules
      2. CatOS Versus IOS
      3. Installing VSS
        1. Other Recommended VSS Commands
          1. VSS dual-active detection
        2. VSS Failover Commands
        3. Miscellaneous VSS Commands
        4. VSS Best Practices
    19. 18. Cisco Nexus
      1. Nexus Hardware
        1. Nexus 7000
        2. Nexus 5000
        3. Nexus 2000
        4. Nexus 1000 Series
      2. NX-OS
        1. NX-OS Versus IOS
          1. No more speed-related interface names
          2. No hidden configuration in NX-OS
          3. Interface status displays operational state along with a reason
          4. The show interface brief command
          5. No more write memory
          6. No more do command
          7. No more show arp
          8. No more interface range command
          9. Slash notation supported on all IPv4 and IPv6 commands
          10. Two CLI help levels
          11. Routing configuration mostly within interfaces
          12. Many more pipe options
      3. Nexus Iconography
      4. Nexus Design Features
        1. Virtual Routing and Forwarding
        2. Virtual Device Contexts
        3. Shared and Dedicated Rate-Mode
        4. Configuring Fabric Extenders (FEXs)
          1. Describing FEXs
          2. Physical connection
          3. Pinning
          4. FEX fabric uplinks using vPC
        5. Virtual Port Channel
        6. Config-Sync
        7. Configuration Rollback
        8. Upgrading NX-OS
    20. 19. Catalyst 3750 Features
      1. Stacking
      2. Interface Ranges
      3. Macros
      4. Flex Links
      5. Storm Control
      6. Port Security
      7. SPAN
      8. Voice VLAN
      9. QoS
    21. 20. Telecom Nomenclature
      1. Telecom Glossary
    22. 21. T1
      1. Understanding T1 Duplex
      2. Types of T1
      3. Encoding
        1. AMI
        2. B8ZS
      4. Framing
        1. D4/Superframe
        2. Extended Super Frame
      5. Performance Monitoring
        1. Loss of Signal
        2. Out of Frame
        3. Bipolar Violation
        4. CRC6
        5. Errored Seconds
        6. Extreme Errored Seconds
      6. Alarms
        1. Red Alarm
        2. Yellow Alarm
        3. Blue Alarm
      7. Troubleshooting T1s
        1. Loopback Tests
        2. Integrated CSU/DSUs
      8. Configuring T1s
        1. CSU/DSU Configuration
        2. CSU/DSU Troubleshooting
    23. 22. DS3
      1. Framing
        1. M13
        2. C-Bits
        3. Clear-Channel DS3 Framing
      2. Line Coding
      3. Configuring DS3s
        1. Clear-Channel DS3
        2. Channelized DS3
    24. 23. Frame Relay
      1. Ordering Frame Relay Service
      2. Frame Relay Network Design
      3. Oversubscription
      4. Local Management Interface
        1. Congestion Avoidance in Frame Relay
      5. Configuring Frame Relay
        1. Basic Frame Relay with Two Nodes
        2. Basic Frame Relay with More Than Two Nodes
        3. Frame Relay Subinterfaces
      6. Troubleshooting Frame Relay
    25. 24. MPLS
    26. 25. Access Lists
      1. Designing Access Lists
        1. Named Versus Numbered
        2. Wildcard Masks
        3. Where to Apply Access Lists
        4. Naming Access Lists
        5. Top-Down Processing
        6. Most-Used on Top
        7. Using Groups in ASA and PIX ACLs
        8. Deleting ACLs
        9. Turbo ACLs
        10. Allowing Outbound Traceroute and Ping
        11. Allowing MTU Path Discovery Packets
      2. ACLs in Multilayer Switches
        1. Configuring Port ACLs
        2. Configuring Router ACLs
        3. Configuring VLAN Maps
      3. Reflexive Access Lists
        1. Configuring Reflexive Access Lists
    27. 26. Authentication in Cisco Devices
      1. Basic (Non-AAA) Authentication
        1. Line Passwords
        2. Configuring Local Users
        3. PPP Authentication
          1. PAP
            1. One-way authentication
            2. Two-way authentication
            3. Debugging PPP authentication
          2. CHAP
            1. One-way authentication
            2. Two-way authentication
            3. Changing the sent hostname
      2. AAA Authentication
        1. Enabling AAA
        2. Configuring Security Server Information
          1. Default RADIUS and TACACS+ server groups
          2. Custom groups
        3. Creating Method Lists
          1. IOS login authentication
          2. NX-OS login authentication
          3. PPP authentication
        4. Applying Method Lists
    28. 27. Basic Firewall Theory
      1. Best Practices
      2. The DMZ
        1. Another DMZ Example
        2. Multiple DMZ Example
      3. Alternate Designs
    29. 28. ASA Firewall Configuration
      1. Contexts
      2. Interfaces and Security Levels
      3. Names
      4. Object Groups
      5. Inspects
      6. Managing Contexts
        1. Context Types
        2. The Classifier
          1. No shared interfaces
          2. Shared outside interfaces
          3. Shared inside interface
          4. Sharing inside and outside interfaces
          5. Cascading contexts
        3. Configuring Contexts
        4. Interfaces and Contexts
        5. Write Mem Behavior
      7. Failover
        1. Failover Terminology
        2. Understanding Failover
        3. Configuring Failover—Active/Standby
        4. Monitoring Failover
        5. Configuring Failover—Active/Active
      8. NAT
        1. NAT Commands
        2. NAT Examples
          1. Simple PAT using the outside interface
          2. Simple PAT using a dedicated IP address
          3. Simple PAT with public servers on the inside
          4. Port redirection
          5. DMZ
      9. Miscellaneous
        1. Remote Access
        2. Saving Configuration Changes
        3. Logging
      10. Troubleshooting
    30. 29. Wireless
      1. Wireless Standards
      2. Security
      3. Configuring a WAP
        1. MAC Address Filtering
      4. Troubleshooting
    31. 30. VoIP
      1. How VoIP Works
        1. Protocols
        2. Telephony Terms
        3. Cisco Telephony Terms
        4. Common Issues with VoIP
          1. Latency
          2. Packet loss
          3. Jitter
      2. Small-Office VoIP Example
        1. VLANs
        2. Switch Ports
        3. QoS on the CME Router
        4. DHCP for Phones
        5. TFTP Service
        6. Telephony Service
        7. Dial Plan
        8. Voice Ports
        9. Configuring Phones
          1. Ephone-DN
          2. Paging
          3. Ephone
          4. PTT
          5. Message waiting lamps
        10. Dial Peers
          1. POTS
          2. VoIP
          3. Dial-peer pattern matching
            1. Outbound dial peers
            2. Inbound dial peers
        11. SIP
          1. SIP and NAT
      3. Troubleshooting
        1. Phone Registration
        2. TFTP
        3. Dial Peer
        4. SIP
    32. 31. Introduction to QoS
      1. Types of QoS
      2. QoS Mechanics
        1. Priorities
        2. Flavors of QoS
          1. Traffic-shaping theory
      3. Common QoS Misconceptions
        1. QoS “Carves Up” a Link into Smaller Logical Links
        2. QoS Limits Bandwidth
        3. QoS Resolves a Need for More Bandwidth
        4. QoS Prevents Packets from Being Dropped
        5. QoS Will Make You More Attractive to the Opposite Sex
    33. 32. Designing QoS
      1. LLQ Scenario
        1. Protocols
        2. Priorities
        3. Determine Bandwidth Requirements
      2. Configuring the Routers
        1. Class Maps
        2. Policy Maps
        3. Service Policies
      3. Traffic-Shaping Scenarios
        1. Scenario 1: Ethernet Handoff
        2. Scenario 2: Frame Relay Speed Mismatch
          1. Traffic-shaping terminology
    34. 33. The Congested Network
      1. Determining Whether the Network Is Congested
      2. Resolving the Problem
    35. 34. The Converged Network
      1. Configuration
      2. Monitoring QoS
      3. Troubleshooting a Converged Network
        1. Incorrect Queue Configuration
        2. Priority Queue Too Small
        3. Priority Queue Too Large
        4. Nonpriority Queue Too Small
        5. Nonpriority Queue Too Large
        6. Default Queue Too Small
        7. Default Queue Too Large
    36. 35. Designing Networks
      1. Documentation
        1. Requirements Documents
        2. Port Layout Spreadsheets
        3. IP and VLAN Spreadsheets
        4. Bay Face Layouts
        5. Power and Cooling Requirements
        6. Tips for Network Diagrams
      2. Naming Conventions for Devices
      3. Network Designs
        1. Corporate Networks
          1. Three-tiered architecture
          2. Collapsed core—no distribution
          3. Collapsed core—no distribution or access
          4. Configuration concerns
            1. Trunks
            2. EtherChannels
            3. Spanning tree
            4. VTP
            5. VLANs
        2. Ecommerce Websites
        3. Modern Virtual Server Environments
        4. Small Networks
    37. 36. IP Design
      1. Public Versus Private IP Space
      2. VLSM
      3. CIDR
      4. Allocating IP Network Space
      5. Allocating IP Subnets
        1. Sequential
        2. Divide by Half
        3. Reverse Binary
      6. IP Subnetting Made Easy
    38. 37. IPv6
      1. Addressing
        1. Subnet Masks
        2. Address Types
        3. Subnetting
        4. NAT
      2. Simple Router Configuration
    39. 38. Network Time Protocol
      1. What Is Accurate Time?
      2. NTP Design
      3. Configuring NTP
        1. NTP Client
        2. NTP Server
    40. 39. Failures
      1. Human Error
      2. Multiple Component Failure
      3. Disaster Chains
      4. No Failover Testing
      5. Troubleshooting
        1. Remain Calm
        2. Log Your Actions
        3. Find Out What Changed
        4. Check the Physical Layer First!
        5. Assume Nothing; Prove Everything
        6. Isolate the Problem
        7. Don’t Look for Zebras
        8. Do a Physical Audit
        9. Escalate
        10. Troubleshooting in a Team Environment
        11. The Janitor Principle
    41. 40. GAD’s Maxims
      1. Maxim #1
        1. Politics
        2. Money
        3. The Right Way to Do It
      2. Maxim #2
        1. Simplify
        2. Standardize
        3. Stabilize
      3. Maxim #3
        1. Lower Costs
        2. Increase Performance or Capacity
        3. Increase Reliability
    42. 41. Avoiding Frustration
      1. Why Everything Is Messed Up
      2. How to Sell Your Ideas to Management
      3. When to Upgrade and Why
        1. The Dangers of Upgrading
        2. Valid Reasons to Upgrade
      4. Why Change Control Is Your Friend
      5. How Not to Be a Computer Jerk
        1. Behavioral
        2. Environmental
        3. Leadership and Mentoring
    43. Index
    44. About the Author
    45. Colophon