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Network Security Architectures

Book Description

Expert guidance on designing secure networks

  • Understand security best practices and how to take advantage of the networking gear you already have

  • Review designs for campus, edge, and teleworker networks of varying sizes

  • Learn design considerations for device hardening, Layer 2 and Layer 3 security issues, denial of service, IPsec VPNs, and network identity

  • Understand security design considerations for common applications such as DNS, mail, and web

  • Identify the key security roles and placement issues for network security elements such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems, VPN gateways, content filtering, as well as for traditional network infrastructure devices such as routers and switches

  • Learn 10 critical steps to designing a security system for your network

  • Examine secure network management designs that allow your management communications to be secure while still maintaining maximum utility

  • Try your hand at security design with three included case studies

  • Benefit from the experience of the principal architect of the original Cisco Systems SAFE Security Blueprint

  • Written by the principal architect of the original Cisco Systems SAFE Security Blueprint, Network Security Architectures is your comprehensive how-to guide to designing and implementing a secure network. Whether your background is security or networking, you can use this book to learn how to bridge the gap between a highly available, efficient network and one that strives to maximize security. The included secure network design techniques focus on making network and security technologies work together as a unified system rather than as isolated systems deployed in an ad-hoc way.

    Beginning where other security books leave off, Network Security Architectures shows you how the various technologies that make up a security system can be used together to improve your network's security. The technologies and best practices you'll find within are not restricted to a single vendor but broadly apply to virtually any network system. This book discusses the whys and hows of security, from threats and counter measures to how to set up your security policy to mesh with your network architecture. After learning detailed security best practices covering everything from Layer 2 security to e-commerce design, you'll see how to apply the best practices to your network and learn to design your own security system to incorporate the requirements of your security policy. You'll review detailed designs that deal with today's threats through applying defense-in-depth techniques and work through case studies to find out how to modify the designs to address the unique considerations found in your network.

    Whether you are a network or security engineer, Network Security Architectures will become your primary reference for designing and building a secure network.

    This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press, which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedication
    2. About the Author
      1. About the Technical Reviewers
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. A Note from Cisco Systems on the SAFE Blueprint and Network Security Architectures
    5. Icons Used in This Book
    6. Command Syntax Conventions
    7. Foreword
    8. Preface
      1. This Book's Relationship to the SAFE White Papers
      2. Why Network Security?
      3. New Technologies, New Vulnerabilities
      4. How This Book Is Organized
      5. Who Should Read This Book?
        1. Network/Security Architect
        2. Network/Security Operations Engineer
        3. IT Manager
        4. CIO and Others with Passing Interest
      6. Caveats
      7. Summary
    9. I. Network Security Foundations
      1. 1. Network Security Axioms
        1. Network Security Is a System
        2. Business Priorities Must Come First
        3. Network Security Promotes Good Network Design
        4. Everything Is a Target
        5. Everything Is a Weapon
        6. Strive for Operational Simplicity
        7. Good Network Security Is Predictable
        8. Avoid Security Through Obscurity
        9. Confidentiality and Security Are Not the Same
        10. Summary
        11. Reference
        12. Applied Knowledge Questions
      2. 2. Security Policy and Operations Life Cycle
        1. You Can't Buy Network Security
        2. What Is a Security Policy?
          1. Security Policy Enforcement Considerations
            1. Real-Time Technology Enforcement
            2. Passive Technology-Assisted Compliance Checking
            3. Nontechnical Compliance Checking
            4. Contractual Compliance Checking
            5. Next Steps
        3. Security System Development and Operations Overview
          1. Security System Development
            1. Step 1: Examining Security Policy Drivers
              1. Business Needs
                1. Business Goals
                2. Cost/Benefit Analysis
              2. Risk Analysis
              3. Steps to Success
            2. Step 2: Developing a Security Policy
              1. Key Security Policies
              2. Security Policy Team
              3. Security Versus Access
              4. Final Assessment
            3. Step 3: Designing the Security System
          2. Security System Operations Life Cycle
            1. System Monitoring and Maintenance
            2. Compliance Checking
            3. Incident Response
        4. Summary
        5. References
        6. Applied Knowledge Questions
      3. 3. Secure Networking Threats
        1. The Attack Process
        2. Attacker Types
          1. Script Kiddie
          2. Cracker
          3. Elite
        3. Vulnerability Types
          1. Software Vulnerabilities
          2. Hardware Vulnerabilities
          3. Configuration Vulnerabilities
          4. Policy Vulnerabilities
          5. Usage Vulnerabilities
        4. Attack Results
          1. Disclosure of Information
          2. Corruption of Information
          3. Denial of Service
          4. Theft of Service
          5. Increased Access
        5. Attack Taxonomy
          1. Read
            1. Reconnaissance
              1. Data Scavenging
              2. Probing and Scanning
              3. War Dialing and War Driving
            2. Sniffer
            3. Direct Access
          2. Manipulate
            1. Network Manipulation
            2. Application Manipulation
              1. Buffer Overflow
              2. Web Application
          3. Spoof
            1. MAC Spoofing
            2. IP Spoofing
            3. Transport Spoofing
              1. UDP Spoofing
              2. TCP Spoofing
            4. Identity Spoofing
            5. Rogue Devices
          4. Flood
            1. MAC Flooding
            2. Network Flooding
              1. Smurf
              2. DDoS
            3. TCP SYN Flooding
            4. Application Flooding
          5. Redirect
            1. L2 Redirection
              1. ARP Redirection/Spoofing
              2. STP Redirection
            2. IP Redirection
            3. Transport Redirection
          6. Composite
            1. Man-In-The-Middle
              1. dsniff
              2. Ettercap
            2. Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses
            3. Rootkit
            4. Remote Control Software
        6. Summary
        7. References
        8. Applied Knowledge Questions
      4. 4. Network Security Technologies
        1. The Difficulties of Secure Networking
        2. Security Technologies
          1. Identity Technologies
            1. Reusable Passwords
            2. RADIUS and TACACS+
            3. OTPs
            4. Basic PKI
            5. Smart Cards
            6. Biometrics
            7. Identity Technologies Summary
          2. Host and Application Security
            1. File System Integrity Checking
            2. Host-Based Firewalls
            3. HIDS
            4. Host Antivirus
            5. Host and Application Security Summary
          3. Network Firewalls
            1. Routers with Layer 3/4 Stateless ACLs
            2. Stateful Firewalls
            3. Network Firewalls Summary
          4. Content Filtering
            1. Proxy Servers
            2. Web Filtering
            3. E-Mail Filtering
            4. Content-Filtering Summary
          5. Network Intrusion Detection Systems
            1. Signature-Based NIDS
            2. Anomaly-Based NIDS
            3. NIDS Summary
          6. Cryptography
            1. L2 Cryptography
            2. Network Layer Cryptography
            3. L5 to L7 Cryptography
            4. File System Cryptography
            5. Cryptography Summary
        3. Emerging Security Technologies
          1. Hybrid Host Solutions
          2. Inline NIDS
          3. Application Firewalls
        4. Summary
        5. References
        6. Applied Knowledge Questions
    10. II. Designing Secure Networks
      1. 5. Device Hardening
        1. Components of a Hardening Strategy
          1. Security Policy
          2. Device Location
          3. Threat Profile
          4. Functional Requirements
          5. Management Requirements
        2. Network Devices
          1. Router
            1. Basic Hardening Settings
              1. Disable Unneeded Services
              2. Password Encryption
            2. Authentication Settings
              1. Enable Secret
              2. Login Banner
              3. Line Access
              4. Setting Up Usernames
              5. Secure Shell (SSH)
            3. Management Access
              1. HTTP Server
              2. SNMP
              3. CDP
              4. Syslog
              5. NTP
              6. ACL Options
            4. Other Hardening Options
          2. Switches
          3. Firewalls
            1. Login Restrictions
            2. SSH
            3. Logging
        3. NIDS
        4. Host Operating Systems
          1. Partitioning Disk Space
          2. Turning Off Unneeded Services
          3. Patching the Services Needed
          4. Logging Critical Events
        5. Applications
        6. Appliance-Based Network Services
        7. Rogue Device Detection
        8. Summary
        9. References
        10. Applied Knowledge Questions
      2. 6. General Design Considerations
        1. Physical Security Issues
          1. Control Physical Access to Facilities
            1. Lock-and-Key Access
            2. Key Card Access
            3. Key Card Access with Turnstile
            4. Solving the Single-Factor Identity Problem
          2. Control Physical Access to Data Centers
          3. Separate Identity Mechanisms for Insecure Locations
          4. Prevent Password Recovery Mechanisms in Insecure Locations
          5. Be Aware of Cable Plant Issues
          6. Be Aware of Electromagnetic Radiation
          7. Be Aware of Physical PC Security Threats
        2. Layer 2 Security Considerations
          1. L2 Control Protocols
            1. General Protocol Considerations
              1. 802.1q
              2. STP
                1. BPDU Guard
                2. Root Guard
              3. 802.1x
            2. Cisco-Specific Protocols
              1. Interswitch Linking (ISL)
              2. Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP)
              3. VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP)
              4. VLAN Query Protocol (VQP)
              5. CDP
          2. MAC Flooding Considerations
            1. Attack Details
            2. Attack Mitigation
          3. VLAN Hopping Considerations
            1. Basic VLAN Hopping Attack
            2. Creative VLAN Hopping Attacks
          4. ARP Considerations
          5. DHCP Considerations
            1. DHCP Snooping
            2. DHCP VACLs
          6. Private VLANs
            1. PVLAN Security Considerations
          7. L2 Best Practices Recommendations
        3. IP Addressing Design Considerations
          1. General Best Practices and Route Summarization
          2. Ingress/Egress Filtering
            1. RFC 1918
            2. RFC 2827
            3. Nonroutable Networks
            4. uRPF
          3. NAT
        4. ICMP Design Considerations
          1. ICMP Rate Limiting
          2. ICMP Message Type Filtering
            1. ICMP Echo Request and ICMP Echo Reply
            2. ICMP Destination Unreachable—Fragmentation Needed but DF Bit Set
            3. ICMP Time Exceeded
            4. ICMP Filtering Recommendations
        5. Routing Considerations
          1. Routing Protocol Security
            1. Routing Protocol Message Authentication
              1. Plaintext Password Authentication
              2. MD5 Digest Authentication
            2. Specific Routing Protocol Security Options
              1. Routing Information Protocol
              2. RIP v2
              3. Open Shortest Path First
              4. BGP
              5. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
              6. Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
          2. Asymmetric Routing and State-Aware Security Technology
            1. Make Your Routing Symmetric
            2. Load Balance Per Flow Rather Than Per Packet
            3. Use State-Sharing Security Devices
            4. Consider L2 Redundancy as a Workaround
            5. Manipulate Flows by Using Routing or NAT
            6. Use Stateless Security Features
        6. Transport Protocol Design Considerations
        7. DoS Design Considerations
          1. Network Flooding Design Considerations
            1. Stopping Network Flooding
              1. Basic ACL
              2. Black Hole Filtering
              3. Sinkhole Routing
            2. DDoS Trace Back
              1. Manual ACL Trace Back
              2. Backscatter DDoS Trace Back
            3. CAR
              1. CAR Design Considerations
            4. Design Techniques to Mitigate DDoS
              1. E-Commerce-Specific Filtering
              2. Content Delivery Networks
            5. Network Flooding Design Recommendations
          2. TCP SYN Flooding Design Considerations
            1. SYN Cookies
            2. TCP Intercept
          3. ICMP Unreachable DoS Considerations
        8. Summary
        9. References
        10. Applied Knowledge Questions
      3. 7. Network Security Platform Options and Best Deployment Practices
        1. Network Security Platform Options
          1. General-Purpose Operating System Security Devices
            1. Pros
            2. Cons
            3. Software Options
              1. Commercial OSs and Security Software
              2. Open Source OSs and Security Software
              3. Software Option Recommendations
          2. Appliance-Based Security Devices
            1. General-Purpose Hardware/OS with Appliance Packaging
              1. Pros
              2. Cons
            2. Fully Custom Appliances
              1. Pros
              2. Cons
          3. Network-Integrated Security Functions
            1. Router/Switch Software Integrated
              1. Pros
              2. Cons
            2. Router/Switch Hardware Integrated
              1. Pros
              2. Cons
          4. Network Security Platform Option Recommendations
            1. Appliance-Based Security Devices
            2. General-Purpose OS Security Devices
            3. Network-Integrated Security Functions
        2. Network Security Device Best Practices
          1. Firewalls
            1. Topology Options
              1. Basic Filtering Router
              2. Classic Dual-Router DMZ
              3. Stateful Firewall DMZ Design
              4. Modern Three-Interface Firewall Design
              5. Multifirewall Design
            2. General Firewall Best Practices
              1. Expressly Permit, Implicitly Deny
              2. Block Outbound Public Server Access
          2. Proxy Servers/Content Filtering
            1. Internal User Aggregation
            2. Firewall-Enforced User Aggregation
            3. DMZ Proxy Design
            4. Proxy Server Placement Summary
          3. NIDS
            1. NIDS Placement
              1. Prefirewall NIDS
              2. Postfirewall NIDS
            2. NIDS General Best Practices
              1. Deploy Close to the Systems You Are Trying to Protect
              2. Monitor Your NIDS 24*7*365
              3. NIDS Tuning
              4. NIDS Attack Response
                1. Shunning
                2. TCP Resets
                3. Attack Response Recommendations
              5. Multisegment NIDS
        3. Summary
        4. Reference
        5. Applied Knowledge Questions
      4. 8. Common Application Design Considerations
        1. E-Mail
          1. Basic Two-Tier E-Mail Design
          2. Distributed Two-Tier E-Mail Design
          3. Access Control Example
          4. Mail Application Design Recommendations
        2. DNS
          1. Don't Put All Your DNS Servers in One Place
          2. Have More Than One Authoritative DNS Server
          3. Make Your External DNS Servers Nonrecursive Responders Only
          4. Provide Protected Internal DNS Servers
          5. Separate the Information Provided by External and Internal DNS Servers
          6. Limit Zone Transfers to Authorized Servers
          7. DNS Filtering Case Studies
            1. Single Local Server
            2. Distributed DNS Design
        3. HTTP/HTTPS
          1. Simple Web Design
          2. Two-Tier Web Design
          3. Three-Tier Web Design
        4. FTP
          1. Active Mode
          2. Passive Mode
        5. Instant Messaging
        6. Application Evaluation
        7. Summary
        8. References
        9. Applied Knowledge Questions
      5. 9. Identity Design Considerations
        1. Basic Foundation Identity Concepts
          1. Device Versus User Identity
          2. Network Versus Application Identity
          3. Whom Do You Trust?
          4. Identity and Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting
          5. Shared Identity
          6. Cryptographic Identity Considerations
        2. Types of Identity
          1. Physical Access
          2. MAC Addresses
          3. IP Addresses
          4. Layer 4 Information
          5. Usernames
          6. Digital Certificates
          7. Biometrics
        3. Factors in Identity
        4. Role of Identity in Secure Networking
        5. Identity Technology Guidelines
          1. AAA Server Design Guidelines
            1. Basic AAA Requirements
              1. Root Server Versus Middleware
                1. Root Server
                2. Middleware Server
                3. Mixed Deployment
            2. Remote User-Store Access
              1. Direct Query
              2. Database Synchronization
            3. AAA Server Scalability
            4. AAA Server Network Resiliency Considerations
            5. Distributed AAA Server Synchronization Considerations
            6. Distributed WAN Considerations
            7. AAA Server Requirements
            8. AAA Server Summary
          2. 802.1x/EAP Identity Design Guidelines
            1. 802.1x/EAP Protocol Details
            2. 802.1x/EAP Case Study
              1. Supplicant Configuration (Client)
              2. Authenticator Configuration (Switch)
              3. Authentication Server Configuration (AAA Server)
            3. 802.1x/EAP Design Considerations
              1. 802.1x/EAP Benefits
              2. 802.1x/EAP Concerns
              3. 802.1x Deployment Models
                1. Shared Access
                2. Mobile Access Rights
            4. 802.1x/EAP Summary
          3. Gateway-Based Network Authentication
          4. PKI Usage Basics
        6. Identity Deployment Recommendations
          1. Device to Network
          2. User to Network
          3. User to Application
        7. Summary
        8. References
        9. Applied Knowledge Questions
      6. 10. IPsec VPN Design Considerations
        1. VPN Basics
        2. Types of IPsec VPNs
          1. Site-to-Site VPNs
          2. Remote User VPNs
        3. IPsec Modes of Operation and Security Options
          1. The Three Elements of IPsec
            1. IKE
            2. AH
            3. ESP
          2. Transport Mode and Tunnel Mode
          3. IPsec SA Establishment
            1. Phase 1
              1. Main Mode
              2. Aggressive Mode
            2. Phase 2: Quick Mode
          4. Other Security Options
            1. Authentication Methods
              1. Preshared Keys
              2. Digital Signatures
              3. Mode Config and Extended Authentication (Xauth)
            2. Diffie-Hellman Group
            3. Perfect Forward Secrecy
            4. Encryption Protocol Selection
              1. DES
              2. Triple DES
              3. AES
            5. Authentication/Integrity Protocol Selection
        4. Topology Considerations
          1. Split Tunneling
            1. Performance
            2. Security
              1. Mobile Workers
              2. Remote Sites
              3. Split Tunneling Recommendations
          2. Topology Choices
            1. Hub and Spoke
            2. Partial Mesh
            3. Full Mesh
            4. Distributed
        5. Design Considerations
          1. Platform Options
            1. Site-to-Site IPsec Platforms
            2. Remote User IPsec Platforms
          2. Identity and IPsec Access Control
          3. Layer 3 IPsec Considerations
            1. Routing
            2. NAT
              1. Site-to-Site Considerations
              2. Remote User Considerations
            3. GRE
            4. IP Addressing
          4. Fragmentation and Path Maximum Transmission Unit Discovery
          5. Firewall and NIDS Placement for VPNs
            1. Trusted IPsec Topology
            2. Semitrusted IPsec Topology
          6. High Availability
          7. QoS
          8. IPsec Vendor Interoperability
        6. Site-to-Site Deployment Examples
          1. Basic IPsec
          2. GRE + IPsec
            1. Basic GRE Hub and Spoke
            2. HA GRE Hub and Spoke
            3. GRE Design Conclusion
          3. Dynamic Multipoint VPN
        7. IPsec Outsourcing
          1. Network-Based Managed IPsec
          2. CPE Managed IPsec
        8. Summary
        9. References
        10. Applied Knowledge Questions
      7. 11. Supporting-Technology Design Considerations
        1. Content
          1. Caching
            1. Security Considerations
            2. Forward Proxy Cache
            3. Transparent Cache
            4. Reverse Proxy Cache
          2. Content Distribution and Routing
        2. Load Balancing
          1. Security Considerations
          2. Server Load Balancing
            1. Security Considerations
            2. SSL Offload
            3. Security Device Placement
          3. Security Device Load Balancing
            1. When to Use
              1. Buy a Faster Box
              2. Modify the Network Design
              3. Distribute the Security Functions
            2. Deployment Options
              1. Sandwich
              2. Stick
        3. Wireless LANs
          1. General Considerations
            1. Access Point Hardening
            2. Rogue APs
            3. Denial of Service
            4. Physical Isolation Issues
          2. Technology Options
            1. 802.11 WEP
            2. 802.11 Security Enhancements
              1. 802.11 Task Group I
                1. TKIP
                2. CCMP
                3. Authentication
                4. Other Considerations
              2. Wi-Fi Protected Access
              3. Vendor Proprietary
              4. Sample Design
            3. L3+ Cryptography
              1. IPsec
              2. SSH/SSL
            4. WLAN Security Recommendations
          3. Unique Deployment Options
            1. Direct Internet Access WLAN
            2. Differentiated Groups WLAN
          4. WLAN Conclusion
        4. IP Telephony
          1. Security Considerations
            1. Data Interception
            2. DoS
          2. Deployment Options
            1. General Best Practices
            2. IP Addressing/VLAN Separation
            3. Firewalls
          3. IP Telephony Recommendations
        5. Summary
        6. References
        7. Applied Knowledge Questions
      8. 12. Designing Your Security System
        1. Network Design Refresher
          1. Core, Distribution, Access/Edge
          2. Management
        2. Security System Concepts
          1. Domains of Trust
            1. Domains of Trust and Network Design
            2. Domains of Trust Recommendations
          2. Choke Points
          3. Security Roles: Access/Edge, Distribution, Core
        3. Impact of Network Security on the Entire Design
          1. Routing and IP Addressing
            1. Routing
            2. IP Addressing
          2. Manageability
          3. Scalability and Performance
        4. Ten Steps to Designing Your Security System
          1. Step 1: Review Completed Security Policy Documents
          2. Step 2: Analyze the Current Network Against the Security Policy
          3. Step 3: Select Technologies and Evaluate Product Capabilities
          4. Step 4: Design an Ideal Rough Draft of the Security System
          5. Step 5: Test Key Components in a Lab
          6. Step 6: Evaluate and Revise Design/Policy
          7. Step 7: Finalize Design
          8. Step 8: Implement the Security System in One Critical Area
          9. Step 9: Roll Out to Other Areas
          10. Step 10: Design/Policy Validation
          11. Two-Step Evaluation Checklist
            1. Evaluate Design for Policy Conformance
            2. Evaluate Design for Threat Mitigation
              1. Consider Defense-in-Depth
              2. The Role of Scanning
        5. Summary
        6. Applied Knowledge Questions
    11. III. Secure Network Designs
      1. 13. Edge Security Design
        1. What Is the Edge?
        2. Expected Threats
        3. Threat Mitigation
        4. Identity Considerations
        5. Network Design Considerations
          1. ISP Router
          2. Number of Public Servers
          3. Branch Versus Head-End Design Considerations
            1. WAN Only
            2. Internet VPN (No Services)
            3. Internet (Limited Services)
            4. Internet (Full Services)
          4. Remote Access Alternatives
        6. Small Network Edge Security Design
          1. Design Requirements
          2. Design Overview
          3. Edge Devices and Security Roles
            1. Router/Security Gateway
            2. Optional WAN Router
            3. Ethernet Switch
            4. Public Servers
          4. VPN
            1. Site-to-Site
            2. Remote User
          5. Design Evaluation
            1. VPN Evaluation
          6. Design Alternatives
            1. Outsourced Applications Alternative
            2. Increased Security Alternative
            3. Decreased Security Alternative
        7. Medium Network Edge Security Design
          1. Design Requirements
          2. Design Overview
          3. Internet Edge
            1. Internet WAN Router
            2. Stateful Firewall
            3. NIDS
            4. Ethernet Switch
            5. Public Servers
          4. Remote Access Edge
            1. VPN
              1. Site-to-Site
              2. Remote User
            2. WAN
            3. PSTN Dial-Up
          5. Design Evaluation
            1. Remote Access Design Evaluation
          6. Design Alternatives
            1. Increased VPN Requirements
            2. Increased Security Alternative
            3. Decreased Security Alternative
        8. High-End Resilient Edge Security Design
          1. Design Requirements
          2. Design Overview
            1. Multiple Public Server Segments
            2. Routed Connections to the Campus
            3. The Price of L2 Resiliency
          3. Internet Edge
            1. Internet WAN Router
            2. Stateful Firewall
            3. NIDS
            4. Ethernet Switch
            5. Public Servers
          4. Remote Access Edge
            1. VPN
              1. Site-to-Site
              2. Remote User
            2. WAN
            3. PSTN Dial-Up
          5. Design Evaluation
            1. Remote Access Design Evaluation
          6. Design Alternatives
            1. Increased Security Alternative
            2. Decreased Security Alternative
        9. Provisions for E-Commerce and Extranet Design
          1. E-Commerce
          2. Extranet
            1. General Extranet Design Considerations
              1. Use Dedicated Infrastructure
              2. Establish Extranet-Specific Security Policies
            2. Application-Based Extranets
            3. Network-Based Extranets
        10. Summary
        11. References
        12. Applied Knowledge Questions
      2. 14. Campus Security Design
        1. What Is the Campus?
        2. Campus Trust Model
        3. Expected Threats
        4. Threat Mitigation
        5. Identity Considerations
        6. Network Design Considerations
          1. Layer 2 Considerations
          2. Stateful Versus Stateless ACLs and L3 Versus L4 Filtering
          3. Intrusion Detection Systems
          4. WLAN Considerations
          5. Network Management
          6. Rogue Devices
        7. Small Network Campus Security Design
          1. Design Requirements
          2. Design Overview
          3. Campus Devices and Security Roles
            1. Ethernet Switch
            2. Internal Servers
            3. User Hosts
            4. WLAN AP
            5. Optional AAA Server
          4. Design Evaluation
          5. Design Alternatives
          6. Increased Security Alternative
          7. Decreased Security Alternative
        8. Medium Network Campus Security Design
          1. Design Requirements
          2. Design Overview
          3. Campus Devices and Security Roles
            1. Ethernet Switches (All)
            2. Ethernet Switches (L3 Distribution/Core)
            3. Internal Servers
            4. User Hosts
            5. NIDS
            6. AAA Server
            7. WLAN AP
          4. Design Evaluation
          5. Design Alternatives
          6. Increased Security Alternative
          7. Decreased Security Alternative
        9. High-End Resilient Campus Security Design
          1. Design Requirements
          2. Design Overview
          3. Campus Devices and Security Roles
            1. Ethernet Switches (All)
            2. Ethernet Switches (User)
            3. Ethernet Switches (L3 Distribution)
            4. Ethernet Switches (Data Center)
            5. Ethernet Switches (Core)
            6. Internal Servers
            7. User Hosts
            8. NIDS
            9. Stateful Firewalls
            10. AAA Server
            11. Certificate Authority
            12. WLAN AP
          4. Design Evaluation
          5. Design Alternatives
            1. Increased Security Alternative
            2. Decreased Security Alternative
        10. Summary
        11. References
        12. Applied Knowledge Questions
      3. 15. Teleworker Security Design
        1. Defining the Teleworker Environment
        2. Expected Threats
        3. Threat Mitigation
        4. Identity Considerations
        5. Network Design Considerations
          1. Host Protections
          2. Network-Transit Protections
        6. Software-Based Teleworker Design
          1. Design Requirements
          2. Design Overview
        7. Hardware-Based Teleworker Design
          1. Design Requirements
          2. Design Overview
          3. Physical Security Considerations
        8. Design Evaluations
        9. Summary
        10. Reference
        11. Applied Knowledge Questions
    12. IV. Network Management, Case Studies, and Conclusions
      1. 16. Secure Network Management and Network Security Management
        1. Utopian Management Goals
        2. Organizational Realities
        3. Protocol Capabilities
          1. Telnet/Secure Shell
            1. Typical Use
            2. Security Considerations
            3. Deployment Best Practices
          2. HTTP/HTTPS
            1. Typical Use
            2. Security Considerations
            3. Deployment Best Practices
          3. Simple Network Management Protocol
            1. Typical Use
            2. Security Considerations
            3. Deployment Best Practices
          4. TFTP/FTP/SFTP/SCP
            1. Typical Use
            2. Security Considerations
            3. Deployment Best Practices
          5. Syslog
            1. Typical Use
            2. Security Considerations
            3. Deployment Best Practices
          6. NetFlow
            1. Typical Use
            2. Security Considerations
            3. Deployment Best Practices
          7. Others
        4. Tool Capabilities
          1. Network Security Management Tools
            1. Configuration/Provisioning Tools
              1. CLI
              2. GUI
            2. Security Monitoring Tools
          2. Secure Network Management Tools
        5. Secure Management Design Options
          1. Cleartext In-Band
            1. Supported Platforms
            2. Multisite Considerations
            3. Attack Mitigation
            4. Best Deployment Practices
          2. Cryptographically Secure In-Band (Session and Application Layer)
            1. Supported Platforms
            2. Multisite Considerations
            3. Attack Mitigation
            4. Best Deployment Practices
          3. Cryptographically Secure In-Band (Network Layer)
            1. Supported Platforms
            2. Multisite Considerations
            3. Attack Mitigation
            4. Best Deployment Practices
            5. Out of Band (OOB)
            6. Supported Platforms
            7. Multisite Considerations
            8. Threats and Attack Mitigation
            9. Best Deployment Uses
          4. Hybrid Management Design
          5. Secure Network Management Optional Components
        6. Network Security Management Best Practices
          1. Monitor Critical Security Events 24*7*365
          2. Separate Historical Event Data from Critical Notifications
          3. Choose Sensible Logging Levels
          4. Separate Network Management and Network Security Management
          5. Focus on Operational Requirements
          6. Consider Outsourcing
        7. Summary
        8. References
        9. Applied Knowledge Questions
      2. 17. Case Studies
        1. Introduction
        2. Real-World Applicability
        3. Organization
          1. Organization Overview
          2. Current Design
          3. Security Requirements
          4. Design Choices
          5. Migration Strategy
          6. Attack Example
        4. NetGamesRUs.com
          1. Organization Overview
          2. Current Design
          3. Security Requirements
            1. Campus Security
            2. Edge Security
            3. Management
          4. Design Choices
          5. Migration Strategy
          6. Attack Example
        5. University of Insecurity
          1. Organization Overview
          2. Current Design
          3. Security Requirements
            1. Internet Connectivity
            2. Student Connectivity
            3. Administrative Systems
            4. Management Systems
            5. WAN Connected Networks
          4. Design Choices
            1. Basic Changes
            2. Internet Connectivity
            3. Student Networks
            4. Administrative Networks
            5. Management Network
          5. Migration Strategy
          6. Attack Example
            1. DDoS Infections/Attacks
            2. Critical System Compromises
            3. Student Network Attacks
        6. Black Helicopter Research Limited
          1. Organization Overview
          2. Current Design
          3. Security Requirements
            1. Internet Connectivity
            2. Classified Network
            3. WAN Connectivity
            4. User Education
          4. Design Choices
            1. Physical Security
              1. Unclassified Areas
              2. Classified Areas
                1. Zone E
                2. Zone F
            2. Network Security System
              1. Classified Network
              2. Unclassified Network
          5. Migration Strategy
          6. Attack Example
        7. Summary
        8. Reference
        9. Applied Knowledge Questions
      3. 18. Conclusions
        1. Introduction
        2. Management Problems Will Continue
        3. Security Will Become Computationally Less Expensive
        4. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Networks
        5. Legislation Should Garner Serious Consideration
        6. IP Version 6 Changes Things
        7. Network Security Is a System
        8. Summary
        9. References
      4. A. Glossary of Terms
      5. B. Answers to Applied Knowledge Questions
        1. Chapter 1
        2. Chapter 2
        3. Chapter 3
        4. Chapter 4
        5. Chapter 5
        6. Chapter 6
        7. Chapter 7
        8. Chapter 8
        9. Chapter 9
        10. Chapter 10
        11. Chapter 11
        12. Chapter 12
        13. Chapter 13
        14. Chapter 14
        15. Chapter 15
        16. Chapter 16
      6. C. Sample Security Policies
        1. INFOSEC Acceptable Use Policy
          1. 1.0 Overview
          2. 2.0 Purpose
          3. 3.0 Scope
          4. 4.0 Policy
            1. 4.1 General Use and Ownership
            2. 4.2 Security and Proprietary Information
            3. 4.3 Unacceptable Use
              1. System and Network Activities
              2. E-mail and Communications Activities
          5. 5.0 Enforcement
          6. 6.0 Definitions
          7. 7.0 Revision History
        2. Password Policy
          1. 1.0 Overview
          2. 2.0 Purpose
          3. 4.0 Policy
            1. 4.1 General
            2. 4.2 Guidelines
              1. General Password Construction Guidelines
              2. Password Protection Standards
              3. Application Development Standards
              4. Use of Passwords and Passphrases for Remote Access Users
              5. Passphrases
          4. 5.0 Enforcement
          5. 6.0 Definitions
          6. 7.0 Revision History
        3. Guidelines on Antivirus Process