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Network Sales and Services Handbook

Book Description

A technical handbook for network sales and customer service personnel

Network Sales and Services Handbook covers the following:

  • Foundational concepts and discussions of how networks interconnect

  • The OSI model and its fundamental importance for moving information between computers on an internetwork

  • Customer premises equipment, including a discussion of hardware commonly found at a customer site

  • Threats to a network and methods for protecting a network against such threats

  • Concepts of geographical networks and the three-tiered network hierarchy

  • QoS and a network's capability to provide better service to select network traffic over various internetworking technologies

  • Methods available to remote users for securely accessing organizational resources

  • Public switched telephone network services and customer access

  • Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) and how it is used in a network backbone

  • The fundamentals of fiber-optic networks, including Synchronous Optical Networks and Dense Wave Division Multiplexing

  • One of the most significant challenges in any technical organization is knowledge transfer: getting the knowledge from those "in the know" (network engineers or consultants) to those on the "front lines" (those individuals who are selling and supporting a client's network services). Because these individuals tend to be quota driven, a sales/service team often does not have a lot of available time away from the field; potentially resulting in lost revenue. Understanding knowledge transfer is necessary for people working as customer service representatives and managers, engineering technicians, and presales account managers.

    Network Sales and Services Handbook provides sales and support professionals the fundamental technical knowledge necessary to understand customer needs. Designed as a complete reference guide, Network Sales and Services Handbook details networking basics, including foundational concepts and discussions of the many different LAN and WAN technologies and their functionality. Also included are fundamental discussions on quality of service (QoS), voice networks, and fiber optics, as well as a brief summary of the common routing protocols used in an internetwork.

    If you are a non-engineer associated with an engineering environment, Network Sales and Services Handbook is an essential part of your resource library.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedications
    2. About the Authors
      1. About the Technical Reviewers
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. Introduction
      1. Goals and Methods
      2. Who Should Read This Book?
      3. How This Book Is Organized
      4. The Twelve Networking Truths
        1. The Twelve Networking Truths
          1. Status of this Memo
          2. Abstract
          3. Acknowledgements
          4. Introduction
          5. The Fundamental Truths
      5. Command Syntax Conventions
    5. 1. Internetworking Basics
      1. OSI Reference Model
      2. Information Formats
        1. Data Units/Datagrams
        2. Frames
        3. Packets
        4. Segments
        5. Cells
      3. Network Hierarchy
      4. Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Network Services
      5. Network Addressing
        1. Data-Link Layer Addresses
        2. MAC Addresses
        3. Network Layer Addresses
          1. Hierarchical Versus Flat Address Space
          2. Network Address Assignments
          3. Network Addresses Versus Names
      6. Flow Control
      7. Error-Checking
        1. CRC
        2. Parity Checking
      8. Standards Organizations
      9. Summary
    6. 2. OSI Reference Model
      1. OSI Layer Characteristics
        1. Layer-1: Physical Layer
        2. Layer-2: Data-Link Layer
        3. Layer-3: Network Layer
        4. Layer-4: Transport Layer
        5. Layer-5: Session Layer
        6. Layer-6: Presentation Layer
        7. Layer-7: Application Layer
      2. Host Communication
      3. Data Encapsulation
      4. Summary
      5. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
    7. 3. TCP/IP Introduction
      1. TCP/IP Model
      2. TCP/IP Operation
      3. TCP/IP Addressing
        1. Class A Addresses (/8 Prefix)
        2. Class B Addresses (/16 Prefix)
        3. Class C Addresses (/24 Prefix)
        4. Class D and Class E Addresses
      4. TCP Ports and Sockets
      5. UDP and ICMP
      6. Routing
      7. Summary
      8. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
      9. Case Study
    8. 4. Customer Premise Equipment (CPE)
      1. Servers and Workstations
        1. Servers
          1. Server Platforms
        2. Clients and Workstations
      2. Communication Equipment
        1. Multiplexers
        2. CSU/DSU
        3. DTE/DCE Interfaces
          1. RS-232C
          2. RS-422/449
          3. V.35
          4. V.90
          5. HSSI
          6. HIPPI/HPPI
      3. LAN CPE
        1. Hubs
        2. Bridges
        3. Routers
        4. LAN Switches
      4. Analog Equipment
      5. Summary
      6. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
    9. 5. Local Area Networks (LANs)
      1. LAN Topologies
        1. Star (Hub-and-Spoke)
        2. Bus
        3. Ring
        4. Tree
      2. Ethernet
        1. Fast Ethernet
        2. Gigabit Ethernet
        3. 10 Gigabit Ethernet
      3. Token Ring
      4. FDDI
        1. Dual Homing
        2. Primary and Secondary Rings
      5. LAN Transmission
        1. Unicast
        2. Multicast
        3. Broadcast
      6. LAN Hardware
        1. Hubs
        2. Bridges
          1. Spanning-Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1d)
        3. Switches
          1. Switch Operations
          2. Switching Types
        4. Routers
      7. Summary
      8. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
      9. Case Study
    10. 6. Local Access
      1. Dedicated Local Access Configuration
        1. Customer Premise Configuration
        2. Punch-Down Blocks (66-blocks)
      2. Switched Local Access Configuration
      3. LEC CO Configuration
      4. Summary
      5. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
      6. Case Study
    11. 7. DSL and Cable Modem Networks
      1. Digital Subscriber Line
        1. ADSL
          1. ADSL Architecture
          2. ADSL Data Rates
          3. ADSL Standards and Associations
        2. Other xDSL Technologies
      2. Cable Access Technologies
        1. Cable Access Architecture
        2. DOCSIS Standards, Signaling Protocols, and Applications
      3. Summary
      4. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
      5. Case Study
    12. 8. WAN Basics
      1. WAN Switching
        1. Circuit-Switched WANs
        2. Packet-Switched WANs
        3. Cell-Switched WANs
      2. Network Interfaces
        1. UNI
        2. NNI
      3. WAN Architecture
      4. Summary
      5. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
      6. Case Study
    13. 9. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Introduction
      1. ATM WANs
      2. ATM WAN Interfaces
      3. ATM Connections
      4. VPs
      5. Cell Transmission
      6. ATM Traffic Contract Parameters
      7. ATM Service Classes
        1. CBR
        2. VBRrt
        3. Variable Bit Rate (Non-Real-Time) (VBRnrt)
        4. Available Bit Rate
        5. Unspecified Bit Rate
      8. QoS Parameters
      9. ATM WAN Architecture
        1. CAC
        2. UPC
      10. ATM Traffic Contract and Negotiation
      11. Summary
      12. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
      13. Case Study
    14. 10. Frame Relay Introduction
      1. Frame Relay Components
        1. Frame Relay Router/FRAD
        2. Local Access Loop
        3. Frame Relay Virtual Circuits
          1. DLCIs
        4. PVCs
        5. Switched Virtual Circuits
          1. Frame Relay Virtual Circuit Parameters
          2. Frame Relay Committed Information Rate
          3. Frame Relay Discard Eligibility
          4. PVC DLCIs
          5. SVC X.121/E.164 Addressing
      2. Frame Relay Error Handling
      3. Frame Relay LMI
      4. Summary
      5. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
      6. Case Study
    15. 11. Understanding Routers and Routing
      1. Routing Components
        1. Path Determination
      2. Routing Algorithms
        1. Design Goals
        2. Algorithm Types
          1. Static Versus Dynamic
          2. Single-Path Versus Multipath
          3. Flat Versus Hierarchical
          4. Host-Intelligent Versus Router-Intelligent
          5. Intradomain Versus Interdomain
          6. Link-State versus Distance Vector
        3. Routing Metrics
      3. Network Protocols
      4. Summary
      5. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
      6. Case Study
    16. 12. Virtual LAN (VLAN) Introduction
      1. VLAN Memberships
      2. VLAN/WAN Integration
      3. Summary
      4. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
      5. Case Study
    17. 13. Quality of Service Introduction
      1. ATM
      2. Frame Relay
      3. IP
      4. MPLS and MPLS-TE
      5. DiffServ
      6. Summary
      7. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
      8. Case Study
    18. 14. Network Architecture Introduction
      1. Network Devices
      2. Hierarchical Network Model
        1. Core Layer
        2. Distribution Layer
        3. Access Layer
      3. WAN Oversubscription
      4. Summary
      5. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
      6. Case Study
    19. 15. Network Security Basics
      1. Network Threats
        1. Denial-of-Service (DoS)
        2. Unauthorized Access
        3. Illicit Command Execution
        4. Confidentiality Breaches
        5. Destructive Behavior
      2. Network Attack Methods
      3. Proxy Servers and DMZ
      4. Firewalls
      5. Intrusion Detection and Monitoring
        1. Intrusion Detection System Methodologies
        2. IDS Implementation
          1. Host-Based Intrusion Detection
          2. Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS)
        3. Signatures
      6. Network Security Architecture
      7. Summary
      8. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
      9. Case Study
    20. 16. Remote Access Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
      1. VPNs
      2. VPN Basics
      3. Authentication
        1. PPTP-PAP/CHAP
        2. Digital Certificates
        3. Smart Cards and Hardware Tokens/PKCS #11
        4. RADIUS servers
        5. TACACS+
      4. Tunneling Protocols
        1. PPTP
        2. L2F
        3. L2TP
      5. Encryption
      6. PGP
      7. PKI
      8. MD5
      9. IPSec
      10. IKE
      11. LAN-to-LAN VPN
      12. VPN Architecture
        1. Firewall-Based VPNs
        2. Black-Box-Based VPNs
        3. Router-Based VPNs
      13. Summary
      14. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
      15. Case Study
    21. 17. Voice Networks
      1. Voice Network Access
        1. Switched Access
        2. Dedicated Access
      2. ANI
        1. Area Code (NPA)
          1. 456 NXX
          2. 900/976 Nxx
          3. 500 Nxx
          4. 8xx (800/888/877/866/855) Toll-Free Numbers
        2. Exchange CO Code (NXX)
        3. Station Subscriber Number(XXXX)
      3. Lines and Trunks
        1. Direct Inward Dialing
        2. Direct Outward Dialing
        3. Tie Lines
      4. Summary
      5. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
      6. Case Study
    22. 18. Network Management Basics
      1. FCAPS Model
      2. Network Management Architecture
      3. Network Management Protocols
      4. An Introduction to TMN
      5. Summary
      6. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
      7. Case Study
    23. 19. High Availability Networking
      1. Measuring Network Availability
      2. Internetwork Reliability Options
        1. Redundant WAN Links
        2. Meshed Network Topologies
        3. Redundant Power Systems
        4. Fault-Tolerant Media
        5. Hardware Backup
      3. Summary
      4. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
      5. Case Study
    24. 20. The Internet
      1. WWW
        1. DNS
        2. Internet and WWW Applications
        3. E-mail
        4. Telnet
        5. FTP
        6. Usenet News and E-Mail Discussion Groups
        7. Chat and Instant Messaging
      2. URL
      3. Internet Programming Languages
      4. Peering
        1. Peering Points
      5. Summary
      6. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
    25. 21. MPLS Introduction
      1. MPLS Terminology
      2. MPLS Operation
      3. MPLS MPLS-VPNs
      4. MPLS CE Routing
      5. Summary
      6. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
      7. Case Study
    26. 22. Introduction to Fiber Optics
      1. Optic Bands and Transmission Windows
        1. MMF
        2. SMF
      2. SONET
        1. SONET Operation
          1. STS
          2. SONET Path Elements
          3. SONET Layers
      3. DWDM
        1. DWDM Technology
        2. DWDM Capacity
      4. Summary
      5. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
      6. Case Study
    27. A. PIC Codes
    28. B. RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
      1. RIP Routing Table
      2. RIP Routing Convergence
        1. Count to Infinity (∞)
        2. Split Horizon
        3. RIP Split Horizon with Poison Reverse
        4. RIP Triggered Updates
        5. RIP Hold-Down Timers
      3. RIP Limitations
        1. Hop Count Limitations
        2. Fixed Metrics
        3. Network Bandwidth Consumption for Routing Table Updates
        4. Slow Convergence
        5. Dynamic Load Balancing
      4. Summary
    29. C. RIP Version 2 (RIPv2)
      1. RIPv2 Authentication
      2. RIPv2 Subnet Mask Support
      3. RIPv2 Next Hop Identification
      4. RIPv2 Multicasting
      5. RIPv2 Concerns
        1. RIPv2 Maximum Hop Count (15)
        2. RIPv2 Count to Infinity (∞)
        3. RIPv2 (Static) Fixed Metrics for Route Calculation
        4. RIPv2 Lack of Alternative Routing Support
      6. Summary
    30. D. Border Gateway Protocol, Version 4 (BGP4)
      1. BGP Multihoming
      2. Interior (IBGP) Versus Exterior (EBGP)
      3. Common BGP Implementation
      4. BGP Attributes
        1. AS-Path Attribute
        2. Origin Attribute
        3. Next Hop Attribute
        4. Weight Attribute
        5. Multi-Exit Discriminator (MED) Attribute
        6. Local Preference Attribute
        7. Atomic Aggregate Attribute
        8. Aggregator Attribute
        9. Additional Attributes
      5. BGP Route Selection
      6. BGP Peering
      7. BGP Route Reflectors
      8. BGP Confederations
      9. BGP Administrative Distances
      10. BGP Timers
      11. Summary
    31. E. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
      1. IGRP Metrics
        1. IGRP Hop Count
        2. IGRP Packet Size (MTU)
        3. IGRP Link Bandwidth
        4. IGRP Delay
        5. IGRP Load
        6. IGRP Reliability
      2. Metric Calculation
      3. IGRP Timers
      4. IGRP Convergence Mechanisms
        1. IGRP Flash Update
        2. IGRP Hold-Downs
        3. IGRP Split Horizon
        4. IGRP Poison Reverse
      5. IGRP Load Balancing
        1. IGRP Equal-Cost Load Balancing
        2. IGRP Unequal-Cost Load Balancing
        3. IGRP Feasibility and Feasible Successors
      6. Summary
    32. F. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
      1. OSPF Areas
        1. OSPF Area Router Types
        2. OSPF Routing Types
        3. OSPF Area Types
        4. OSPF Packets
      2. OSPF Convergence
        1. OSPF Adjacencies
      3. OSPF Route Summarization
      4. OSPF Authentication
      5. Summary
    33. G. EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)
      1. Neighbor Discovery and Recovery
      2. Reliable Transport Protocol
      3. DUAL Finite-State Machine
      4. Protocol-Specific Modules
      5. EIGRP Tables
      6. EIGRP Packet Types
      7. EIGRP Convergence
      8. Summary