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Network Programming for Microsoft® Windows®, Second Edition by Jim Ohlund, Anthony Jones

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IPv4

IPv4 was developed by the U.S. Department of Defense’s Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA), which built an experimental packet switching network in the 1960s. The initial network protocols were cumbersome, which led to the development of a better protocol in the mid 1970s. This research eventually led to IPv4 as well as TCP.

Addressing

In IPv4, computers are assigned an address that is represented as a 32-bit number, formally known as an IPv4 address. IPv4 addresses are typically represented in a dotted decimal format in which each octet (8 bits) of the address is converted to a decimal number and separated by a period (“dots”).

IPv4 addresses are divided into classes that describe the portion of the address assigned to the network ...

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