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Network Performance Baselining

Book Description

Network Performance Baselining focuses on the real world implementation of network baselining principles and shows how to measure and rate a network's performance. It includes chapters that give a real "How To" approach for standard baseline methodologies along with actual steps and processes to perform network baseline measurements. It explains the proper way to document and build a baseline report. Incuded is an extensive chapter on case studies of actual Network Baselines that Mr. Nassar and LAN Scope has preformed and a "To the Point" brief review on techniques of baselining all major LAN and WAN topologies such as Ethernet, Token Ring, ATM, Frame Relay, WANs, FDDI. Also, a "Technique Reference" will be provided on the baseline and evaluation of all major network protocols such as Windows NT, Netware, TCP/IP, DecNet, Banyan, SNA and standard IBM suite protocols.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
    1. Dedication
  2. About the Author
  3. About the Technical Reviewers
  4. Acknowledgments
  5. Tell Us What You Think
  6. 1. What Is Baselining
    1. 1.1. Understanding When to Perform a Network Optimization Project
    2. 1.2. New Network Implementation and Modification Analysis
    3. 1.3. Reactive Problem Analysis and Extraction
    4. 1.4. Proactive Internetwork Analysis
    5. 1.5. Application Impact Analysis
  7. 2. Baselining Goals
    1. 2.1. Ensuring Network Stability
    2. 2.2. Ensuring Network Reliability
    3. 2.3. Achieving Maximum Performance
    4. 2.4. Ensuring Application Efficiency
    5. 2.5. Maximizing Technologies
    6. 2.6. Sizing a Network Communication Channel
    7. 2.7. Network Interoperability
  8. 3. Network Baselining Tools
    1. 3.1. Network Baselining Tool Usage Methodology
      1. 3.1.1. Data Protocol Analysis Methodology
      2. 3.1.2. Performance Tuning Methodology
      3. 3.1.3. Protocol Analyzer Operational Methods
      4. 3.1.4. Main Functional Modes of a Standard Protocol Analyzer
    2. 3.2. Network Protocol Analyzer and Monitoring Tool Reviews
      1. 3.2.1. Network Associates Sniffer Analyzers
      2. 3.2.2. Shomiti Systems Inc. Analysis Tools
      3. 3.2.3. Wavetek Wandel and Goltermann's Domino Analyzers
      4. 3.2.4. Novell LANalyzer for Windows
      5. 3.2.5. Hewlett-Packard Network Advisor
      6. 3.2.6. Optimal Software Application Expert and Application Preview
      7. 3.2.7. Compuware's EcoSCOPE
      8. 3.2.8. Ganymede Software's Chariot and Pegasus Monitoring Tools
      9. 3.2.9. Antara Testing Products
      10. 3.2.10. Fluke LANMeter
    3. 3.3. Closing Statement on Network Analysis Tools
  9. 4. Quantitative Measurements in Network Baselining
    1. 4.1. Utilization Analysis
      1. 4.1.1. Average Utilization
      2. 4.1.2. Peak Utilization
      3. 4.1.3. Historical Utilization
      4. 4.1.4. Station Statistical Review and Node-by-Node Analysis
      5. 4.1.5. Protocol Level and Type Analysis
      6. 4.1.6. Statistical Error Review
      7. 4.1.7. Physical Frame Layer Process and Statistical Review
      8. 4.1.8. Summary
    2. 4.2. ULP Data Unit Measurements
      1. 4.2.1. Block and Packet-Size Examination
      2. 4.2.2. Network Transfer Fluency Review
      3. 4.2.3. Network Packet Compatibility
      4. 4.2.4. Summary
    3. 4.3. Network Performance Reviews
      1. 4.3.1. Network Response Time Analysis
      2. 4.3.2. Throughput and Transaction Measurements
      3. 4.3.3. Summary
    4. 4.4. Analyzing an Internetwork for Reliability
      1. 4.4.1. Network Connection Analysis
      2. 4.4.2. Logon Sequence Analysis
      3. 4.4.3. Network Keepalive Connection Analysis
      4. 4.4.4. File Search and File Access Sequencing and Analysis
      5. 4.4.5. Internetwork Addressing Analysis
      6. 4.4.6. Routing Protocol Updates
      7. 4.4.7. Unique Packet Identification Problem Analysis
      8. 4.4.8. Summary
    5. 4.5. Application Characterization Tuning and Modeling
      1. 4.5.1. Application Deployment Analysis Considerations
      2. 4.5.2. Blueprinting or Characterizing an Application Sequence Model
      3. 4.5.3. Reviewing an Application Against the LAN and WAN
      4. 4.5.4. Final Application Impact Analysis and Modeling
      5. 4.5.5. Summary
    6. Case Study 1: Utilization and Capacity Analysis
    7. Case Study 2: Throughput Analysis Issue
    8. Case Study 3: Response Time Baseline Analysis
    9. Case Study 4: Packet Size Analysis
    10. Case Study 5: Application Characterization and Modeling Analysis
  10. 5. Network Analysis and Optimization Techniques
    1. 5.1. Physical Health Analysis
      1. 5.1.1. Using a Protocol Analyzer for Error-Report Gathering
    2. 5.2. Broadcast Storm Analysis
      1. 5.2.1. Using a Protocol Analyzer for a Broadcast Storm
    3. 5.3. Network Capacity Overload Analysis
    4. 5.4. Network Throughput Analysis
    5. 5.5. Network End-to End Interpacket Timing Analysis
    6. 5.6. Transport and File Retransmission Analysis
      1. 5.6.1. Application-Based File Retransmission
    7. 5.7. Path and Route Analysis
    8. 5.8. End-to-End File Transfer Analysis
    9. 5.9. Trace Decoding Techniques
      1. 5.9.1. Address Marking
      2. 5.9.2. File Access and Name Marking
      3. 5.9.3. Time Frame Marking
      4. 5.9.4. Frame Structures for Field Length Marking
      5. 5.9.4. Routing Information Marking
      6. 5.9.4. Specific Protocol Marking
    10. 5.10. Conclusion
  11. 6. Documenting the Network for Baselining
    1. 6.1. Using the Network Baseline Results to Document the Network
      1. 6.1.1. Understanding Network Layout Documents
      2. 6.1.2. Building Blueprint Documentation
    2. 6.2. Network File Server and Station Documentation
    3. 6.3. Network Maintenance and Service Logs
    4. 6.4. Examining Topology-Specific Documentation
    5. 6.5. Closing Statement on Network Documentation
    6. 6.6. Moving Forward
  12. 7. LAN and WAN Protocols
    1. 7.1. Analysis of the Novell Protocol Suite
      1. 7.1.1. IPX
      2. 7.1.2. SPX
      3. 7.1.3. Network Core Protocol
      4. 7.1.4. Other Key Layers in the Novell Protocol Suite
        1. 7.1.4.1. NetWare Core Protocol Packet Burst Mode
        2. 7.1.4.2. Novell Routing Information Protocol
        3. 7.1.4.3. Novell Service Advertising Protocol
        4. 7.1.4.4. NetWare Link State Protocol
      5. 7.1.5. Tips on Analyzing the Novell Protocol Suite
        1. 7.1.5.1. IPX Analysis Techniques
        2. 7.1.5.2. SPX Analysis Techniques
      6. 7.1.6. NCP Analysis Techniques
      7. 7.1.7. SAP Analysis Techniques
      8. 7.1.8. Novell RIP and NLSP Analysis Techniques
      9. 7.1.9. Novell Communication Process Analysis Techniques
        1. 7.1.9.1. Novell Delay Packet or Busy Packet Communication
        2. 7.1.9.2. NetWare File Access Failure Packet Analysis
      10. 7.1.10. NetWare Bindery Error Analysis
      11. 7.1.11. Novell NetWare Login and Authentication Analysis
        1. 7.1.11.1. Standard NCP Login Process Analysis
        2. 7.1.11.2. NetWare Directory Service Analysis
      12. 7.1.12. Closing Statement on NetWare Analysis
    2. 7.2. TCP/IP Analysis
      1. 7.2.1. TCP/IP Layer Configuration Fields
        1. 7.2.1.1. ARP
        2. 7.2.1.2. Internet Addressing
          1. 7.2.1.2.1. Class A IP Network Address
          2. 7.2.1.2.2. Class B IP Network Address
          3. 7.2.1.2.3. Class C Network Address
          4. 7.2.1.2.4. Class D Network Address
          5. 7.2.1.2.5. Class E Network Address
      2. 7.2.2. IP
      3. 7.2.3. UDP
      4. 7.2.4. TCP
      5. 7.2.5. ICMP
      6. 7.2.6. Other Key TCP/IP Application-Based Protocols
    3. 7.3. TCP/IP Protocol Suite Analysis
      1. 7.3.1. IP Analysis
      2. 7.3.2. Host or Transport Layer Analysis
        1. 7.3.2.1. Host Layer (UDP) Analysis
        2. 7.3.2.2. Host Layer TCP/IP Analysis
      3. 7.3.3. ICMP Analysis
        1. 7.3.3.1. ICMP Ping or Echo Request Reply Sequences
        2. 7.3.3.2. ICMP Fragmentation Required Message
        3. 7.3.3.3. Incorrect IP Address Mask Error
        4. 7.3.3.4. ICMP Redirect Message
        5. 7.3.3.5. ICMP TTL Expired
        6. 7.3.3.6. ICMP Destination Unreachable
      4. 7.3.4. Closing Statement On TCP/IP Analysis
    4. 7.4. IBM SNA And NetBIOS Protocol Suite Analysis
      1. 7.4.1. SNA Protocol
      2. 7.4.2. SNA Protocol Suite Interactive Layers Analysis
        1. 7.4.2.1. SNA Physical Layer and Data Link Layer Processes
        2. 7.4.2.2. SNA Path Control Layer
        3. 7.4.2.3. SNA Transmission Control Layer
        4. 7.4.2.4. SNA Dataflow Control Layer
        5. 7.4.2.5. SNA Presentation Services and Transaction Services Layers
      3. 7.4.3. SNA Dataflow Processes
      4. 7.4.4. The NetBIOS Protocol
    5. 7.5. SNA Protocol Communications Analysis
    6. 7.6. Windows NT Protocol Suite Analysis
      1. 7.6.1. Windows NT Protocol Operations
      2. 7.6.2. Windows NT Protocol Suite Configuration
    7. 7.7. SMB Protocol Decoding
      1. 7.7.1. SMB Control Commands
      2. 7.7.2. SMB File Access Commands
      3. 7.7.3. SMB Printing Commands
      4. 7.7.4. SMB Message Commands
    8. 7.8. Windows NT Analysis
    9. 7.9. DEC Protocol Suite Analysis
      1. 7.9.1. DECnet Protocol Layers
    10. 7.10. AppleTalk Analysis
      1. 7.10.1. AppleTalk Protocol Types
      2. 7.10.2. AppleTalk Protocol Suite Analysis
    11. 7.11. Banyan Protocol Suite Analysis
      1. 7.11.1. VINES Protocol Types
      2. 7.11.2. Banyan Protocol Suite Analysis
    12. 7.12. Routing Technology Protocol Analysis
      1. 7.12.1. RIP
      2. 7.12.1. Routing Protocol Types
        1. 7.12.1.1. IGP and EGP
        2. 7.12.1.2. RIP
        3. 7.12.1.3. OSPF
        4. 7.12.1.4. OSI ES-to-IS and IS-to-IS Routing Protocols
        5. 7.12.1.5. Cisco's EIGRP
    13. 7.13. Closing Statement on ULP Analysis
    14. Case Study 6: TCP/IP Baseline Analysis
    15. Case Study 7: NetWare Baseline Analysis
    16. Case Study 8: Windows NT Analysis
    17. Case Study 9: Routing Baseline Analysis
  13. 8. Ethernet
    1. 8.1. Understanding Ethernet Architecture Design and Layout
      1. 8.1.1. Ethernet 10BASE-5: Thicknet
      2. 8.1.2. Ethernet 10BASE-2: Thinnet
      3. 8.1.3. Ethernet 10BASE-T: Twisted Pair
      4. 8.1.4. Ethernet 10BASE-F: Fiber Optic
      5. 8.1.5. Closing Statement on 10Mbps Ethernet Topology Architecture
    2. 8.2. Ethernet Access Methods
      1. 8.2.1. Transmission Process for Ethernet Node Access
      2. 8.2.2. Receiving Process for Ethernet Node Access
    3. 8.3. Frame Addressing
    4. 8.4. Physical Transmission Signal Code Processes
    5. 8.5. Higher-Layer Management
    6. 8.6. Ethernet Frame Types
      1. 8.6.1. Ethernet II Frame Type
      2. 8.6.2. Ethernet 802.3 Raw Frame Type
      3. 8.6.3. Ethernet 802.3 Frame Type with 802.2 LLC Internal
      4. 8.6.4. Ethernet 802.3 SNAP Frame Type
      5. 8.6.5. Closing Statement on Frame Type Analysis
    7. 8.7. Fast and Ethernet Switching Architecture
      1. 8.7.1. Fast Ethernet Technology
      2. 8.7.2. Half- and Full-Duplex Operations
      3. 8.7.3. Shared Ethernet and Repeater Architecture Technology
      4. 8.7.4. Ethernet Switching
      5. 8.7.5. 1000Mbps Gigabit Ethernet Technology
    8. 8.8. Examining Protocol Analysis and Troubleshooting Techniques for Ethernet
      1. 8.8.1. Ethernet Physical Analysis
      2. 8.8.2. Local Collisions
      3. 8.8.3. Remote Collision
      4. 8.8.4. Late Collisions
      5. 8.8.5. Cyclical Redundancy Check and Alignment Errors
      6. 8.8.6. Long and Short Packets
      7. 8.8.7. Jabber
      8. 8.8.8. Summary Statement on Physical Ethernet Analysis
      9. 8.8.9. Closing Statement on Analyzing Standard Ethernet
    9. 8.9. Fast Ethernet and Switching Review Analysis
      1. 8.9.1. Ethernet Product Specifications as Related to Site Cabling Structure
      2. 8.9.2. Utilizing Ethernet Management Systems as Combined with a Protocol Analyzer
      3. 8.9.3. Ethernet Collision Domain Analysis Techniques
      4. 8.9.4. Ethernet Port Mirroring Analysis Techniques
      5. 8.9.5. Ethernet Switch Configuration as Related to Network Baselining
      6. 8.9.6. Ethernet Switch Uplink Analysis as Related to Network Baselining
      7. 8.9.7. Ethernet Switch Latency and Operation as Related to Network Baselining
      8. 8.9.8. Protocol Analyzer Positioning in Ethernet Networks as Related to Network Baselining
    10. 8.10. Closing Statement on Ethernet Analysis Techniques
    11. Case Study 10: Standard and Fast Ethernet Network Baseline Analysis
    12. Case Study 11: Ethernet Switching Analysis Problem
  14. 9. Token Ring and Switched Environments
    1. 9.1. Token Ring Design and Layout
    2. 9.2. Understanding Token Ring Network Operation
      1. 9.2.1. Token Passing Theory
      2. 9.2.2. Dataflow Direction and NAUN Process
      3. 9.2.3. Token Ring Address Schemes
        1. 9.2.3.1. Individual Addressing
        2. 9.2.3.2. Group Addressing
        3. 9.2.3.3. Functional Addressing
      4. 9.2.4. Token Ring Signaling Methods
      5. 9.2.5. Token Ring 4Mbps Technology Versus 16Mbps Technology
      6. 9.2.6. Token Ring DTR and Switching
      7. 9.2.7. Main Token Ring Frame-Type Structures
      8. 9.2.8. Devices That Can Manage the Physical Ring
    3. 9.3. Understanding Token Ring Physical Communications
      1. 9.3.1. Ring Insertion
      2. 9.3.2. Token Ring Claiming or Active Monitor Contention
      3. 9.3.3. Priority Access
      4. 9.3.4. Neighbor Notification
      5. 9.3.5. Ring Purge Process
      6. 9.3.6. Soft Error Counting and Fault Redundancy Operation
      7. 9.3.7. Beaconing
      8. 9.3.8. Token Ring Timers
      9. 9.3.9. Token Ring Frame Structure
        1. 9.3.9.1. The Token Frame
        2. 9.3.9.2. The Data Frame
        3. 9.3.9.3. The Abort Sequence Frame
      10. 9.3.10. Description of 25 MAC Frames
    4. 9.4. Troubleshooting Token Ring Physical Faults and Errors
      1. 9.4.1. Analysis and Troubleshooting of Token Ring Fault Areas
      2. 9.4.2. Analyzing Token Ring Error Reporting and Decoding
        1. 9.4.2.1. Soft Reporting Error MAC Frame Analysis
        2. 9.4.2.2. Technical Notes on Hard Beacon MAC Frame Analysis
    5. 9.5. Network Baselining in a Token Ring Environment
      1. 9.5.1. Step 1: Token Ring Workload Characterization Baselining Methodology
      2. 9.5.2. Step 2: Token Ring Workload Characterization Baselining Methodology
      3. 9.5.3. Step 3: Token Ring Workload Characterization Baselining Methodology
      4. 9.5.4. Step 4: Token Ring Workload Characterization Baselining Methodology
      5. 9.5.5. Step 5: Token Ring Workload Characterization Baselining Methodology
    6. 9.6. Closing Statement on Baselining Token Ring Environments
    7. Case Study 12: Token Ring Analysis Problem
  15. 10. Fiber Data Distributed Interface
    1. 10.1. FDDI Network Architecture and Topology Specifications
      1. 10.1.1. FDDI Architecture-Specific Technical Notes
      2. 10.1.2. Final Summary Technical Notes on FDDI Architecture Specifications
    2. 10.2. FDDI Ring State Technical Process
      1. 10.2.1. FDDI Single Ring with Trees
      2. 10.2.2. FDDI Dual Ring with Trees
      3. 10.2.3. FDDI Dual Ring Without Trees
      4. 10.2.4. FDDI Dual Homing Ring Configuration as Related to Station Interconnection
      5. 10.2.5. FDDI Wrapped Ring Configuration Port
    3. 10.3. FDDI Physical Operation Technical Descriptions
      1. 10.3.1. Physical Media Dependent Layer
      2. 10.3.2. FDDI Physical Layer
      3. 10.3.3. FDDI Medium Access Control Layer
      4. 10.3.4. FDDI Station Management Layer
    4. 10.4. FDDI MAC Network Access Methods
      1. 10.4.1. Types of FDDI Access
      2. 10.4.2. FDDI MAC Timed Token Passing Access and Data Transmission Operations
    5. 10.5. FDDI MAC Frame Format
    6. 10.6. FDDI Station Management Layer
      1. 10.6.1. Station Management Layer Processes
        1. 10.6.1.1. SMT Neighbor Notification Protocol Operations
        2. 10.6.1.2. SMT Status Reporting Protocol Operations
        3. 10.6.1.3. SMT Parameter Management Protocol Operations
        4. 10.6.1.4. SMT Echo Process
        5. 10.6.1.5. SMT Resource Allocation Process
        6. 10.6.1.6. SMT Extended Services Process
        7. 10.6.1.7. SMT Request Denied Process
        8. 10.6.1.8. SMT Status Information Process
      2. 10.6.2. FDDI Station Management Layer Frame Format
    7. 10.7. Methods for Analyzing and Troubleshooting FDDI Networks
      1. 10.7.1. FDDI Bandwidth Utilization
      2. 10.7.2. FDDI Node-to-Node by Utilization
      3. 10.7.3. FDDI Protocol Percentage Measurements
      4. 10.7.4. FDDI Physical Layer Detailed Analysis
    8. 10.8. Closing Statement
    9. Case Study 13: FDDI Timing Analysis
  16. 11. Baselining and Analyzing ATM
    1. 11.1. Introduction to ATM
    2. 11.2. ATM Connection Schemes and ATM Cell Design
      1. 11.2.1. ATM UNI and NNI Connection Schemes
    3. 11.3. ATM Operational Function Layers
      1. 11.3.1. ATM PHY Layer Technical Operations
      2. 11.3.2. ATM Layer Technical Operations
      3. 11.3.3. AAL Technical Operations
    4. 11.4. ATM Connection Assignment Sequencing
    5. 11.5. ATM Addressing Assignment and Convergence Operations
    6. 11.6. Analyzing ATM-Based Networks
      1. 11.6.1. Analyzing ATM Link Utilization
      2. 11.6.2. Analyzing ATM Endpoint-to-Endpoint Utilization
      3. 11.6.3. Analyzing ATM Protocol Percentages
      4. 11.6.4. Measuring ATM Physical Layer Error Levels
      5. 11.6.5. Analyzing the ATM Layer
      6. 11.6.6. Analyzing the ATM AAL
      7. 11.6.7. ATM Protocol Analyzer Positioning Within an ATM Network
    7. Case Study 14: ATM Performance Analysis
  17. 12. WAN Topologies
    1. 12.1. Dedicated Circuit and T1 Architecture Technical Overview
    2. 12.2. Troubleshooting and Analyzing T1 Circuits
    3. 12.3. ISDN Network Architecture Overview
      1. 12.3.1. ISDN Basic Rate (B) Channel Design
      2. 12.3.2. ISDN Primary Rate Design
      3. 12.3.3. ISDN Frame Structure for Physical Operations (Layer 1)
      4. 12.3.4. ISDN Data Link Operations (Layer 2)
      5. 12.3.5. ISDN Network Layer Operations (Layer 3)
    4. 12.4. Troubleshooting and Analyzing ISDN Circuits
    5. 12.5. Frame Relay Architecture Overview
      1. 12.5.1. Frame Relay Frame Fields and Format
      2. 12.5.2. Local Management Interface and Consolidated Link Layer Management
      3. 12.5.3. Frame Relay Process and Circuit Operations
      4. 12.5.4. Frame Committed and Burst Information Rates
    6. 12.6. Analyzing and Troubleshooting Frame Relay WANS
    7. 12.7. Synchronous Optical Network Architecture Overview
    8. 12.8. Closing Notes on WAN Network Baselining
    9. Case Study 15: WAN T1 Circuit Analysis
    10. Case Study 16: WAN Frame Relay Analysis
  18. 13. Network Baseline Planning, Data Acquisition, and Final Reporting
    1. 13.1. The Project Plan Is Everything
    2. 13.2. Developing a Network Baseline Project Plan
    3. 13.3. Network Data Acquisition Process
    4. 13.4. Final Report Building for a Network Baseline Study
      1. 13.4.1. Problem Issue Identification and Extraction
      2. 13.4.2. Technical Synopsis Development
      3. 13.4.3. Recommendation Threading
      4. 13.4.4. Quantitative Baseline Data Measurement Support Attachments
    5. 13.5. Closing Statement
  19. A. Network Analysis Tool Vendor Contact Information
  20. B. Reference Material