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Network Management, MIBs and MPLS: Principles, Design and Implementation

Book Description

Network Management, MIBs and MPLS: Principles, Design and Implementation is the definitive guide to managing and troubleshooting enterprise and service provider networks. This in-depth tutorial from networking expert Stephen Morris delivers clear and concise instruction on networking with MIBs, SNMP, MPLS, and much more. Coverage includes SNMPv3, network management software components, IP routing, HP Openview Network Node Manager, NMS software components, among other key techniques and tools for managing large network systems.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
    1. Dedication
  2. Acronyms
  3. Foreword
  4. Preface
    1. Intended Audience
    2. Purpose of This Book
    3. Using This Book
    4. Linked Overviews
    5. Source Code Location
    6. The Four Ms
    7. Outline of the Book
    8. A Note About Abbreviations
    9. Additional Resources
    10. Acknowledgments
  5. 1. Large Enterprise Networks
    1. Managing Enterprise Networks
      1. Manageability
      2. Operating and Managing Large Networks
      3. Layers 2, 3, and 2.5
        1. Layer 2 and VLANs
        2. Layer 3
        3. Layer 2.5 (or Sub-IP)
      4. Ports and Interfaces
    2. Why Use Network Management?
      1. What Is Network Management?
        1. Who Produces Network Management Software?
        2. The Management System Pyramid
        3. Other Management Technologies
        4. Network Convergence and Aggregate Objects
        5. NMS Discovery
        6. The Goal of an NMS
        7. Notifications
    3. SNMP: The De Facto Network Management Standard
      1. The SNMP Agent
      2. The SNMP Manager
      3. The MIB
        1. MIB Object Attributes
        2. OIDs and Lexicographic Ordering
      4. SNMP Protocol Data Units (PDU)
    4. Summary
  6. 2. SNMPv3 and Network Management
    1. SNMPv3 Structure
      1. SNMPv3 Engine
    2. SNMPv3 Applications
    3. SNMPv3 Message Formats
      1. MessageVersion
      2. MessageID
      3. MaxMessageSize
      4. MessageFlags
      5. MessageSecurity
      6. Security Model Data: General
      7. Security Model Data: Authentication Protocol
      8. Security Model Data: Privacy Protocol
      9. Context
      10. PDU
      11. SNMPv3 Security and View-Based Access Control
      12. SNMPv3 Message Exchanges
      13. SNMPv3 GetRequest
      14. SNMPv3 Get-NextRequest
      15. SNMPv3 GetBulkRequest
      16. SNMPv3 SetRequest
      17. SNMPv3 Notifications
      18. Access Rights
      19. Message Size
      20. SNMPv3 Security
        1. Problems with SNMP
        2. The Different Versions of SNMP
        3. SNMP Applications: MIB Browsers
      21. A Closer Look at a MIB
      22. Managed Objects
      23. There Is only One MIB
      24. Analogy for an NMS
    4. Network Elements
    5. Introducing MPLS: First Chunk
    6. The Trend Towards IP
    7. MPLS Concepts
      1. Definition of an LSP
    8. Summary
  7. 3. The Network Management Problem
    1. Bringing the Managed Data to the Code
    2. Scalability: Today's Network Is Tomorrow's NE
      1. Layer 2 VPN Scalability
      2. Virtual Circuit Status Monitoring
    3. MIB Note: Scalability
      1. Other Enterprise Network Scalability Issues
    4. Light Reading Trials
    5. Large NEs
    6. Expensive (and Scarce) Development Skill Sets
      1. Developer Note: A Solution Mindset
      2. Developer Note: Distributed, Creative Problem Solving
      3. Developer Note: Taking Ownership
      4. Developer Note: Acquiring Domain Expertise and Linked Overviews
    7. Linked Overviews
      1. Developer Note: An ATM Linked Overview
      2. Developer Note: An IP Linked Overview
      3. Embracing Short Development Cycles
      4. Minimizing Code Changes
    8. Elements of NMS Development
      1. NMS Development
      2. Data Analysis
      3. When MIBs Change: Upgrade Considerations
      4. UML, Java, and Object-Oriented Development
      5. Class Design for Major NMS Features
      6. GUI Development
      7. Middleware Using CORBA-Based Products
      8. Insulating Applications from Low-Level Code
    9. Expensive (and Scarce) Operational Skill Sets
      1. Multiservice Switches
    10. MPLS: Second Chunk
      1. Explicit Route Objects
      2. Resource Blocks
      3. Tunnels and LSPs
      4. In-Segments and Out-Segments
      5. Cross-Connects
      6. Routing Protocols
      7. Signaling Protocols
      8. Label Operations
      9. MPLS Encapsulation
      10. QoS and Traffic Engineering
      11. QoS
    11. MPLS and Scalability
    12. Summary
  8. 4. Solving the Network Management Problem
    1. Filling the Development Skills Gap
      1. Developer Note: Training for a Solution Mindset—Key Abstractions
      2. Components
      3. Crossfunctional Cooperation
    2. Smarter NMS
      1. Adding Services Management
      2. NMS Structure
    3. Smarter MIBs
      1. MIB Note: Avoid MIB Object Semantic Dependencies
      2. MIB Note: Provide Default MIB Object Values
      3. MIB Note: Centralize MIBs to Match NE Features
    4. One Data Model
      1. Distributed Servers and Clients
    5. Smarter NEs
    6. Policy-Based Network Management (PBNM)
      1. What Is a Policy?—Pushing Intelligence into the Network
    7. Network Management Policies
      1. The Common Open Policy Service Protocol (COPS)
      2. Network Processors
    8. Directory-Enabled Networking (DEN)
      1. The Information Model
    9. IP QoS and the Enterprise
      1. MPLS Differentiated Services Support
      2. Attacks Against DiffServ Networks
    10. Summary
  9. 5. A Real NMS
    1. HP OpenView Network Node Manager (NNM)
      1. Mediation
    2. Network Discovery and Mapping
      1. NNM Discovery and Mapping
      2. Monitoring
    3. Notification Processing
      1. MIB Note: Scalable Aggregated Services
      2. NNM Notification Processing
    4. Reporting
      1. NNM Reporting
    5. Data Warehousing
      1. NNM Data Warehousing
    6. Backup and Restore of Firmware and Configuration
      1. NNM Backup and Restore
    7. Java Interface for Remote Access
      1. NNM Java Interface
    8. MIB Support Features
      1. MIB Note: Principal Managed Objects
      2. NNM MIB Support Features
    9. MPLS Support
      1. NNM MPLS Support
    10. Policy Support
      1. NNM Policy Support
    11. Reliability Features
      1. NNM Reliability
    12. Integration with Other Software
      1. NNM Integration
    13. Programmability
      1. NNM Programmability
    14. Workflows and Business Processes
      1. Enterprise Workflows and Business Processes
    15. Applications of NMS
    16. The Network Is the True Database
    17. The Network Boundary
    18. Summary
  10. 6. Network Management Software Components
    1. Fault Server
      1. Fault Server Database Tables
      2. Fault Server Software Structure
      3. Topology Update
    2. Configuration Server
      1. Secure User
      2. Trace Files
      3. Generic Connection Table Update
      4. Create Network Objects
      5. Topology Update
      6. Configuration Server Database Tables
      7. Configuration Server MIB Support
      8. Configuration Server Software Structure
    3. Accounting Server
      1. Mediation
      2. Aggregation
      3. Correlation
      4. Reports
    4. Performance Server
      1. Mediation
      2. Aggregation
      3. Correlation
      4. Reports
      5. SLA Alerts
      6. Topology Update
      7. Performance Server Database Tables
    5. Security Server
      1. Access Applications
      2. Authentication
      3. Privilege Levels
      4. Permitted Views
    6. Other Servers
      1. Discovery
      2. Monitoring
      3. NE Software Distribution
      4. NE Configuration Database Backup and Restore
      5. NMS Database Backup, Restore, and Upgrade
      6. Configuring NEs
      7. Middleware
      8. Data Representation
      9. Northbound Interface
      10. The Trend Towards Java-Based NMS
    7. Summary
  11. 7. Rudimentary NMS Software Components
    1. Building a Rudimentary Management System
    2. Configuring SNMP on Windows NT/2000
    3. Setup Required for the Visual C++ Program
    4. Building the Sample Visual C++ SNMP Manager
      1. The Source Code Components of snmpmgr.exe
        1. Snmpdefs.h Lines 1 to 5
        2. Snmpdefs.h Lines 6 to 16
        3. Snmpdefs.h Lines 17 to 31
    5. The Structure of the Sample Visual C++ Program
      1. The Supported Operations
    6. Using the Rudimentary Management System
      1. MIB Table Used in the Examples
      2. An SNMP GET
      3. An SNMP GETNEXT
      4. An SNMP SET
      5. Walking a MIB Table
      6. An SNMP TRAP
      7. Combining the Batch Files
      8. A Security Violation
    7. A Note On Security
    8. The Sample JDMK Java SNMP Manager
      1. Installing JDMK
        1. Last Steps in the Setup
    9. Building the Sample Java Manager
      1. To Build the Java Program
      2. An SNMP GET
      3. An SNMP GETNEXT
      4. The Structure of the Synchronous Manager
      5. The Synchronous Java Manager
      6. Comparing the Visual C++ and JDMK 4.2 APIs
        1. Ways to Improve the Two Sample Programs
    10. Extending the Sample SNMP Programs
    11. Summary
  12. 8. Case Study: MPLS Network Management
    1. The (Internet Draft) Standard MPLS MIBs
      1. MPLS Devices
      2. MPLS Interfaces
      3. MPLS Network Example
      4. In-Segments
      5. Out-Segments
      6. Cross-Connects
      7. Label Stacks
      8. Traffic Parameters
      9. Performance
    2. Configuring LSPs Through an LSR
    3. Creating an LSP Using the LSR MIB
      1. Step 1: Edge Router 1 Cross-Connect and Out-Segment Tables
        1. Edge Router 1 Cross-Connect Creation
        2. Edge Router 1 Out-segment Creation
        3. Edge Router 1 Tunnel Creation
      2. Step 2: Core Router 1 Segment and Cross-Connect Tables
        1. Core Router 1 In-segment Creation
        2. Core Router 1 Out-Segment Creation
        3. Core Router 1 Cross-Connect Creation
      3. Step 3: Edge Router 2 Cross-Connect and In-Segment Tables
        1. Edge Router 2 Cross-Connect
        2. Edge Router 2 In-segment Table
      4. Traffic-Engineered Tunnels
        1. The mplsTunnelTable
        2. Tunnel Table Lines 1 to 6
        3. Tunnel Table Lines 7 and 8
        4. Tunnel Table Lines 9 and 10
        5. Tunnel Table Lines 11 to 15
        6. Tunnel Table Line 16
        7. Tunnel Table Line 17
        8. Tunnel Table Lines 18 to 20
        9. Tunnel Table Lines 21 to 25
        10. Tunnel Table Line 26
        11. Tunnel Table Lines 27 to 29
        12. Tunnel Table Line 30
        13. Tunnel Table Lines 31 to 33
        14. Tunnel Table Lines 34 and 35
        15. Tunnel Table Lines 36 and 37
      5. The mplsTunnelResourceTable
      6. The mplsTunnelHopTable
    4. Creating a Tunnel Using the TE MIB
      1. Configuring the mplsTunnelTable
      2. Configuring the mplsTunnelResourceTable
      3. Configuring the mplsTunnelHopTable (ERO)
    5. Creating LSPs and Tunnels Using an NMS
    6. NextObjectIndex and Synchronization
    7. A Note About Standards
    8. Summary
  13. 9. Network Management Theory and Practice
    1. MIBs Again
      1. Tightly Coupled Intercolumn Dependencies
      2. Default Values and Thin Software Layers
      3. MIBs and Scalability
      4. Decision-Making in the Network
        1. The MPLS FTN MIB
      5. FEC Definition
      6. Example Using the FTN MIB
      7. Setting Up the mplsFTNTable for LSP Redirection
      8. Setting Up the mplsFTNTable for Tunnel Redirection
    2. Intelligence in the Network: Manufacturing
    3. Pushing FCAPS into the Network
    4. Service-level Network Components
    5. Generic Objects Realized Using Software Abstraction
    6. The Need for End-to-End Security
    7. Shrink-Wrapped Solutions or Consultancy Buy-In
    8. Integration with OSS Layers: Northbound Interface (NBI)
    9. Developer Note: The Roles of QA, IT, and Developers
    10. Solutions Revisited: Thin Software Layers
    11. Facilitating a Solution Mindset
    12. A Final Word
  14. A. Terminal Server Serial Ports
  15. B. Some Simple IP Routing Experiments
    1. B.1. The IP Routing Table
    2. B.2. Ping
    3. B.3. Traceroute
  16. C. The IP MIB Table
    1. MIB Walk on the IP Table
  17. D. Visual C++ Sample Program Source Code
    1. D.1. snmpdefs.h
    2. D.2. snmpmgr.c
  18. E. JDMK Sample Program Source Code
    1. E.1. synchronousManager.Java
  19. References
  20. Glossary