Telecommunications is defined as the transmission of a voice or data signal from one point to another over short or long distances.
Voice switching and routing within the telecommunications network is based on the automatic number identification (ANI). ANIs are constructed per the North American Numbering Plan (NANP). Data switching and routing within the telecommunications switched network are usually in the form of dedicated, ISDN, or xDSL connections. Dedicated connections are discussed in Chapter 13, “Private Line WANs.”ISDN and xDSL are discussed later in this chapter.
Three types of signaling are used to establish a voice call:
Supervisory—. Informs the telephone switch port of the ...