You are previewing Network Consultants Handbook.
O'Reilly logo
Network Consultants Handbook

Book Description

Network Consultants Handbook is a resource to consultants and engineers to assess, audit, analyze, and evaluate any existing or future network environment. Resources include form templates to complete during a network audit, important device commands to aid in obtaining vital information, and additional forms to aid in documentation. Real-world case studies serve as valuable examples, and network diagramming tips help you prepare consistent drawings for in-house documentation.

  • Network audit and evaluation guidelines aid in data gathering and analysis of network environments

  • Real-world case studies serve as valuable and relevant examples

  • Network diagramming tips aid consultants and engineers in preparing consistent drawings for in-house documentation

  • Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedications
    2. About the Author
      1. About the Technical Reviewers
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. Foreword
    5. Introduction
      1. Purpose of This Book
      2. How This Book Can Be Used
      3. The Twelve Networking Truths
        1. The Twelve Networking Truths
          1. Status of This Memo
          2. Abstract
          3. Acknowledgments
      4. Feedback
    6. 1. Open System Interconnection (OSI) Model
      1. OSI Reference Model
        1. OSI Layer Characteristics
        2. OSI Model Layers
          1. Layer 1: Physical Layer
          2. Layer 2: Data Link Layer
          3. Layer 3: Network Layer
          4. Layer 4: Transport Layer
          5. Layer 5: Session Layer
          6. Layer 6: Presentation Layer
          7. Layer 7: Application Layer
        3. Layering Benefits and Concepts
        4. Layer Interactions
        5. Interaction Between Layers on Different Hosts
        6. Data Encapsulation
      2. Summary
    7. 2. LAN Topologies
      1. Unicast
      2. Multicast
      3. Broadcast
      4. LAN Addressing
        1. MAC Addresses
        2. Network Layer Addresses
      5. LAN Topologies
        1. Star (Hub-and-Spoke) Topology
        2. Ring Topology
        3. Bus Topology
        4. Tree Topology
      6. Network Devices
        1. Hubs
          1. Intelligent Hubs
          2. Managed Hubs
          3. Stackable Hubs
        2. Bridges
          1. Bridge Operation
          2. Latency
          3. Types of Bridging
            1. Transparent Bridging
            2. Source-Route Bridging
            3. Source-Route Translational, or Mixed-Media, Bridging
            4. Source-Route Transparent Bridging
          4. Cisco-Specific Bridging Solutions
        3. Switches
          1. Switch Operations
          2. Switching Modes
            1. Store and Forward Switching
            2. Cut-Through Switching
            3. Fast Switching
            4. Layer 3 Switching
        4. Spanning Tree Algorithm
        5. Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1d)
          1. Spanning Tree Operation
          2. Spanning Tree Topology
            1. Port States
      7. Routers
      8. Summary
    8. 3. Ethernet/IEEE 802.3
      1. Ethernet Network Elements
      2. Ethernet Network Topologies and Structures
      3. IEEE 802.3 Logical Relationship to the OSI Reference Model
        1. The Ethernet MAC Sublayer
          1. The Basic Ethernet Frame Format
        2. Frame Transmission
          1. Half-Duplex Transmission: The CSMA/CD Access Method
            1. Network Diameter
          2. Cable Case Study
          3. Full-Duplex Transmission
            1. Flow Control
          4. Frame Reception
      4. The Ethernet Physical Layers
      5. 10 Mbps Ethernet Operation
        1. Bit Times
          1. Backoff Algorithm
            1. Exponential Backoff
        2. Ethernet Case Study
        3. Alternative Ethernet Technologies
        4. Ethernet Applications
      6. 100 Mbps, or Fast Ethernet
        1. 100BaseT Overview
        2. 100BaseT Operation
        3. Bit Times
          1. Backoff Algorithm
            1. Exponential Backoff
        4. 100BaseT FLPs
        5. 100BaseT Autonegotiation
        6. 100BaseT Media Types
        7. Fast Ethernet Applications
      7. 100VG-AnyLAN
        1. 100VG-AnyLAN Operation
        2. 100VG-AnyLAN Applications
      8. 1000 Mbps, or Gigabit (Gbps) Ethernet
        1. Burst Mode
        2. Gigabit Ethernet CSMA/CD
        3. 1000 Mbps, or 1 Gbps Ethernet Applications
      9. 10 Gbps, or 10 Gigabit Ethernet
        1. 10 Gigabit Ethernet Applications
          1. LAN Applications
          2. MAN Applications
          3. WAN Applications
      10. Summary
    9. 4. Ethernet Documentation
      1. Case Study: Naming Conventions
      2. Small Ethernet (Hub-Based) Networks
        1. Commands
          1. show hub
      3. Documentation Case Study
        1. Small Ethernet (Bridge-Based) Networks
          1. Commands
            1. show bridge
          2. Documentation Case Study
        2. Small Ethernet (Layer 2 Switch-Based) Networks
          1. Commands
            1. show module
            2. show port
            3. show spantree
          2. Documentation Case Study
      4. Summary
    10. 5. Ethernet Network Review and Analysis
      1. Cisco Router Interface Commands
        1. show interfaces ethernet
          1. show interfaces ethernet number
            1. CRC Errors
            2. Ethernet Collisions
            3. Local Collisions
            4. Remote Collisions
            5. Late Collisions
            6. Output Queue Drops
            7. Input Queue Drops
            8. Ignored Packets
      2. show interface ethernet number accounting
        1. Input Distribution Percentage
        2. Output Distribution Percentage
        3. Total Distribution Percentage
      3. show buffers ethernet
      4. Buffer Misses
      5. show processes cpu
      6. CPU Utilization
      7. Ethernet Network Analysis
      8. Ethernet Frame Transmission
        1. 10 Mbps Ethernet
        2. 100 Mbps (Fast) Ethernet
        3. 1000 Mbps (Gigabit) Ethernet
      9. Ethernet Baseline
      10. Ethernet MTU
      11. Ethernet Throughput
      12. Ethernet Effective Utilization
      13. Ethernet with IP Networking
      14. Ethernet with IPX Networking
      15. Case Study: Ethernet Network Analyzers
        1. Ethernet Network Analysis
        2. Ethernet Network Throughput
          1. Network Transfer Rate (Effective Throughput)
          2. Average Bandwidth Per User
        3. Ethernet with IP and IPX Network Throughput
      16. Summary
    11. 6. Token Ring/IEEE 802.5
      1. Token Ring
      2. Physical Connections
      3. Token Ring Operation
        1. Joining a Ring
          1. Ring Operation Frames
          2. Ring Special Servers
          3. Error Types
        2. Token Priority
      4. Token Holding Time (THT)
        1. Token Ring Fault Management
          1. Monitor Election Process
        2. Active Monitor
          1. Beaconing
      5. Frame Format
        1. Token Frame Fields
        2. Data/Command Frame Fields
      6. Dedicated Token Ring
        1. Dedicated Token Ring Concentrators/Switches
          1. C-Ports
          2. Full-Duplex Operation
        2. High-Speed Token Ring
          1. High-Speed Token Ring Applications
      7. Summary
    12. 7. FDDI
      1. Fiber-Optic Transmission Modes
      2. FDDI Topology
        1. Dual Homing
        2. Primary and Secondary Rings
          1. Single Attachment Stations (SAS): The S Port
          2. Dual Attachment Stations (DAS): The A and B Ports
          3. Concentrator M Ports
          4. FDDI Ring Failure
        3. FDDI Media and Encoding
      3. FDDI Operation
        1. Claim Frames
        2. Station Management
        3. Beacon Frames
        4. FDDI Frames
          1. FDDI Token Frame Format
          2. FDDI Frame Format
      4. FDDI LAN Applications
      5. Summary
    13. 8. Token Ring and FDDI LAN Documentation
      1. Case Study: Naming Conventions
      2. Case Study: Simple Token Ring LAN
      3. Case Study: Simple FDDI LAN
      4. Summary
    14. 9. Token Ring and FDDI Network Review and Analysis
      1. Token Ring LANs
        1. Cisco Router Interface Commands
          1. show interfaces tokenring
            1. show interfaces tokenring number
          2. CRC Errors
          3. Token Ring Soft Errors
            1. Soft Errors
              1. Output Queue Drops
              2. Input Queue Drops
              3. Ignored Packets
            2. show interfaces tokenring number accounting
              1. Input Distribution Percentage
              2. Output Distribution Percentage
              3. Total Distribution Percentage
            3. Buffer Misses
          4. show processes CPU
            1. CPU Utilization
        2. Token Ring Network Analysis
          1. Token Ring Bit Times [Propagation Delay]
            1. Token Ring Network Performance
              1. Token Ring Propagation Delay Equation
              2. Token Ring LAN Effective Throughput
            2. Token Ring Performance Model
        3. Token Ring Fault Management
      2. FDDI LANs
        1. Cisco Router Interface Commands
          1. show interfaces FDDI
            1. show interfaces fddi number
              1. CRC Errors
              2. FDDI Ring Operations
              3. Output Queue Drops
              4. Input Queue Drops
              5. Ignored Packets
            2. show interfaces FDDI number accounting
              1. Input Distribution Percentage
              2. Output Distribution Percentage
              3. Total Distribution Percentage
            3. Buffer Misses
          2. show processes cpu
            1. CPU Utilization
        2. FDDI Network Analysis
          1. FDDI Bit Times (Propagation Delay)
            1. FDDI Network Performance
              1. FDDI Propagation Delay Equation
              2. FDDI LAN Effective Throughput
            2. FDDI Performance Model
      3. Summary
    15. 10. ATM LAN Emulation (LANE)
      1. Emulated LAN Environments
        1. Ethernet Emulated LAN Environments
        2. Token Ring-Emulated LAN Environments
      2. LAN Emulation Clients (LECs)
      3. LAN Emulation Servers (LESs)
        1. LAN Emulation Configuration Server (LECS)
          1. Configuration Server Implementation
          2. Configuration Server Location
        2. LAN Emulation or LANE Server (LES)
          1. Address Resolution (LE ARP)
          2. Broadcast/Unknown Server (BUS)
        3. ATM LANE Protocol
          1. ATM Addresses
          2. ILMI Initialization
          3. LANE Data Frames
          4. LANE Control Frames
            1. LANE Control Frame Format
        4. LANE Version 2
          1. Server Cache Synchronization Protocol (SCSP)
          2. Class of Service (CoS)
            1. VPI and VCI
      4. LAN Emulation Applications
      5. Summary
    16. 11. ATM LANE Documentation, Review, and Analysis
      1. Effective Operating Rate
      2. ATM LANE Traffic Classes
        1. AAL-1 / CBR
          1. Effective Throughput of AAL1
        2. AAL-2 / VBR-rt
          1. Effective Throughput of AAL2
        3. AAL-3/4 / VBR-nrt
          1. Effective Throughput of AAL3/4
        4. AAL5 / VBR-nrt
          1. Effective Throughput for AAL-5
      3. IOS Commands
        1. show lane
          1. Example
        2. show lane bus
          1. Example
        3. show lane client
          1. Examples
        4. show lane config
          1. Examples
        5. show lane database
          1. Example
      4. ATM LANE Documentation
      5. Summary
    17. 12. Telecommunications and Telephony
      1. Voice Signaling
        1. Supervisory Signaling
          1. Loop-Start Signaling
          2. Ground-Start Signaling
          3. Wink-Start Signaling
          4. Immediate-Start Signaling
          5. Tone-Start Signaling
          6. E&M Signaling
        2. Address Signaling
        3. Informational Signaling
      2. ANI
        1. NANP
          1. Area Code (NPA)
            1. 456 NXX
            2. 900/976 NXX
            3. 500 NXX
          2. Exchange Code (NXX)
            1. 555-Numbers
            2. 800-855
          3. Subscriber Extension (XXXX)
      3. Lines and Trunks
        1. Direct Inward Dialing (DID)
        2. Direct Outward Dialing (DOD)
        3. Tie Lines
        4. Telephone Network
        5. Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
        6. TDM
          1. Local Loop and Transmission Media
            1. Copper Cable
            2. Coaxial Cable
            3. Fiber-Optic Cable
            4. Wireless
      4. ISDN
        1. ISDN Standards
          1. ITU I.430
          2. Q.921
          3. Q.931
          4. G.711
        2. ISDN BRI
        3. ISDN Primary Rate Interface (PRI)
        4. Signaling
        5. ISDN Reference Points
        6. ISDN SPIDs
        7. ISDN Call Setup
      5. DSL
        1. Attenuation
        2. DSL Modulation Techniques
        3. Crosstalk
          1. Minimizing Crosstalk
        4. ADSL
        5. RADSL
        6. SDSL
        7. DSL-Based Services and Components
          1. Transport System
          2. Local Access Network
          3. Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM)
          4. DSL Transceiver Unit (xTU-R)
          5. POTS Splitters
      6. Summary
    18. 13. Private Line WANs
      1. T1 Basics
        1. Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) Hierarchy
        2. Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
      2. TDM
        1. 1.544 Mbps
          1. D4, or Superframe (SF)
          2. Extended Superframe (ESF)
        2. T1/DS1 Signaling/Line Coding
          1. Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI)
          2. Bi-Polar with 8-Zero Substitution (B8ZS)
        3. AMI/B8ZS Mismatches
      3. T1 Documentation
        1. End-to-End T1 Links
      4. T1 Access
      5. T1 Testing and Analysis
      6. DS0 Basics
        1. DS0/DDS Alarm Codes
      7. DS3
      8. Summary
    19. 14. Fiber-Optic Technology
      1. Optic Bands and Transmission Windows
        1. Multimode Fiber
        2. Single-Mode Fiber
          1. Non-Dispersion Shifted Fiber (NDSF)
          2. Dispersion-Shifted Fiber (DSF)
            1. Zero-Dispersion Shifted Fiber (ZDSF)
            2. Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted Fiber (NZDF)
      2. SONET/SDH
        1. SONET Synchronization
        2. SONET Standards
        3. SONET Frames
          1. SONET Frame Overhead
            1. Section Overhead
            2. Line Overhead
            3. Path Overhead
        4. Packet Over SONET (PoS)
          1. PoS Frame Format
          2. PoS Synchronization
      3. DWDM
        1. DWDM Technology
        2. DWDM Capacity
        3. Optical Switching
      4. Summary
    20. 15. Frame Relay
      1. Frame Relay Terms and Concepts
        1. Frame Relay Components
          1. Customer Premise FRAD
          2. Local Access Loop to the Service Provider Network
          3. Frame Relay Virtual Circuits
            1. DLCIs
            2. PVCs
            3. SVCs
          4. FECN and BECN
          5. Frame Relay Virtual Circuit (VC) Parameters
            1. Frame Relay CIR
            2. Frame Relay Discard Eligibility (DE)
          6. PVC DLCIs
          7. SVC X.121/E.164 Addressing
          8. Frame Relay Status Polling
          9. Frame Relay Error Handling
            1. Frame Relay Frame Format
          10. Frame Relay LMI
            1. LMI Types
            2. LMI Frame Format
            3. LMI Extensions
      2. Frame Relay Applications
        1. Frame Relay and the TCP/IP Suite
          1. Virtual LANs (VLANs) and IP Subnets
          2. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
          3. Inverse ARP
            1. Inverse ARP and Routing Tables
        2. Frame Relay and the Novell IPX Suite
          1. Frame Relay IPX Bandwidth Guidelines
            1. Novell SAP
        3. Frame Relay and the IBM SNA Suite
          1. Traditional IBM SNA Network Configuration
          2. SNA Data Link Protocols
            1. SDLC and LLC2
          3. Data-Link Switching (DLSw)
        4. SNA and DLSw Traffic Management
          1. Custom Versus Priority Queuing
        5. Voice over Frame Relay (VoFr)
          1. Voice Coders-Decoders (Codecs)
          2. VoFr Quality
          3. VFRADs
      3. Frame Relay Traffic Shaping
        1. Frame Relay DE Bit
        2. Differences Between Traffic-Shaping Mechanisms
          1. Derived Rates
          2. Traffic Shaping Restrictions
      4. Traffic Policing and Shaping
        1. Token Bucket
        2. Traffic Policing with CAR
        3. CAR Operation
          1. CAR Traffic-Matching Criteria
          2. Rate Limits
          3. Conform and Exceed Actions
          4. Multiple Rate Policies
        4. CAR Restrictions
      5. Summary
    21. 16. Frame Relay Documentation
      1. Case Study: Naming Conventions
        1. Frame Relay Site View
        2. IOS Commands
          1. show frame-relay map
            1. Command-Based Documentation
          2. show frame-relay pvc
            1. Statistics Reporting
            2. Traffic Shaping
            3. LMI Status Inquiries
            4. Example
          3. debug frame-relay lmi
          4. show frame-relay route
        3. Global Frame Relay WAN Documentation
      2. Frame Relay DLCI Table
      3. Summary
    22. 17. Frame Relay WAN Analysis
      1. Frame Relay Traffic Shaping
        1. CIR
        2. Committed Burst Rate
        3. Excess Burst Rate
        4. Minimum CIR
      2. Frame Relay Oversubscription
        1. Frame Relay Port Oversubscription
        2. Frame Relay PVC/CIR Oversubscription
      3. Frame Relay Data Delivery Ratio (DDR)
      4. Frame Relay SLAs
      5. Summary
    23. 18. ATM Wide-Area Networking (WAN) and MPOA
      1. ATM Network Architecture
      2. ATM WAN Interfaces
        1. ATM UNI
        2. ATM NNI
        3. ATM DXI
        4. ATM PNNI
      3. PNNI Signaling
      4. ATM Connections
        1. Virtual Paths
        2. ATM Virtual Channels
      5. ATM Cells and Cell Relay
        1. Cell Transmission
      6. ATM Service Classes
      7. ATM Service Architecture
        1. CAC
        2. UPC
        3. ATM Traffic Parameters
        4. ATM Traffic Contract and Negotiation
      8. ATM Service Categories Description
        1. CBR
          1. Input Path
          2. Output Path
        2. Real-Time Variable Bit Rate (rt-VBR)
        3. Near-Real-Time (nrt-VBR)
        4. Available Bit Rate (ABR)
        5. Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR)
      9. ATM Functional Layers
        1. Physical Layer
        2. ATM Layer
        3. ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL)
          1. AAL1
          2. AAL3/4
          3. AAL5
        4. Traffic Classes
        5. Permanent Virtual Circuits Versus Switched Virtual Circuits
      10. ATM Addressing
      11. ATM Applications
        1. CBR Applications
        2. VBR Applications
        3. ABR Applications
        4. UBR Applications
        5. ATM Applications Summary
      12. Multiprotocol Over ATM (MPOA)
      13. Three Elements of MPOA
        1. LANE
        2. NHRP
        3. Virtual Router
      14. MPOA Logical Components
        1. MPOA Client: MPC
        2. MPOA Router
        3. MPOA Server: MPS
      15. Caching
      16. Virtual Subnets
      17. Network Layer Mapping
      18. Taking a Shortcut: The Basic Concept
      19. MPOA Packet Flow
      20. Migration and Coexistence
        1. LANE and MPOA
        2. NHRP and MPOA
      21. Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA)
      22. Summary
    24. 19. ATM WAN Documentation
      1. Case Study: Naming Conventions
        1. ATM Site View
        2. IOS Command Based
          1. show atm vp
            1. show atm vp Examples
          2. show atm vc
            1. show atm vc Examples
        3. Global ATM WAN Documentation
      2. ATM VPI/VCI Table
      3. Summary
    25. 20. Voice Technology
      1. VoIP Network Elements
        1. H.323 Terminals
          1. Audio Codecs
        2. Codec Complexity
        3. Analog (Voice) Waveform Coding Techniques
          1. PCM
            1. Filtering
            2. Sampling
            3. Voice Digitization
            4. Quantization
            5. Companding
          2. A-Law and U-Law Companding
          3. Differential Pulse Code Modulation
          4. Adaptive DPCM (ADPCM)
            1. Specific 32 Kbps Steps
          5. Gateways
          6. Gatekeeper
          7. MCU
          8. H.323 Protocol Stack
            1. Latency
            2. Measuring Latency
          9. Jitter
            1. Measuring Jitter
          10. Packet Loss
          11. VoX Network Parameters
      2. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
        1. SIP Protocol Operation
          1. SIP Clients
          2. SIP Servers
          3. SIP Operation
      3. VoIP Equipment Adjustment
        1. Jitter Buffers
        2. Packet Size
        3. Silence Suppression
      4. VoX Call Establishment
        1. Measuring Voice Quality
      5. VoX Summary
      6. Voice over ATM (VoATM)
        1. VoATM Issues
          1. Delay
            1. Telephony Phenomenon
            2. ATM Telephony Delay
            3. ATM Packetization Delay (Cell Construction Delay)
            4. VoATM Buffering (Build-Out) Delay
            5. VoATM Encoding Delay
          2. VoATM Signaling Support
          3. Synchronization
        2. VoATM Applications
        3. Two Basic VoATM Models
        4. Network Requirements
      7. VoATM Expectations
        1. VoATM Solutions
          1. CES
          2. DBCES
          3. VBR Voice Solutions Using AAL2 Adaption
          4. VoATM Switching
          5. Encapsulation Techniques
          6. VoATM Comparison
      8. VoATM Summary
      9. Voice over Frame Relay (VoFR)
        1. VoFR Prioritization
        2. VoFR Fragmentation
        3. VoFR Variable Delay
        4. Voice Compression
        5. Silence Suppression
        6. Echo Cancellation
      10. VoIP
      11. VoX Circuit Sizing
        1. VoX Erlangs
      12. Summary
    26. 21. Remote Access and VPNs
      1. Remote Access
        1. VPNs
          1. VPN Basics
            1. Tunneling Protocols
            2. PPP
            3. PPTP
            4. L2TP
            5. L2F
      2. LAN-to-LAN VPN
      3. Authentication
        1. PPTP-PAP/CHAP
        2. Digital Certificates
        3. Smart Cards
        4. Hardware Tokens/PKCS #11
        5. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
        6. RADIUS Servers
        7. TACACS+++ (Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus)
      4. Encryption Alternatives
        1. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)
        2. PKI
        3. MD5 (Message Digest 5)
        4. IPSec
        5. Internet Key Exchange (IKE)
        6. VPN Products: Gateways, Clients, and Applications
          1. Common Criteria (CC) for Information Technology Security
          2. CC Protection Profiles
          3. Enterprise Assurance Levels
      5. Telecommunications Access Methods to a Local ISP
        1. POTS Dial-Up
        2. ISDN
          1. Cable Modems
          2. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
      6. Policy and Administrative Management
        1. Centralized Security Management
          1. Worst-Case Scenario
        2. Backup/Restore Procedures
        3. Security Policy
        4. Key Management
      7. VPN Network Requirements
        1. Network Architecture
          1. Firewall-Based VPNs
          2. Black-Box-Based VPNs
          3. Router-Based VPNs
          4. Remote Access-Based VPNs
      8. Remote Access VPN Network Design
        1. Network Access Points
        2. Dynamic Protocol Support
        3. IP Service Requirements
        4. Existing Routers, Firewalls, and Proxy Servers
        5. Types of Applications That Cross VPN Boundaries
        6. Bandwidth Requirements
        7. Cryptographic Processing Requirements on Servers and Desktops
        8. Support Personnel Requirements
        9. Future Network Plans
        10. Scalability of Critical Devices
        11. Security Policy
      9. VPN User-Access Requirements
        1. Remote Office Locations
        2. NSP or ISP Requirements
      10. VPN Performance Requirements
        1. Cryptographic Hardware Accelerator Support
        2. Clustering of Servers for Scalability
        3. SLAs
          1. Network Uptime
          2. Bandwidth
          3. Latency
          4. Failover to Redundant Devices
      11. VPN Client Essentials, Security Guidelines, and Vulnerabilities
        1. Windows 9x (95/98)
          1. Windows 9x Security Guidelines
          2. Windows 9x Vulnerabilities
        2. UNIX
        3. Windows NT
          1. Windows NT Security Guidelines
          2. Windows NT Vulnerabilities
      12. DHCP Support
        1. Security Policy
      13. Summary
    27. 22. Network Management Introduction
      1. Network Management Architecture
        1. Network Management Agents
        2. Network Management Protocols
      2. Network Management Model
        1. Fault Management
        2. Configuration Management
        3. Accounting Management
        4. Performance Management
        5. Security Management
        6. Network Management Categories
        7. Network Management Components
          1. Element Managers
          2. Network Management Platforms
        8. Network Management Probes
          1. Remote Monitoring (RMON)
          2. RMON2
          3. Protocol Analyzers
        9. Performance Reporting/Analysis
          1. Performance-Related Terms
        10. Service-Level Agreements (SLAs)
          1. SLA Service-Level Metrics
      3. Network Management Functional Architecture
        1. Managed Objects
        2. EMS
        3. MoM
        4. User Interface
        5. Network Operation Centers (NOCs)
        6. Network Utilization Reporting
        7. Alarms and Alerts
          1. Alarm Correlation
      4. MIB
        1. MIB Hierarchy
          1. Cisco MIB Hierarchy
      5. Summary
    28. 23. IP VPN WAN Documentation
      1. Remote Access Documentation Template
        1. IP WAN VPN Documentation
      2. IOS Commands
        1. show ip route vrf
          1. Example
        2. show ip vrf
          1. Example
      3. Summary
    29. 24. Routing Protocols, Part I
      1. Routing: Static Versus Dynamic
        1. Administrative Distance
          1. Distance-Vector Routing
            1. Distance-Vector Routing Concerns
          2. Link-State, or Shortest Path First, Routing
            1. Link-State Routing Concerns
          3. Hybrid Routing
            1. Hybrid Routing Concerns
          4. Routing Metrics
      2. Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
        1. RIP Routing Table
        2. RIP Routing Convergence
          1. Count to Infinity
          2. Split Horizon
          3. RIP Split Horizon with Poison Reverse
          4. RIP Triggered Updates
          5. RIP Hold-Down Timers
        3. RIP Concerns
          1. RIP Hop Count Limit
          2. RIP Fixed Metrics
          3. RIP Network Bandwidth Consumption for Routing Table Updates
          4. RIP Slow Convergence
          5. RIP's Lack of Dynamic Load Balancing
      3. RIP Routing Protocol Summary
      4. RIP Version 2 (RIPv2)
        1. RIPv2 Authentication
        2. RIPv2 Subnet Mask Support
        3. RIPv2 Next Hop Identification
        4. RIPv2 Multicasting
        5. RIPv2 Concerns
        6. RIPv2 Maximum Hop Count (15)
        7. RIPv2 Count to Infinity
        8. RIPv2 (Static) Fixed Metrics for Route Calculation
        9. RIPv2 Lack of Alternative Routing Support
      5. RIPv2 Summary
      6. IGRP
        1. IGRP Metrics
          1. IGRP Hop Count
          2. IGRP Packet Size (MTU)
          3. IGRP Link Bandwidth
          4. IGRP Delay
          5. IGRP Load
          6. IGRP Reliability
        2. Metric Calculation
        3. IGRP Timers
        4. IGRP Convergence Mechanisms
          1. IGRP Flash Update
          2. IGRP Hold-Downs
          3. IGRP Split Horizon
          4. IGRP Poison Reverse
        5. IGRP Load Balancing
          1. IGRP Equal-Cost Load Balancing
          2. IGRP Unequal-Cost Load Balancing
          3. IGRP Feasibility and Feasible Successors
      7. IGRP Summary
      8. EIGRP
        1. EIGRP Features
          1. Neighbor Discovery and Recovery
          2. Reliable Transport Protocol
          3. DUAL Finite-State Machine
          4. Protocol-Specific Modules
        2. EIGRP Tables
        3. EIGRP Packet Types
        4. EIGRP Convergence
      9. EIGRP Summary
      10. OSPF
        1. OSPF Areas
          1. OSPF Area Router Types
          2. OSPF Routing Types
          3. OSPF Area Types
          4. OSPF Packets
        2. OSPF Convergence
          1. OSPF Adjacencies
        3. OSPF Route Summarization
        4. OSPF Authentication
        5. OSPF Security
          1. OSPF Authentication
          2. Testing and Troubleshooting
      11. OSPF Summary
      12. Summary
    30. 25. Routing Protocols, Part II
      1. Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS)
        1. IS-IS Operation
          1. IS-IS Areas
        2. IS-IS Metrics
        3. IS-IS Network Types
          1. IS-IS Adjacencies
          2. Designated IS (DIS)
        4. IS-IS LSPs
          1. LSP Flooding
        5. IS-IS Authentication
      2. IS-IS Summary
      3. Border Gateway Protocol, Version 4 (BGP4)
        1. BGP Multihoming
        2. Interior BGP (IBGP) Versus Exterior BGP (EBGP)
        3. Common BGP Implementation
          1. BGP Autonomous System Numbers
        4. BGP Attributes
          1. AS Path Attribute
          2. Origin Attribute
          3. Next Hop Attribute
          4. Weight Attribute
          5. Multiexit Discriminator (MED) Attribute
          6. Local Preference Attribute
          7. Atomic Aggregate Attribute
          8. Aggregator Attribute
          9. Additional Attributes
        5. BGP Route Selection
        6. BGP Peering
        7. BGP Route Reflectors
        8. BGP Confederations
        9. BGP Administrative Distances
        10. BGP Timers
      4. BGP Summary
      5. EGP
        1. EGP Configuration
      6. EGP Summary
      7. Summary
    31. 26. IPv6 Introduction
      1. IPv6 Terms
      2. IPv6 Addressing
        1. IPv6 Multicast
          1. IPv6 Extension Headers
        2. IPv6 Quality of Service (QoS)
        3. IPv6 Migration
        4. Host Address Autoconfiguration
        5. IPv6 Renumbering Issues
      3. IPv6 Neighbor Discover Protocol (NDP)
      4. IPv4/IPv6 Transition
        1. IPv6 Host Transition
        2. IPv6 Routing Transition
        3. IPv4/IPv6 Tunneling
      5. IPv4/IPv6 Network Address Translation (NAT)
      6. IPv6 Header
      7. IPv6/IPv4 Tunneling
      8. 6to4 Tunnel Management
      9. 6to4 Case Study
        1. 6to4 Communication
        2. 6to4 Relay
        3. 6to4 Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) Issues
      10. Summary
    32. 27. Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
      1. Label-Edge Routers (LERs) and Label\_Switching Routers (LSRs)
      2. Forward Equivalence Classes (FECs)
      3. Labels and Label Bindings
      4. MPLS Fundamentals
        1. Control and Forwarding Components
        2. Label-Swapping Forwarding Algorithm
      5. Multilayer Switching
        1. Multilayer-Switching Solutions Similarities
        2. Multilayer Switching Solutions Fundamental Differences
          1. Data-Driven Model
          2. Control-Driven Model
      6. MPLS Evolution
      7. MPLS Model
        1. MPLS Header
        2. MPLS Requirements
      8. MPLS and Layer 3 Forwarding
      9. MPLS Operation
      10. MPLS Enhanced Routing
      11. MPLS Applications
        1. MPLS Traffic Engineering (MPLS-TE)
        2. MPLS Class of Service (MPLS-CoS)
      12. MPLS Virtual Private Networks (MPLS-VPNs)
      13. IP/MPLS Network
      14. BGP-Extended Community Attributes
      15. MPLS VPN Operational Model
        1. VPN Routing Maintenance
        2. Provider Edge (PE) Router Resources
        3. Customer Edge (CE) Routing
      16. Summary
    33. A. LAN/WAN Network Assessment
      1. Introduction
      2. Executive Summary of Findings
      3. Current Network Topology and Characterization
        1. Characterize Network Applications and Protocols
        2. Characterize Existing Network Availability and Performance
        3. Characterize Existing Network Reliability and Utilization
        4. Characterize the Status of the Major Routers
      4. Recommendations
      5. Network Health
        1. Network Health Checklist
        2. Traffic Overhead
        3. Traffic Caused by Workstation Initialization
        4. Packets for NetWare Client Initialization
        5. Packets for AppleTalk Client Initialization
        6. Packets for NetBIOS Client Initialization
        7. Packets for Traditional TCP/IP Client Initialization
        8. Packets for DHCP Client Initialization
        9. Provisioning Hardware and Media for the LAN
          1. 100 Mbps Ethernet Topologies
            1. Path Delay Value
          2. Calculating Cable Delays
      6. Network Provisioning
      7. Subnet Masks
      8. Interface Types by Region/Country
      9. Data Transmission Throughput
      10. Mesh Network Connectivity
      11. VoIP Bandwidth Consumption
    34. B. Protocol List
    35. C. List of ITU-T X.121 Data Country or Geographical Area Codes
    36. D. International Country Codes
    37. E. Bibliography