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Network Analysis and Synthesis

Book Description

This introductory textbook on Network Analysis and Synthesis provides a comprehensive coverage of the important topics in electrical circuit analysis. The full spectrum of electrical circuit topics such as Kirchoff's Laws Mesh Analysis Nodal Analysis RLC Circuits and Resonance to Network Theorems and Applications Laplace Transforms Network Synthesis and Realizability and Filters and Attenuators are discussed with the aid of a large number of worked-out examples and practice exercises.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication Page
  5. Brief Contents
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
  8. About the Authors
  9. 1. Basic Concepts
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Voltage, Current and Resistance
    3. 1.3 Ohm’s Law
    4. 1.4 Electrical Power and Energy
    5. 1.5 Series and Parallel Connections of Resistors
      1. 1.5.1 Series Connection of Resistors
      2. 1.5.2 Parallel Connection of Resistors
      3. 1.5.3 Series-Parallel Circuits
      4. 1.5.4 Ladder Network
    6. 1.6 Basic Circuit Elements
      1. 1.6.1 Resistors
      2. 1.6.2 Inductors—Self-Inductance and Mutual Inductance
      3. 1.6.3 Capacitors
    7. 1.7 Inductors and Capacitors in DC Circuits
    8. 1.8 DC Network Terminologies and Circuit Fundamentals
      1. 1.8.1 Network Terminologies
      2. 1.8.2 Voltage and Current Sources
      3. 1.8.3 Source Transformation
      4. Review Questions
  10. 2. Kirchhoff’s Laws, Mesh and Nodal Analysis
    1. 2.1 Kirchhoff’s Laws
      1. 2.1.1 Kirchhoff’s Current Law
      2. 2.1.2 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law
    2. 2.2 Mesh Analysis
    3. 2.3 Nodal Analysis
    4. 2.4 Super Nodal Analysis
    5. 2.5 Super Mesh Analysis
    6. 2.6 Methods of Solving Complex Network Problems
      1. 2.6.1 Numerical Problems Based on Kirchhoff’s Laws
      2. 2.6.2 Numerical Problems Based on Mesh and Nodal Analysis
      3. Review Questions
      4. Multiple Choice Questions
      5. Answers
  11. 3. Steady State Analysis of AC Circuits
    1. 3.1 AC Voltage Applied Across a Resistor
    2. 3.2 AC Voltage Applied Across an Inductor
    3. 3.3 AC Voltage Applied Across a Capacitor
    4. 3.4 R-L Series Circuit
    5. 3.5 Apparent Power, Real Power and Reactive Power
    6. 3.6 Power in R-L Series Circuit
    7. 3.7 Power Triangle of R-L Series Circuit
    8. 3.8 R-C Series Circuit
      1. 3.8.1 Power and Power Triangle of R-C Series Circuit
    9. 3.9 R-L-C Series Circuit
    10. 3.10 AC Parallel Circuits
      1. 3.10.1 Phasor or Vector Method of Solving Circuit Problems
      2. 3.10.2 Admittance Method of Solving Circuit Problems
      3. 3.10.3 Use of Phasor Algebra in Solving Circuit Problem
    11. 3.11 AC Series-Parallel Circuits
      1. Review Questions
      2. Multiple Choice Questions
      3. Answers
  12. 4. R-L-C Circuits and Resonance
    1. 4.1 R-L-C Series Circuit with Variable Frequency Input Voltage
    2. 4.2 Series Resonance
      1. 4.2.1 Effect of Variation of Frequency on Current and Voltage Drops
      2. 4.2.2 Effect of Variation of Frequency on Impedance and Power Factor
    3. 4.3 Applications of R-L-C Circuits
      1. 4.3.1 Band-pass Filter
      2. 4.3.2 Band-stop Filter
    4. 4.4 Parallel Resonance
      1. 4.4.1 Ideal Tank Circuit
      2. 4.4.2 Non-ideal Tank Circuit
      3. 4.4.3 Resonant Frequency
    5. 4.5 Parallel Resonant Filters
      1. 4.5.1 Band-pass Filter
      2. 4.5.2 Band-stop Filter
    6. 4.6 Applications of Resonant Circuits
      1. 4.6.1 Tuned Amplifier
      2. 4.6.2 Input to Receiver from an Antenna
      3. 4.6.3 Other Applications
      4. 4.6.4 Locus Diagram
      5. Review Questions
  13. 5. Network Theorems and Applications
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Superposition Theorem
    3. 5.3 Thevenin’s Theorem
      1. 5.3.1 Procedure for Applying Thevenin’s Theorem
    4. 5.4 Norton’s Theorem
    5. 5.5 Millman’s Theorem
    6. 5.6 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
    7. 5.7 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for Complex Impedance Circuits
    8. 5.8 Reciprocity Theorem
    9. 5.9 Tellegen’s Theorem
    10. 5.10 Compensation Theorem
    11. 5.11 Star-Delta Transformation
      1. 5.11.1 Transforming Relations from Delta to Star
      2. 5.11.2 Transforming Relations from Star to Delta
    12. 5.12 Numericals on Network Theorems
      1. Review Questions
  14. 6. Transient Response of Circuits Using Differential Equations
    1. 6.1 Transient Condition in Networks
    2. 6.2 Transient Response of R-L Series Circuits Having DC Excitation
      1. 6.2.1 Rise of Current Through R-L Series Circuit
      2. 6.2.2 Time Constant of R-L Series Circuit
      3. 6.2.3 Decay of Current Through R-L Series Circuit
    3. 6.3 Transient Response in R-C Series Circuits Having DC Excitation
      1. 6.3.1 Case I: Capacitor is Getting Charged
      2. 6.3.2 Case II: Discharging of Capacitor
    4. 6.4 Transient Response of R-L-C Series Circuits Having DC Excitation
    5. 6.5 Sinusoidal Response of R-L Circuits
    6. 6.6 Sinusoidal Response of R-C Circuits
    7. 6.7 Sinusoidal Response of R-L-C Circuits
      1. Review Questions
  15. 7. Laplace Transform
    1. 7.1 Concept of Laplace Transform
    2. 7.2 Laplace Transform of Standard Functions
    3. 7.3 Laplace Transform Problems Based on Standard Formula
    4. 7.4 Properties of Laplace Transform
      1. 7.4.1 Property 1: First Shifting Property
      2. 7.4.2 Property 2: Multiplication by t n
      3. 7.4.3 Property 3: Division by ‘t’
      4. 7.4.4 Property 4
    5. 7.5 Summary of Useful Properties of Laplace Transform
    6. 7.6 Initial Value Theorem
    7. 7.7 Final Value Theorem
    8. 7.8 Inverse Laplace Transform
    9. 7.9 Convolution Theorem
      1. Review Questions
      2. Multiple Choice Questions
      3. Answers
  16. 8. Transient Response of Circuits Using Laplace Transform
    1. 8.1 Steps to Find Transient Response Using Laplace Transform
    2. 8.2 Circuit Elements in the s-Domain
      1. 8.2.1 Resistor in the s-Domain
      2. 8.2.2 Inductor in s-Domain
      3. 8.2.3 Capacitor in s-Domain
    3. 8.3 DC Response of R-C Series Circuit
    4. 8.4 DC Response of R-L Series Circuit
    5. 8.5 DC Response of an R-L-C Series Circuit
    6. 8.6 Sinusoidal Response of R-L Series Circuit
    7. 8.7 Sinusoidal Response of R-C Series Circuit
      1. Review Questions
  17. 9. Three-Phase Systems and Circuits
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Advantages of Three-Phase Systems
    3. 9.3 Generation of Three-Phase Voltages
      1. 9.3.1 Equation of Three-phase Voltages
      2. 9.3.2 Balanced Three-phase System
    4. 9.4 Terms Used in Three-Phase Systems and Circuits
    5. 9.5 Three-Phase Winding Connections
      1. 9.5.1 Star Connection
      2. 9.5.2 Delta Connection
      3. 9.5.3 Relationship of Line and Phase Voltages and Currents in a Star-connected System
      4. 9.5.4 Relationship of Line and Phase Voltages and Currents in a Delta-connected System
    6. 9.6 Active and Reactive Power
    7. 9.7 Comparison Between Star Connection and Delta Connection
    8. 9.8 Measurment of Power in Three-Phase Circuits
      1. 9.8.1 One-wattmeter Method
      2. 9.8.2 Two-wattmeter Method
      3. 9.8.3 Three-wattmeter Method
      4. 9.8.4 Star to delta and Delta to Star Transformation
    9. 9.9 More Numericals Basesd on Three-Phase Balanced Load
    10. 9.10 Method of Solving Problems on Unbalanced Load
      1. Review Questions
      2. Multiple Choice Questions
      3. Answers
  18. 10. Network Functions − s-Domain Analysis of Circuits
    1. 10.1 Introduction
      1. 10.1.1 Terminals and Ports
      2. 10.1.2 Concept of Complex Frequency
    2. 10.2 Transformed Impedances in s-Domain
      1. 10.2.1 Resistance
      2. 10.2.2 Inductance
      3. 10.2.3 Capacitance
    3. 10.3 One-Port Network
      1. 10.3.1 Driving Point Impedance and Admittance Functions
    4. 10.4 Two-Port Network
      1. 10.4.1 Network Functions of a Two-port Network
    5. 10.5 Transfer Function
    6. 10.6 Network Function in Generalised Form
    7. 10.7 Poles and Zeros of Network Functions
      1. 10.7.1 Poles of a Network Function
      2. 10.7.2 Zeros of a Network Function
    8. 10.8 Pole-Zero Diagram
    9. 10.9 Time-Domain Response from Pole-Zero Plot
    10. 10.10 More Examples on Network Function
    11. 10.11 Poles and Zeros of Network Functions and Their Significance
    12. 10.12 Stability Criterion for an Active Network
    13. 10.13 Examples Based on Pole-Zero Plot
      1. Review Questions
  19. 11. Two-port Network Parameters
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Two-port Network Parameters
      1. 11.2.1 Open-circuit Impedance-parameters or Z-parameters
      2. 11.2.2 Short-circuit Admittance Parameters
      3. 11.2.3 Relationship Between Impedance and Admittance Matrix
      4. 11.2.4 Hybrid or h-parameters
      5. 11.2.5 Inverse Hybrid or g-parameters
      6. 11.2.6 Transmission Parameters
      7. 11.2.7 Inverse Transmission Parameters
    3. 11.3 Correlation of Two-Port Network Parameters
      1. 11.3.1 Conversion of Y-parameters to Z-parameters
      2. 11.3.2 Conversion of A, B, C and D or t-parameters to h-parameters
      3. 11.3.3 Conversion of h-parameters to Y-parameters
    4. 11.4 Two-Port Reciprocal and Symmetrical Networks
      1. 11.4.1 Reciprocal Two-port Network
      2. 11.4.2 Symmetrical Two-port Networks
    5. 11.5 Terminated Two-Port Network
    6. 11.6 Interconnected Two-Port Network
    7. 11.7 T-Circuit Representation of Two-Port Network
    8. 11.8 π-Circuit Representation of Two-Port Network
    9. 11.9 Image Impedance
    10. 11.10 More Solved Numericals
      1. Review Questions
  20. 12. Network Synthesis and Readability
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Hurwitz Conditions for Stability
    3. 12.3 Properties of Positive Real Functions
    4. 12.4 Synthesis of Networks by Foster’s and Cauer’s Methods
    5. 12.5 Foster and Cauer Forms
      1. 12.5.1 Synthesis of R-C Network
      2. 12.5.2 Properties of the R-C Impedance or R-L Admittance Function
      3. 12.5.3 Foster Form-I of R-C Network
      4. 12.5.4 Foster Form-II of R-C Network
      5. 12.5.5 Cauer Forms of R-C Network
      6. 12.5.6 Synthesis of R-L Network
      7. 12.5.7 Properties of R-L Impedance Function/R-CAdmittance Function
      8. 12.5.8 Foster Form-I of R-L Network
      9. 12.5.9 Foster Form-II of R-L Network
      10. 12.5.10 Cauer Form-I of R-L Network
      11. 12.5.11 Cauer Form-II R-L Network
      12. 12.5.12 Synthesis of L-C Networks
      13. 12.5.13 Properties of L-C Immittance
      14. 12.5.14 Foster Form-I of L-C Network
      15. 12.5.15 Foster Form-II of L-C Network
      16. 12.5.16 Cauer Form-I of L-C Network
      17. 12.5.17 Cauer Form-II of L-C Network
    6. 12.6 More Numericals on Synthesis of L-C Network
      1. Review Questions
      2. Multiple Choice Questions
      3. Answers
  21. 13. Filters and Attenuators
    1. 13.1 Introduction
      1. 13.1.1 Measurement in Decibels
    2. 13.2 Types of Filters
    3. 13.3 Classification of Passive Filters
      1. 13.3.1 Low-Pass Filters
      2. 13.3.2 High-Pass Filters
      3. 13.3.3 Band-Pass Filters
      4. 13.3.4 Band-Stop or Band-Elimination Filter
    4. 13.4 Parameters of a Filter
      1. 13.4.1 Propagation Constant (γ)
      2. 13.4.2 Attenuation Constant
      3. 13.4.3 Phase Shift Constant (β)
      4. 13.4.4 Characteristic Impedance (Z0 )
    5. 13.5 Filter Networks
      1. 13.5.1 Formation of Symmetrical T-Network
      2. 13.5.2 Formation of Symmetrical π-Network
      3. 13.5.3 Ladder Network
    6. 13.6 Analysis of Filter Networks
      1. 13.6.1 Symmetrical T-Network
      2. 13.6.2 Analysis of π-Network
      3. 13.6.3 Summary of Parameters of Filter Network
    7. 13.7 Classification of Filters
    8. 13.8 Constant K-Type or Prototype Filters
      1. 13.8.1 Constant K-type Low-Pass Filters (LPF)
      2. 13.8.2 Constant K-type High-Pass-Filters (HPF)
      3. 13.8.3 Comparison of Constant K-Type LPF and HPF
      4. 13.8.4 Constant K-type Band-Pass Filter
      5. 13.8.5 Constant K-type Band-Stop/Band-Elimination Filter
      6. 13.8.6 Comparison of Constant K-type Filters
      7. 13.8.7 Limitations of Constant K-type Filters
    9. 13.9 m-Derived Filters
      1. 13.9.1 m-Derived T-section
      2. 13.9.2 m-Derived π-section
      3. 13.9.3 m-Derived Low-Pass Filter
      4. 13.9.4 Summary of m-Derived Low-Pass Filter
      5. 13.9.5 m-Derived High-Pass Filter
      6. 13.9.6 Summary of m-Derived HPF
      7. 13.9.7 Comparison of m-Derived LPF and HPF
      8. 13.9.8 m-Derived Band-Pass Filter
      9. 13.9.9 m-Derived Band-Stop Filter
    10. 13.10 Composite Filters
      1. 13.10.1 Composite Low-Pass Filter
      2. 13.10.2 Composite High-Pass Filter
    11. 13.11 Additional Solved Numericals on Filters
      1. 13.11.1 Problems on m-Derived Low-pass Filters
      2. 13.11.2 Problems on m-Derived High-pass Filters
      3. 13.11.3 Problems on Composite Filters
    12. 13.12 Attenuators
      1. 13.12.1 Introduction
      2. 13.12.2 T-type Attenuator
      3. 13.12.3 π-type Attenuator
      4. 13.12.4 Lattice Attenuator
      5. 13.12.5 Bridged T-type Attenuator
    13. 13.13 More Solved Problems on Filters and Attenuators
      1. Review Questions
      2. Multiple Choice Questions
      3. Answers
  22. Index