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NCLEX-RN® Exam Cram, Fifth Edition

Book Description

This is the eBook version of the print title. The eBook edition does not provide access to the test engine and practice test that accompanies the print book.

The book offers a quick ‘cram’ approach to the NCLEX that is very user-friendly and not time-intensive. The overall approach is very learner-centered and the content is well-paced.” —Catherine Dearman, R.N., Ph.D.

Covers exactly what you need to know to score higher on your NCLEX-RN® exam

  • 500+ sample test questions help you gain confidence and decide when you’re ready to take the actual exam

  • Includes the popular Cram Sheet tearcard to help you remember key concepts and do extra last-minute studying Exam Alerts identify important information found on the exam

  • Simplifies key medication aide concepts and techniques for easy learning

  • Covers the critical information you’ll need to know to score higher on your NCLEX-RN exam!

  • Discover how the NCLEX-RN exam works, and how best to prepare for it

  •  Understand essential disease processes, treatments, and diagnostic studies

  • Care for clients with respiratory, genitourinary, hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, endocrine, cardiovascular, neurological, and many other disorders

  • Serve maternal, infant, and pediatric clients

  • Provide compassionate and effective emergency and psychiatric care

  • Consider cultural, religious, and legal concerns associated with client care

  • Review all stages of the nursing process: assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation

  • Address client needs for a safe, effective-care environment; health promotion and maintenance; and psychosocial and physiological integrity

  • Table of Contents

    1. About This eBook
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright Page
    4. Contents at a Glance
    5. Table of Contents
    6. About the Authors
    7. About the Technical Editor
    8. Acknowledgments
    9. We Want to Hear from You!
    10. Reader Services
    11. Introduction
      1. Welcome to the NCLEX-RN® Exam Cram
      2. Taking the Computerized Adaptive Test
      3. The Cost of the Exam
      4. How to Prepare for the Exam
      5. Contact the Nursing Board in Your Area
      6. How to Use This Book
      7. About the Book
      8. Contact the Authors
      9. Self-Assessment
      10. Companion Website
      11. Pearson IT Certification Practice Test Engine and Questions
        1. Install the Software
        2. Activate and Download the Practice Exam
      12. Testing Your Exam Readiness
    12. Chapter 1. Preparing for the National Council Exam for Registered Nurses
      1. Preparing for the Exam
        1. The CAT Exam
      2. Testing Strategies
      3. Read the Question Carefully
        1. Look for Keywords
        2. Watch for Specific Details
        3. Eliminate Options That Are Clearly Wrong or Incorrect
        4. Look for Similar Options
        5. Look for Opposite Answers
        6. Remember Legalities
        7. Remember Infection Control
      4. Exam Prep Questions
        1. Answer Rationales
    13. Chapter 2. Pharmacology
      1. Three Areas of Pharmacology
      2. How Nurses Work with Pharmacology
      3. Time-Released Drugs
      4. Administering Medications
        1. The Rights of Administering Medication
      5. Understanding and Identifying the Various Drugs
        1. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
        2. Beta Adrenergic Blockers
        3. Anti-Infectives (Aminoglycosides)
        4. Benzodiazepines (Anticonvulsants/Antianxiety)
        5. Phenothiazines (Antipsychotic/Antiemetic)
        6. Glucocorticoids
        7. Antivirals
        8. Cholesterol-Lowering Agents
        9. Angiotensin Receptor Blockers
        10. Histamine 2 Antagonists
        11. Proton Pump Inhibitors
        12. Anticoagulants
        13. More Drug Identification Helpers
      6. Herbals
      7. Drug Schedules
      8. Pregnancy Categories for Drugs
      9. Exam Prep Questions
        1. Answer Rationales
    14. Chapter 3. Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Respiratory System
      1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
        1. Chronic Bronchitis
        2. Emphysema
        3. Asthma
      2. Acute Respiratory Infections
        1. Pneumonia
        2. Pleurisy
        3. Tuberculosis
        4. Influenza
      3. Acute Respiratory Failure
        1. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
        2. Pulmonary Embolus
      4. Emerging Infections
        1. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
        2. Legionnaire’s Disease
      5. Diagnostic Tests for Review
      6. Pharmacology Categories for Review
      7. Exam Prep Questions
        1. Answer Rationales
      8. Suggested Reading and Resources
    15. Chapter 4. Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Genitourinary System
      1. Acute Glomerulonephritis
      2. Chronic Glomerulonephritis
      3. End Stage Renal Disease
        1. Peritoneal Dialysis
        2. Hemodialysis
        3. Renal Transplantation
      4. Nephrotic Syndrome
      5. Urinary Calculi
      6. Urinary Tract Infections
      7. Genitourinary Disorders
        1. Prostatitis
      8. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
      9. Bladder Cancer
      10. Diagnostic Tests for Review
      11. Pharmacology Categories for Review
      12. Exam Prep Questions
        1. Answer Rationales
      13. Suggested Reading and Resources
    16. Chapter 5. Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Hematopoietic System
      1. Anemia
        1. Pernicious Anemia
        2. Aplastic Anemia
        3. Sickle Cell Disease
        4. Iron Deficiency Anemia
        5. Cooley’s Anemia (Thalassemia Major)
      2. Hemophilia
      3. Polycythemia Vera
      4. Diagnostic Tests for Review
      5. Pharmacology for Review
      6. Exam Prep Questions
        1. Answer Rationales
      7. Suggested Reading and Resources
    17. Chapter 6. Caring for the Client with Disorders of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance and Acid/Base Balance
      1. Basic Knowledge of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
      2. Regulation of pH and Its Effect on Fluid and Electrolytes
        1. How the Body Regulates pH
      3. Metabolic Acidosis
        1. Causes of Metabolic Acidosis
        2. Symptoms of Metabolic Acidosis
        3. Care of the Client with Metabolic Acidosis
      4. Respiratory Acidosis
        1. Causes of Respiratory Acidosis
        2. Symptoms of Respiratory Acidosis
        3. Caring for the Client with Respiratory Acidosis
      5. Metabolic Alkalosis
        1. Causes of Metabolic Alkalosis
        2. Symptoms of Metabolic Alkalosis
        3. Caring for the Client with Metabolic Alkalosis
      6. Respiratory Alkalosis
        1. Symptoms of Respiratory Alkalosis
        2. Care of the Client with Respiratory Alkalosis
      7. Normal Electrolyte Values
      8. Changes Associated with Aging
      9. Exam Prep Questions
        1. Answer Rationales
      10. Suggested Reading and Resources
    18. Chapter 7. Caring for the Client with Burns
      1. Burn Classifications
        1. Burn Measurement with TBSA
      2. Nursing Care for Burn Victims
        1. The Resuscitative (Emergent) Phase
        2. The Acute (Intermediate) Phase
        3. Dressings for Burns
        4. The Rehabilitative Phase
      3. Diagnostic Tests for Review
      4. Pharmacology Categories for Review
      5. Exam Prep Questions
        1. Answer Rationales
      6. Suggested Reading and Resources
    19. Chapter 8. Caring for the Client with Sensorineural Disorders
      1. Disorders of the Eyes
        1. Intraocular Disorders
        2. Retinal Disorders
        3. Refractive Errors
        4. Traumatic Injuries
      2. Visual Tests for Review
      3. Pharmacology Categories for Review
      4. Ear Disorders
        1. Otitis Externa
        2. Otitis Media
        3. Meniere’s Disease
        4. Otosclerosis
        5. Presbycusis
        6. Ear Trauma
      5. Assisting Clients with Hearing Loss
      6. Diagnostic Tests for Review
      7. Pharmacology Categories for Review
      8. Exam Prep Questions
        1. Answer Rationales
      9. Suggested Reading and Resources
    20. Chapter 9. Caring for the Client with Cancer
      1. Cancer
        1. American Cancer Society’s Seven Warning Signs of Cancer
        2. The Four Major Categories of Cancer
        3. Risk Factors for Specific Cancers
        4. Cancer Prevention
        5. Patient Teaching
      2. Management of the Client with Cancer
        1. Radiation
        2. Chemotherapy
      3. Bone Marrow and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation (PSCT)
        1. Types of Transplants
        2. Nursing Care After Transplantation
      4. Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
        1. Diagnosis of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
        2. Prognosis of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
        3. Treatment of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
      5. Diagnostic Tests for Review
      6. Pharmacology for Review
      7. Exam Prep Questions
        1. Answer Rationales
      8. Suggested Reading and Resources
    21. Chapter 10. Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Gastrointestinal System
      1. Ulcers
        1. Types of Ulcers
        2. Treatment of Ulcers
      2. Inflammatory Bowel Disorders
        1. Crohn’s Disease (Regional Enteritis)
        2. Ulcerative Colitis
      3. Diverticulitis
        1. Diagnosis of Diverticulitis
        2. Treatment of Diverticulitis
      4. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
      5. Diseases Associated with the Liver
        1. Hepatitis
        2. Cirrhosis
        3. Pancreatitis
      6. Cholecystitis/Cholelithiasis
        1. Symptoms of Cholecystitis and Cholelithiasis
        2. Diagnosis of Cholecystitis/Cholethiasis
        3. Treatment of Cholecystitis
        4. Treatment of Cholethiasis
      7. Clostridium Difficile
      8. Food-Borne Illnesses
      9. Diagnostic Tests for Review
      10. Pharmacology for Review
      11. Exam Prep Questions
        1. Answer Rationales
      12. Suggested Reading and Resources
    22. Chapter 11. Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Musculoskeletal System
      1. Fractures
        1. Treating Fractures
        2. Compartment Syndrome
        3. Osteomyelitis
      2. Osteoporosis
        1. Treatment of Osteoporosis
      3. Gout
        1. Treatment of the Client with Gout
      4. Rheumatoid Arthritis
        1. Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis
      5. Musculoskeletal Surgical Procedures
        1. Fractured Hip and Hip Replacement
        2. Total Knee Replacement
        3. Amputations
      6. Assistive Devices for Ambulation
        1. Crutches
        2. Canes
        3. Walkers
      7. Diagnostic Tests for Review
      8. Pharmacology for Review
      9. Exam Prep Questions
        1. Answer Rationales
      10. Suggested Reading and Resources
    23. Chapter 12. Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Endocrine System
      1. The Endocrine System
      2. Pituitary Disorders
        1. Tumors of the Pituitary
      3. Thyroid Disorders
        1. Hypothyroidism
        2. Hyperthyroidism
      4. Parathyroid Disorders
        1. Hypoparathyroidism
        2. Hyperparathyroidism
      5. Adrenal Gland Disorders
        1. Adrenocortical Insufficiency (Addison’s Disease)
        2. Adrenocortical Hypersecretion (Cushing’s Syndrome) or Cushing’s Disease
      6. Diabetes Mellitus
      7. Diagnostic Tests for Review
      8. Pharmacology Categories for Review
      9. Exam Prep Questions
        1. Answer Rationales
      10. Suggested Reading and Resources
    24. Chapter 13. Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Cardiovascular System
      1. Hypertension
        1. Medications Used to Treat Hypertension
      2. Heart Block
        1. Toxicity to Medications
        2. Malfunction of the Conduction System
      3. Myocardial Infarction
        1. Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction
        2. Management of Myocardial Infarction Clients
      4. Inflammatory Diseases of the Heart
        1. Infective Endocarditis
        2. Pericarditis
      5. Buerger’s Disease
      6. Thrombophlebitis
      7. Raynaud’s Syndrome
      8. Aneurysms
      9. Congestive Heart Failure
        1. Diagnostic Tests for Review
      10. Pharmacology Categories for Review
      11. Exam Prep Questions
        1. Answer Rationales
      12. Suggested Reading and Resources
    25. Chapter 14. Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Neurological System
      1. Seizures
        1. Types of Seizures
        2. Treatment of Seizure Clients
      2. Status Epilepticus
      3. Brain Injuries
        1. Epidural Hematomas
        2. Subdural Hematoma
        3. Treatment of Epidural and Subdural Hematomas
      4. Increased Intracranial Pressure
        1. Treatment of ICP
      5. Neurological Assessment
        1. Cranial Nerve Assessment
        2. Glasgow Coma Scale
        3. Intracranial Pressure Monitors
      6. Care of the Client with Intracranial Surgery (Craniotomy)
      7. Cerebrovascular Accident/Stroke
      8. Spinal Cord Injury
        1. Treatment of Spinal Cord Injuries
        2. Potential Complications with SCI Clients
      9. Guillain-Barré
        1. Treating Clients with Guillian-Barré
      10. Degenerative Neurological Disorders
      11. Diagnostic Tests for Review
      12. Pharmacology for Review
      13. Exam Prep Questions
        1. Answer Rationales
      14. Suggested Reading and Resources
    26. Chapter 15. Caring for the Client with Psychiatric Disorders
      1. Anxiety Disorders
        1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
        2. Panic Disorder
        3. Specific Phobia
        4. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
      2. Trauma Related Disorders
        1. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
        2. Dissociative Disorders
        3. Dissociative Identity Disorder
        4. Somatic Disorder
      3. Personality Disorders
        1. Managing Clients with Personality Disorders
      4. Psychotic Disorders
        1. Schizophrenia
        2. Bipolar Disorders
      5. Substance Abuse
        1. Alcoholism
        2. Other Commonly Abused Substances
      6. Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence
        1. Disruptive, Control, and Conduct Disorders
        2. Neurodevelopmental Disorders
        3. Eating Disorders
      7. Diagnostic Tests for Review
      8. Pharmacology Categories for Review
      9. Exam Prep Questions
        1. Answer Rationales
      10. Suggested Reading and Resources
    27. Chapter 16. Caring for the Maternal/Infant Client
      1. Signs of Pregnancy
        1. Presumptive Signs
        2. Probable Signs
        3. Positive Signs
      2. Prenatal Care
        1. Prenatal Diet and Weight Maintenance
        2. Alpha-Fetoprotein Screening
        3. Other Prenatal Diagnostic Tests
        4. Assessing Fetal Heart Tones
        5. Ultrasonography
      3. Signs of Complications of Pregnancy
      4. Types of Abortions
      5. Complications Affecting Pregnancy
        1. Diabetes in Pregnancy
        2. Preeclampsia
        3. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
        4. Cord Prolapse
        5. Abruptio Placenta
        6. Placenta Previa
      6. Maternal Infections
      7. Preterm Labor
      8. Intrapartal Care
        1. Stages of Labor
        2. Phases of Labor
        3. Important Terms You Should Know
      9. Prelabor Testing
      10. Fetal Monitoring
      11. Pharmacologic Management of Labor
      12. Postpartum Care
      13. Terms Associated with the Normal Newborn
      14. Rh Incompatibility
      15. Contraception
      16. Diagnostic Tests for Review
      17. Pharmacology Categories for Review
      18. Exam Prep Questions
        1. Answer Rationales
      19. Suggested Reading and Resources
    28. Chapter 17. Caring for the Pediatric Client
      1. Growth and Development
        1. Infant (28 Days to 1 Year)
        2. Toddler (1–3 Years)
        3. Preschooler (3–5 Years)
        4. School Age (6–12 Years)
        5. Adolescence (12–18 Years)
      2. Congenital Anomalies
        1. Anomalies of the Gastrointestinal System
        2. Anomalies of the Musculoskeletal System
        3. Anomalies of the Cardiovascular System
        4. Inborn Errors of Metabolism
      3. Respiratory Disorders
        1. Acute Otitis Media
        2. Tonsillitis
        3. Laryngotracheobronchitis
        4. Acute Epiglottitis
        5. Bronchiolitis
        6. Cystic Fibrosis (Mucoviscidosis)
      4. Gastrointestinal Disorders
        1. Gastroenteritis
        2. Pyloric Stenosis
        3. Intussusception
        4. Celiac Disease (Gluten-Induced Enteropathy, Celiac Sprue)
      5. Cardiovascular Disorders
        1. Rheumatic Fever
        2. Kawasaki’s Disease (Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome)
      6. Musculoskeletal Disorders
        1. Scoliosis
        2. Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (Coxa Plana)
        3. Muscular Dystrophies
      7. Childhood Cancer
        1. Wilms Tumor (Nephroblastoma)
        2. Leukemia
        3. Osteogenic Sarcoma (Osteosarcoma)
      8. Ingestion of Hazardous Substances
        1. Salicylate Overdose
        2. Acetaminophen Overdose
        3. Lead Poisoning (Plumbism)
        4. Iron Poisoning
      9. Diagnostic Tests for Review
      10. Pharmacology Categories for Review
      11. Exam Prep Questions
        1. Answer Rationales
      12. Suggested Reading and Resources
    29. Chapter 18. Emergency Nursing
      1. The ABCDs of Emergency Care
        1. Airway
        2. Breathing
        3. Circulation
        4. Deficits
        5. Obtaining Client Information
      2. Trauma
        1. Head Injuries
        2. Chest Injuries
        3. Abdominal Injuries
        4. Documenting and Protecting Forensic Evidence
      3. Poisoning
      4. Poisonous Stings and Bites
      5. Bioterrorism
        1. Chemical and Biological Agents
        2. Nuclear Warfare
        3. Triage Categories for Disaster Victims
      6. Diagnostic Tests for Review
      7. Pharmacology Categories for Review
      8. Exam Prep Questions
        1. Answer Rationales
      9. Suggested Reading and Resources
    30. Chapter 19. Cultural Practices Influencing Nursing Care
      1. Cultural Assessment
        1. Understanding Client Beliefs
        2. Working with Clients Who Speak Different Languages
      2. Healthcare of Hispanics/Latinos
        1. Time Considerations
        2. Use of Nonverbal/Verbal Communication
        3. Childbirth and Pain Response
      3. Healthcare of Native Americans and Alaskan Natives
        1. Time Considerations
        2. Use of Nonverbal/Verbal Communication
        3. Childbirth and Pain Response
      4. Healthcare of Asian-Americans
        1. Time Considerations
        2. Use of Nonverbal/Verbal Communication
        3. Childbirth and Pain Response
      5. Healthcare of Middle Eastern-Americans
        1. Time Considerations
        2. Use of Nonverbal/Verbal Communication
        3. Childbirth and Pain Response
      6. Nursing Plan Dietary Considerations Across Cultures
      7. Religious Beliefs and Refusal of Care Considerations
      8. Exam Prep Questions
        1. Answer Rationales
      9. Suggested Reading and Resources
    31. Chapter 20. Legal Issues in Nursing Practice
      1. Types of Laws
        1. Statutory Laws/Regulatory Laws
        2. Civil Laws
        3. Criminal Laws
        4. Common Law
      2. Code of Ethical Behavior in Nursing Practice
      3. Legal Theories That Affect Nursing Practice
        1. Negligence
        2. Malpractice
        3. Witnessing Consent for Care
        4. Tort
        5. Assault and Battery
        6. Fraud
      4. Managing Client Care
      5. Exam Prep Questions
        1. Answers to Exam Questions
      6. Suggested Reading and Resources
    32. Practice Exam I NCLEX-RN Exam Cram, Fifth Edition
    33. Practice Exam II NCLEX-RN Exam Cram, Fifth Edition
    34. Answers to Practice Exam I
      1. Answer Rationales
    35. Answers to Practice Exam II
      1. Answer Rationales
    36. Appendix A. Things You Forgot
      1. Therapeutic Drug Levels
      2. Vital Signs
      3. Anticoagulant Therapy
      4. Intrapartal Normal Values
      5. Standard Precautions
        1. Airborne Precautions
        2. Droplet Precautions
        3. Contact Precautions
      6. Revised Life Support Guidelines (American Heart Association)
      7. Defense Mechanisms
      8. Nutrition Notes
      9. Immunization Schedule for Children and Adults
    37. Appendix B. Need to Know More?
      1. Pharmacology
      2. Care of the Client with Respiratory Disorders
      3. Care of the Client with Genitourinary Disorders
      4. Care of the Client with Hematological Disorders
      5. Fluid and Electrolytes and Acid/Base Balance
      6. Care of the Client with Burns
      7. Care of the Client with Sensory Disorders
      8. Care of the Client with Neoplastic Disorders
      9. Care of the Client with Gastrointestinal Disorders
      10. Care of the Client with Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders
      11. Care of the Client with Endocrine Disorders
      12. Care of the Client with Cardiac Disorders
      13. Care of the Client with Neurological Disorders
      14. Care of the Client with Psychiatric Disorders
      15. Maternal-Newborn Care
      16. Care of the Pediatric Client
      17. Emergency Nursing
      18. Cultural Practices Influencing Nursing Care
      19. Legal Issues in Nursing Practice
    38. Appendix C. Calculations
      1. The Apothecary System of Measurement
      2. The Household System of Measurement
      3. Metric Measurements
      4. Test Your Math Skills
      5. Answers
    39. Appendix D. Commonly-Prescribed Medications in the United States
    40. Index