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Navigating C++ and Object-Oriented Design by Gail Anderson, Paul Anderson

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4.8. Volatile Objects

The wide variety of applications that we model with objects sometimes demands controlling hardware devices or accessing memory locations that change external to our programs. This is not a problem conceptually for software designs unless an aggressive compiler optimizes our code and breaks the intended behavior. The volatile keyword in variable declarations forces compilers to access volatile variables everywhere they appear in programs, inasmuch as they might change without a compiler knowing it. In this section, we examine volatile objects and volatile member functions to further enhance these concepts.

Users create volatile objects with the keyword volatile. Here are several examples.

 volatile Screen bitmap; // volatile ...

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