Our programs will often need to deal with different languages, and different character sets. The concept of “plain text” is a fiction. If you live in the English-speaking world you probably use ASCII, possibly without realizing it. If you live in Europe you might use one of the extended Latin character sets, containing such characters as “ø” for Danish and Norwegian, “ő” for Hungarian, “ñ” for Spanish and Breton, and “ň” for Czech and Slovak. In this section, we will give an overview of how to use Unicode for processing texts that use non-ASCII character sets.
Unicode supports over a million characters. Each character is
assigned a number, called a code
point. In Python, code points are written in the form
XXXX is the number in four-digit hexadecimal
Within a program, we can manipulate Unicode strings just like normal strings. However, when Unicode characters are stored in files or displayed on a terminal, they must be encoded as a stream of bytes. Some encodings (such as ASCII and Latin-2) use a single byte per code point, so they can support only a small subset of Unicode, enough for a single language. Other encodings (such as UTF-8) use multiple bytes and can represent the full range of Unicode characters.
Text in files will be in a particular encoding, so we need some mechanism for translating it into Unicode—translation into Unicode is called decoding. Conversely, to write out Unicode to a file or a terminal, we ...