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Natural Gas Hydrates

Book Description

Rarely covered in formal engineering courses, natural gas hydrates are a common problem and real-life danger for engineers worldwide. Updated and more practical than ever, Natural Gas Hydrates, Third Edition helps managers and engineers get up to speed on all the most common hydrate types, how to forecast when they will appear, and safely mitigate their removal. Known for being highly flammable, gas hydrates are a preventable threat that can costs millions of dollars in damage, as well as take the lives of workers and engineers on the rig. The third edition of Natural Gas Hydrates is enhanced with today’s more complex yet practical utilization needs including:

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Acknowledgment
  6. Preface to the Third Edition
  7. Preface to the Second Edition
  8. Preface to the First Edition
  9. Chapter 1. Introduction
    1. 1.1. Natural Gas
    2. 1.2. The Water Molecule
    3. 1.3. Hydrates
    4. 1.4. Water and Natural Gas
    5. 1.5. Heavy Water
    6. 1.6. Additional Reading
    7. 1.7. Units
    8. 1.8. Quantifying Error
  10. Chapter 2. Hydrate Types and Formers
    1. 2.1. Type I Hydrates
    2. 2.2. Type II Hydrates
    3. 2.3. Type H Hydrates
    4. 2.4. The Size of the Guest Molecule
    5. 2.5. n-Butane
    6. 2.6. Other Hydrocarbons
    7. 2.7. Cyclopropane
    8. 2.8. 2-Butene
    9. 2.9. Hydrogen and Helium
    10. 2.10. Chemical Properties of Potential Guests
    11. 2.11. Liquid Hydrate Formers
    12. 2.12. Hydrate Forming Conditions
    13. 2.13. V + LA + H Correlations
    14. 2.14. LA + LN + H Correlations
    15. 2.15. Quadruple Points
    16. 2.16. Other Hydrate Formers
    17. 2.17. Hydrate Formation at 0 °C
    18. 2.18. Mixtures
    19. Appendix 2A Water Content of the Fluid in Equilibrium with Hydrate for Pure Components
  11. Chapter 3. Hand Calculation Methods
    1. 3.1. The Gas Gravity Method
    2. 3.2. The K-Factor Method
    3. 3.3. Baillie–Wichert Method
    4. 3.4. Other Correlations
    5. 3.5. Comments on All of These Methods
    6. 3.6. Local Models
    7. Appendix 3A Katz K-Factor Charts
  12. Chapter 4. Computer Methods
    1. 4.1. Phase Equilibrium
    2. 4.2. van der Waals and Platteeuw
    3. 4.3. Parrish and Prausnitz
    4. 4.4. Ng and Robinson
    5. 4.5. Calculations
    6. 4.6. Commercial Software Packages
    7. 4.7. The Accuracy of These Programs
    8. 4.8. Dehydration
    9. 4.9. Margin of Error
  13. Chapter 5. Inhibiting Hydrate Formation with Chemicals
    1. 5.1. Freezing Point Depression
    2. 5.2. The Hammerschmidt Equation
    3. 5.3. The Nielsen–Bucklin Equation
    4. 5.4. A New Method
    5. 5.5. Brine Solutions
    6. 5.6. Østergaard et al
    7. 5.7. Comment on the Simple Methods
    8. 5.8. Advanced Calculation Methods
    9. 5.9. A Word of Caution
    10. 5.10. Ammonia
    11. 5.11. Acetone
    12. 5.12. Inhibitor Vaporization
    13. 5.13. A Comment on Injection Rates
    14. 5.14. Safety Considerations
    15. 5.15. Price for Inhibitor Chemicals
    16. 5.16. Low Dosage Hydrate Inhibitors
  14. Chapter 6. Dehydration of Natural Gas
    1. 6.1. Water Content Specification
    2. 6.2. Glycol Dehydration
    3. 6.3. Mole Sieves
    4. 6.4. Refrigeration
  15. Chapter 7. Combating Hydrates Using Heat and Pressure
    1. 7.1. Plugs
    2. 7.2. The Use of Heat
    3. 7.3. Depressurization
    4. 7.4. Melting a Plug with Heat
    5. 7.5. Hydrate Plug Location
    6. 7.6. Buildings
    7. 7.7. Capital Costs
    8. 7.8. Case Studies
    9. Appendix 7A Output from Pipe Heat Loss Program for the Examples in the Text
  16. Chapter 8. Physical Properties of Hydrates
    1. 8.1. Molar Mass
    2. 8.2. Density
    3. 8.3. Enthalpy of Fusion
    4. 8.4. Heat Capacity
    5. 8.5. Thermal Conductivity
    6. 8.6. Mechanical Properties
    7. 8.7. Volume of Gas in Hydrate
    8. 8.8. Ice versus Hydrate
  17. Chapter 9. Phase Diagrams
    1. 9.1. Phase Rule
    2. 9.2. Comments about Phases
    3. 9.3. Single Component Systems
    4. 9.4. Binary Systems
    5. 9.5. Phase Behavior below 0 °C
    6. 9.6. Multicomponent Systems
  18. Chapter 10. Water Content of Natural Gas
    1. 10.1. Dew Point
    2. 10.2. Equilibrium with Liquid Water
    3. 10.3. Equilibrium with Solids
    4. 10.4. Local Water Content Model
    5. Appendix 10A Output from AQUAlibrium
    6. Hydrate Book Example 10.4: 100 psi
    7. Hydrate Book Example 10.4: 250 psi
    8. Hydrate Book Example 10.4: 500 psi
    9. Hydrate Book Example 10.4: 1000 psi
  19. Chapter 11. Additional Topics
    1. 11.1. Joule-Thomson Expansion
    2. 11.2. Theoretical Treatment
    3. 11.3. Ideal Gas
    4. 11.4. Real Fluids
    5. 11.5. Slurry Flow
    6. 11.6. Hydrate Formation in the Reservoir during Production
    7. 11.7. Flow in the Well
    8. 11.8. Carbon Storage
    9. 11.9. Transportation
    10. 11.10. Natural Occurrence of Hydrates
    11. 11.11. Seabed
    12. 11.12. Natural Gas Formations
    13. 11.13. Outer Space
  20. Index