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Nanotechnology

Book Description

Over the past few decades, devices and technologies have been significantly miniaturized from one generation to the next, providing far more potential in a much smaller package. The smallest of these recently developed tools are miniscule enough to be invisible to the naked eye. Nanotechnology: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications describes some of the latest advances in microscopic technologies in fields as diverse as biochemistry, materials science, medicine, and electronics. Through its investigation of theories, applications, and new developments in the nanotechnology field, this impressive reference source will serve as a valuable tool for researchers, engineers, academics, and students alike.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. NANOSCIENCES AND NANOTECHNOLOGIES: INTRODUCTION TO THEIR MAIN FEATURES
      4. NANOSCIENCES AND NANOTECHNOLOGIES AS GENERAL PURPOSE TECHNOLOGY
      5. THE DISRUPTIVE CHARACTER OF NANOSCIENCES AND NANOTECHNOLOGIES
      6. FORECASTING DEVELOPMENT PATHS FOR NANOTECHNOLOGIES AND NANOSCIENCES
      7. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 2: A Networking Paradigm Inspired by Cell Communication Mechanisms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOLECULAR COMMUNICATION
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 3: Bionanotechnology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
      3. 2. INTRODUCTION
      4. 3. DEFINITION OF BIONANOTECHNOLOGY
      5. 4. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE OVERVIEW
      6. 5. BIONANOTECHNOLOGY SENSORS
      7. 6. NANO-ENABLED DRUG DELIVERY
      8. 7. U.S. FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA) AND NANOMEDICINE REGULATION
      9. 8. BIONANOTECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS
      10. 9. BIOSYNTHESIS OF NANOPARTICLES
      11. 10. THE FUTURE OF BIONANOTECHNOLOGY
      12. 11. PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES AND ORGANIZATIONS
      13. 12. CHAPTER SUMMARY
    4. Chapter 4: Electrostatic Potential at Nuclei
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. EPN AS A REACTIVITY INDEX FOR PROCESSES OF HYDROGEN BONDING
      5. THEORETICAL EXPLANATION: A MOROKUMA ANALYSIS
      6. DESCRIBING CHEMICAL REACTIVITY
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 5: Nanoroots of Quantum Chemistry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. ATOMIC RADII AND SCALES AND ELECTRONEGATIVITY FORMULATIONS
      4. 3. SIZE DEPENDENT ATOMIC PROPERTIES
      5. 4. BONDONIC PROPERTIES OF CHEMICAL BONDING
      6. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 6: Parallel Quantum Chemistry at the Crossroads
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BASIC PARAMETERS IN PARALLEL COMPUTING
      4. LESSONS LEARNED AND CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PARALLEL MOLECULAR QUANTUM CHEMISTRY
      5. THE CROSSROADS: WHICH WAY TO GO TO EXTEND THE LIMITS OF PARALLELISM
      6. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 7: Exploring Structural and Dynamical Properties Microtubules by Means of Artificial Neural Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODS
      4. RESULTS
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
    8. Chapter 8: Synthesis and Characterization of Hexagonal Shaped Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide Powders
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. EXPERIMENTS
      4. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 9: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications of Special Substrates Coated by Titanium Dioxide Nanostructured Thin Films via Sol-Gel Process
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PREPARATION OF DIP-COATING SOLUTIONS
      4. SOL-GEL SYNTHESIS AND DEPOSITION METHODS
      5. PROPERTIES OF TiO NANOSTRUCTURED THIN FILMS
      6. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF TiO NANOSTRUCTURED THIN FILMS
      7. OPTICAL CONSTANTS AND THICKNESS DETERMINATION OF TiO NANOSTRUCTURED THIN FILMS BY SIFM
      8. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 10: FPGA-Based Object Detection and Motion Tracking in Micro- and Nanorobotics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FPGA-BASED IMAGE PROCESSING
      4. CONNECTED COMPONENT LABELING
      5. OBJECT FEATURES
      6. OBJECT DETECTION AND CLASSIFICATION
      7. MOTION TRACKING
      8. CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK
    11. Chapter 11: Cluster Origin of Solvent Features of Fullerenes, Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes, Nanocones, and Nanohorns
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COMPUTATIONAL METHOD
      4. GRAPHENE: MANIPULATION, MEASUREMENT, NCs, PAHs, FG AND EG
      5. ENERGY LANDSCAPES IN B CHEMISTRY: BOTTOM-UP APPROACH AND NTs
      6. SINGLE-WALL CARBON NANOHORNS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
      7. THEORY OF CARBON NANOTUBES AS OPTICAL NANOWAVEGUIDES
      8. TUNING PLASMONIC PROPERTIES OF Au NANORODS: DIRECTED ASSEMBLY
      9. QUANTUM DOTS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN IMMUNOASSAYS
      10. SENSORS BASED ON PLASMONIC NANOPARTICLES
      11. PREPARATION OF Ag/Zn-DOPED MULLITE-BASED CERAMICS
      12. NANOPHOTOPOLYMERIZATION TRIGGERED BY OPTICAL NEAR FIELD OF NPs
      13. PHOTOCHEMICALLY GENERATED GOLD NPs ON SOLID SUPPORTS
      14. VERTICALLY ALIGNED NANORODS OF ZINC OXIDE
      15. NANOCATALYSIS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR GREEN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS
      16. FUNCTIONALIZATION OF POLYMER NANOPARTICLES BY THIOL–ENE ADDITION
      17. NANOSIZING–CONFINEMENT: STRATEGIES TOWARDS MEETING H STORAGE
      18. BIOMIMETIC MOLECULAR SWITCHES AND MOTORS
      19. ELECTROCHEMISTRY OF SINGLE NPs: ELECTROCATALYTIC AMPLIFICATION
      20. FUSION OF Au NPs PASSIVATED WITH THIOLS VIA ACTION OF LIGHT UV-C
      21. STRUCTURAL, ELECTRONIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF Si NANOWIRES
      22. FIELD EMISSION RESONANCES AT TIP/MERCAPTOALKYL FERROCENE/GOLD
      23. BIOINSPIRED NANOMATERIALS
      24. OPTIMIZING SOLVENT SELECTION: SOLVENT-TYPE SELECTIVITY
      25. NANOPARTICLES BASED ON Fe COMPLEXES WITH SPIN TRANSITION
      26. NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS
      27. NANOBIOTECHNLOGY: SELF-ASSEMBLING CYCLIC PEPTIDE NANOMATERIALS
      28. MATERIAL BINDING PEPTIDES FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY
      29. LOW-TEMPERATURE SYNTHESIS OF TiO PHOTOCATALYST AND DYES
      30. NANOSCALE MATERIALS IN CHEMISTRY: ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS
      31. COUPLING EFFECT IN OPTICAL METAMATERIALS
      32. SURFACE QUENCHING SIZE-DEPENDENT LUMINESCENCE OF UP-CONVERSION
      33. ELECTROANALYTICAL APPLICATIONS OF MNPs AND NANOSTRUCTURES
      34. NT–STARCH POLYMER NCs, CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY, HEALTH AND SAFETY
      35. PARTICULATE CONTAMINATION RISK, DELIVERING AND CHALLENGES
      36. CALCULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      37. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      38. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 12: Nanotechnology for Photovoltaic Energy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. SOLAR RADIATION
      4. 3. PRINCIPAL OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL
      5. 4. NANOTECHNOLOGY BASED PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS
      6. 5. USE OF GRAPHENE IN SOLAR CELLS
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 13: Nanoparticle Scattering, Absorption, and Interface Effects for Surface Plasmon Enhanced Thin Silicon Solar Cells
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ENHANCED SCATTERING: MIE THEORY
      4. INITIAL FINDINGS
      5. ENHANCED FREE CARRIER INTERBAND TRANSITION RATES
      6. CONCLUSION
  7. Section 2: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 14: Quantum Well Solar Cells
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PHYSICAL PROCESSES IN QUANTUM WELL SOLAR CELLS
      4. MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY FOR QUANTUM WELL SOLAR CELLS
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    2. Chapter 15: Nanotechnology and Polymer Solar Cells
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MORPHOLOGY
      4. POLYMER CHAIN ORIENTATION
      5. OPTICAL PROPERTIES
      6. HYBRID SOLAR CELLS
      7. COMPUTER SIMULATIONS
      8. DRIFT-DIFFUSION MODEL
      9. MONTE-CARLO MODEL
      10. STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONS
      11. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      12. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 16: Quantum Dot Solar Cells
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEVICE PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGIES OF QUANTUM DOT SOLAR CELLS
      4. GROWTH TECHNOLOGY OF SELF-ORGANIZED QD SUPERLATTICE SOLAR CELLS
      5. EFFECT OF SPACER LAYER THICKNESS
      6. EFFECT OF DOPING
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
    4. Chapter 17: C/C-ZrB2-ZrC-SiC Composites Derived from Polymeric Precursor Infiltration and Pyrolysis Part I
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      4. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 18: C/C-ZrB2-ZrC-SiC Composite Derived from Polymeric Precursor Infiltration and Pyrolysis Part 2
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. EXPERIMENTAL
      4. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 19: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of the Mechanical Properties of Carbon-Nanotube Reinforced Polystyrene Composite
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. SIMULATION METHODOLOGY
      4. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      5. 4. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 20: System-Level Design of NoC-Based Dependable Embedded Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND RELATED WORK
      4. SCHEDULING FRAMEWORK OF NETWORK-ON-CHIP BASED SYSTEMS
      5. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 21: High-Performance Computing for Theoretical Study of Nanoscale and Molecular Interconnects
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NANOSCALE INTERCONNECTS AND BACKGROUND ON COMPUTATIONAL NANOELECTRONICS
      4. CASE STUDIES
      5. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 22: Micro Information Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SENSOR CONNECTED IS SYSTEMS
      4. TOWARD A PRELIMINARY MICRO-IS MODEL
      5. MICRO-IS APPLICATIONS
      6. MICRO-IS IMPLICATIONS TO IS
      7. MICRO IS DESIGN MODEL
      8. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 23: Static Telecytological Applications for Proficiency Testing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. STATIC TELECYTOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS FOR PROFICIENCY TESTING PROVIDING PURPOSES IN A PRIVATE CYTOPATHOLOGY LABORATORY
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 24: Materials Design of Sensing Layers for Detection of Volatile Analytes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. POLYMER-BASED RECOGNITION LAYERS
      4. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 25: Design of Implantable Antennas for Medical Telemetry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MODELS AND METHODS
      4. RESULTS
      5. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 26: Graphene-Based Sensors for Monitoring Strain
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF GRAPHENE
      3. RESPONSE OF ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF GRAPHENE TO THE STRAIN
      4. NUMERICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 27: On the Forces between Micro and Nano Objects and a Gripper
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CASIMIR FORCE
      4. THE MODEL
      5. SURFACE INTEGRATION APPROACH
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
    15. Chapter 28: Neurosurgical Operations Using Navigation Microscope Integration System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
  8. Section 3: Development and Design Methodologies
    1. Chapter 29: Robust Integral of NN and Error Sign Control for Nanomanipulation Using AFM
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NANOMANIPULATION DYNAMIC MODEL
      4. CONTROLLER METHODOLOGY
      5. STABILITY ANALYSIS
      6. SIMULATION RESULTS
      7. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 30: Probing the Reactive Center for Site Selective Protonation in a Molecule by the Local Density Functional Descriptors
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROCESS OF PROTONATION
      4. THE PREFERRED SITE OF PROTONATION
      5. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      6. METHOD OF COMPUTATION
      7. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 31: Carbon Vacancy Ordered Non-Stoichiometric ZrC0.6
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 32: Three Models for Ethical Governance of Nanotechnology and Position of EGAIS’ Ideas within the Field
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A FIRST MODEL OF ETHICAL GOVERNANCE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY: THE CONSERVATIVE MODEL
      4. A SECOND MODEL OF ETHICAL GOVERNANCE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY: THE INQUIRY MODEL
      5. TOWARD A THIRD MODEL OF ETHICAL GOVERNANCE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY: THE INTERPRETATIVE MODEL
      6. AN EXAMPLE: THE ISSUE OF PRIVACY IN ETHICAL GOVERNANCE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
      7. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 33: Computer Simulations of Solar Energy Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FINITE DIFFERENCE TIME DOMAIN (FDTD) METHOD
      4. NUMERICAL DISPERSION AND STABILITY
      5. ABSORBTION BOUNDARY CONDITIONS (ABCs)
      6. CONVOLUTIONAL PERFECTLY MATCHED LAYER
      7. TOTAL-FIELD / SCATTERED-FIELD FORMULATION
      8. THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS
      9. SIMULATION OF SOLAR CELL
      10. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 34: Quantum Confinement Modeling and Simulation for Quantum Well Solar Cells
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. QUANTUM CONFINEMENT EFFECTS
      4. 3. INTERNAL QUANTUM EFFICIENCY MODELING
      5. 4. SIMULATION RESULTS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. 6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. Chapter 35: The Biotic Logic of Quantum Processes and Quantum Computation1
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FOUNDATIONS
      4. BIOS THEORY
      5. BIOTIC LOGIC
      6. THE BIOTIC LOGIC OF QUANTUM PROCESSES
      7. QUANTUM PHYSICS AND QUANTUM LOGIC
    8. Chapter 36: Modeling of Quantum Key Distribution System for Secure Information Transfer
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION
      3. 2. COMMERCIAL QKD SYSTEMS WITH THE PHASE CODING OF STATES OF PHOTONS
      4. 3. STRUCTURE OF COMMERCIAL QKD SYSTEMS
      5. 4. GENERALIZED STRUCTURE OF QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM WITH PHASE CODING OF PHOTONS STATES
      6. 5. MODEL OF INFORMATION SECURITY INFRASTRUCTURE WITH QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION
      7. 6. ESTIMATION OF THE REDUCING OF KEY RATE GENERATION AT THE PHYSICAL LEVEL
      8. 7. ESTIMATION OF THE REDUCING OF KEY RATE GENERATION AT THE LOGICAL LEVEL
      9. 8. THE RATE OF A SECRET KEY SEQUENCE GENERATION
      10. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 37: On Extended Topochemical Atom (ETA) Indices for QSPR Studies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. HISTORY OF EVOLUTION OF QSPR STUDIES
      4. 3. TOPOLOGICAL DESCRIPTORS FOR QSPR
      5. 4. TOPOCHEMICALLY ARRIVED UNIQUE (TAU) SCHEME INDICES
      6. 5. REFINEMENT OF TAU TO EXTENDED TOPOCHEMICAL ATOM (ETA) INDICES
      7. 6. DEFINITION OF BASIC ETA INDICES
      8. 7. SAMPLE CALCULATION OF ETA INDICES
      9. 8. APPLICATION OF ETA INDICES IN VARIOUS QSPR/QSTR STUDIES
      10. 9. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    10. Chapter 38: An All-Inversion-Region gm/ID Based Design Methodology for Radiofrequency Blocks in CMOS Nanometer Technologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOS TRANSISTOR ANALYSIS AND GM/ID TOOL
      4. PASSIVE COMPONENT ANALYSIS
      5. PROPOSED DESIGN METHODOLOGY
      6. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 39: Basic Research on Elemental and Size Analytical System for Nano-Sized Suspended Particulate Matter Using Contactless Optical Measurement Techniques
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
      4. 3. SIMULATION OF LII
      5. 4. RESULTS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
  9. Section 4: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 40: Using Quantum Agent-Based Simulation to Model Social Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH PROJECT
      4. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 41: Nanorobot-Based Handling and Transfer of Individual Silicon Nanowires
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SETUP FOR MANIPULATION TASKS
      4. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
      5. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 42: Advances in Robot Surgery
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COMPUTER-ASSISTED SURGERY
      4. THE SPLIT-DUTY APPROACH
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 43: On the Modeling of Carbon Nanotubes as Drug Delivery Nanocapsules
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. VAN DER WAALS INTERACTION BETWEEN CARBON NANOTUBES
      4. 3. CONCENTRIC CARBON NANOTUBES
      5. 4. NUMERICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 44: Designing Biomedical Stents for Vascular Therapy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TIOLOGY OF VASCULAR STENT RELATED PROBLEMS
      4. CURRENT STATUS OF STENT TECHNOLOGY
      5. POTENTIAL AND LIMITATIONS OF THE EXISTING TECHNOLOGY
      6. EMERGENCE OF STENT TECHNOLOGY WITH TRANSIENT NATURE: BIORESORBABLE STENT
      7. SURFACE COATED STENT: AN EVOLVING TECHNOLOGY
      8. FUTURE DIRECTIONS: BIOACTIVE STENTS
      9. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 45: Pharmacokinetic Challenges against Brain Diseases with PET
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STANDARD UPTAKE VALUE (SUV)
      4. CBF AND CMRO2 USING O2 AND HO SUBJECTS
      5. DUAL INJECTION STUDY FOR CBF AND CMRO
      6. F-FDOPA MODEL
      7. REFERENCE TISSUE MODEL
      8. APPROACH FOR NEURORECEPTOR COMPETITION STUDY
      9. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 46: NanoArt
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ART AND NANOMATERIALS IN PAST CENTURIES
      4. NANO ART: THE BEGINNINGS
      5. MODERN NANO ART
      6. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 47: Nanocomputing in Cognitive Radio Networks to Improve the Performance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. RELATED WORK
      4. 3. NANOTECHNOLOGY, GPU AND COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS
      5. 4. SPECTRUM HOLES
      6. 5. SPECTRUM SENSING MODEL
      7. INTEGRATION OF NVIDA AND COGNITIVE RADIO TO DETECT THE SPECTRUM HOLES
      8. CUDA PROGRAMMING MODEL AND PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS
      9. DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS
      10. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      11. CHAPTER QUESTIONS
    9. Chapter 48: Generating Supply Chain Ordering Policies using Quantum Inspired Genetic Algorithms and Grammatical Evolution
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY AND IMPLEMENTATION
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. APPENDIX: GRAMMARS USED
    10. Chapter 49: Nanoparticles
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NANOPARTICLE INTRINSIC PROPERTIES AND PATHWAYS
      4. DESCRIPTORS
      5. ENDPOINTS
      6. RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS IN PREDICTIONS OF THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND TOXICITY
      7. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 50: Biological Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and their Functional Properties
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. DIFFERENT SYNTHETIC PROCEDURES
      5. 4. FUNCTIONALIZATION/STABILIZATION OF NANOPARTICLE
      6. 5. ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR CHARACTERIZATION
      7. 6. PROPERTIES OF NANOPARTICLES
      8. 7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. 8. CONCLUSION
      10. NOTE
    12. Chapter 51: Polymer-Derived Ceramics (PDCs)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. SYNTHESIS APPROACHES FOR PDCs
      3. MICROSTRUCTURE AND ENERGETICS OF PDCs
      4. UHT CRYSTALLIZATION AND DECOMPOSITION BEHAVIOR OF PDCs
      5. UHT OXIDATION AND CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF PDCs
      6. UHT CREEP BEHAVIOR OF PDCs
      7. PROSPECTIVE APPLICATIONS OF PDCs AS ULTRAHIGH-TEMPERATURE STABLE MATERIALS
      8. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 52: Effects of Different Parameters on Delamination Factor of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
      4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      5. FAILURE CRITERIA
      6. CONCLUSION
  10. Section 5: Critical Issues
    1. Chapter 53: Phononic Engineering for Hot Carrier Solar Cells
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. THE HOT CARRIER SOLAR CELL CONCEPT
      3. 2. PHONONS ENGINEERING FOR HOT CARRIER SOLAR CELLS
      4. 3. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 54: Materials Characterization Techniques for Solar Cell Devices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. IMAGING
      5. COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS
      6. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS
      7. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 55: Analytical Models of Bulk and Quantum Well Solar Cells and Relevance of the Radiative Limit
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ANALYTICAL MODEL
      4. RADIATIVE LIMITS OF BULK VS. QWSC
      5. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 56: Nanostructured Metal Oxide Gas Sensor
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. ADSORPTION OVER METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR SURFACES
      4. 3. RESPONSE MECHANISM OF METAL OXIDES SEMICONDUCTOR
      5. 4. METHODS OF RESPONSE IMPROVEMENT
      6. 5. RESPONSE MECHANISM IN 1D NANOSTRUCTURED GAS SENSOR
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 57: Quantum Backpropagation Neural Network Approach for Modeling of Phenol Adsorption from Aqueous Solution by Orange Peel Ash
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REMOVAL OF PHENOL BY VARYING DIFFERENT OPERATIONAL FACTORS
      4. LEARNING PARADIGMS
      5. POPULAR ANN ARCHITECTURES
      6. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND NETWORK OUTPUT BY GRAPH
      7. QUANTUM COMPUTING
      8. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND NETWORK OUTPUT BY GRAPH
      9. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 58: Studies on Gymnemic Acids Nanoparticulate Formulations against Diabetes Mellitus
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 59: Antimycotic Activity of Nanoparticles of MgO, FeO and ZnO on some Pathogenic Fungi
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. EXPERIMENTAL MATERIALS
      4. 3. DISCUSSION
      5. 4. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 60: Strategy and Policy Issues Related to Nanotechnology Innovations in Medical Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NNI ROADMAPPING OF N&N EDUCATION WORLDWIDE
      4. WHY DO MEDICS NEED NANO-EDUCATION
      5. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY — INFRASTRUCTURE AND EDUCATIONAL NEEDS
      6. TEACHING ABOUT SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN NANOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH: CONCEPTUALIZATION OF NANOSCIENCE LEARNING METHODS AND STRATEGY
      7. LEARNING BY INTERACTING - TRAINING STUDENTS TO BE INTERACTIONAL EXPERTS
      8. LEARNING BY TRAINING: WHAT DO MEDICAL STUDENTS NEED TO KNOW AND WHY
      9. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESS, OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS ABOUT IMPLEMENTATION OF NANOSCIENCE EDUCATION IN MEDICINE
    9. Chapter 61: An Epistemological Analysis of QSPR/QSAR Models
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. CHEMISTRY AND COMPUTING: A BRIEF HISTORICAL SKETCH
      3. THE EPISTEMOLOGY OF QSAR CHEMISTRY
      4. SELECTING QSPR/QSAR MODELS
      5. CHEAP, FAST AND ETHICAL? SOME SOCIAL REMARKS ABOUT QSPR/QSAR MODELS
      6. CONCLUSION: WHAT GOOD ARE QSAR MODELS?
    10. Chapter 62: The Earth Sciences and Creative Practice
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 63: Selective Pick-and-Place of Thin Film by Robotic Micromanipulation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESULTS
      4. CONCLUSION
  11. Section 6: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 64: Built-In Self Repair for Logic Structures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SELF REPAIR TECHNOLOGY
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 65: Fabrication of Nanoelectrodes by Cutting Carbon Nanotubes Assembled by Di-Electrophoresis Based on Atomic Force Microscope
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EXPERIMENTAL MATERIALS AND SYSTEM
      4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 66: Logistic vs. W-Lambert Information in Modeling Enzyme Kinetics at Quantum Level
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE THEORETICAL MODEL
      4. APPLICATION TO MIXED INHIBITION
      5. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 67: Dipole Moment as a Possible Diagnostic Descriptor of the Conformational Isomerism of the Ammonia Molecule1
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      4. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 68: Application of Electrophoretic Deposition for Interfacial Control of High-Performance SiC Fiber-Reinforced SiC Matrix (SiCf/SiC) Composites
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CHALLENGES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      5. SOLUTIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 69: A Knowledge-Based Approach for Microwire Casting Plant Control
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE CONTROL OF MICROWIRE CASTING
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 70: Preparation of a Uranium Conversion Plant’s Nuclear Waste for Final Disposal by Means of Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EXPERIMENTAL
      4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 71: Nanorevolution and Professionalizing University Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
      5. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 72: CuInGaSe Based Thin Films for Photovoltaic Solar Cells
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CIGS BASED PV: BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES
      4. THE PHOTOVOLTAIC MANUFACTURING CONSORTIUM
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. APPENDIX
    10. Chapter 73: Hybrid Solar Cells
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CLASSIFICATION OF HYBRID SOLAR CELLS
      4. DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL
      5. TECHNOLOGIES FOR HYBRID SOLAR CELLS FABRICATION
      6. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 74: Solar Energy Storage
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE
      4. OTHER TECHNIQUES FOR SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE
      5. UNDERGROUND SOLAR THERMAL STORAGE SYSTEM
      6. ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENT FEASIBILITY STUDIES
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 75: Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox and Certain Aspects of Quantum Cryptology with Some Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT IS QUANTUM CRYPTOLOGY?
      4. THE EPR PARADOX
      5. APPLICATIONS OF QC
      6. CONCLUDING REMARKS
    13. Chapter 76: An Advanced Architecture of a Massive Parallel Processing Nano Brain Operating 100 Billion Molecular Neurons Simultaneously
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: ESSENTIAL FUNCTIONS OF NANO-BRAIN
      3. BASIC DESIGN PRINCIPLES
      4. OPERATIONAL ALGORITHM
      5. COHERENCY OF THE ARCHITECTURE DURING OPERATION: FACTUAL PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS
      6. SPECIFIC DESIGN MODIFICATIONS FOR NANO-BRAIN OPERATING IN A NANO-FACTORY OR INSIDE OUR BODY OR OPERATING AS A SUPERCOMPUTER
      7. CONCLUSION: THREE KEY CONCEPTUAL ADVANCEMENTS AND A REVIEW OF CONSCIOUSNESS