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Nanotechnology: Science, Innovation, and Opportunity

Book Description

Inside the Emerging Multibillion-Dollar Nanotechnology Industry

Suddenly, nanotechnology isn't science fiction or mere theory: It's becoming one of the world's fastest-growing, highest-impact industries. In Nanotechnology: Science, Innovation, and Opportunity, the field's leading experts offer an up-to-the-minute briefing on where the industry stands now, how it will unfold over the coming decade, and how it will impact you.

Edited by a key industry advisor, this book covers the latest in nanotech science, technology, and applications. You'll meet the key players, and discover nanotech at work in fields ranging from drug delivery to energy efficiency. Here are the opportunities, the challenges, and the implications: all you need to know about today's nanotech business--and tomorrow's.

Coverage includes

  • How the convergence of nanoscale science foreshadows revolutionary societal change

  • Technical and business obstacles that still challenge the industry

  • Lessons from the early "gold rush" days of biotech: managing the hype

  • Nanotech as disruptive innovation: implications for investors and venture capitalists

  • The evolving roles of entrepreneurs, universities, and the U.S. government

  • Key application areas: materials, microelectronics, sensors, energy, and beyond

  • Bio-Nano-Information fusion: the potential to transform medicine

  • Relevant patent law and intellectual property issues

  • The ethics of nanotechnology

  • "A fascinating look at the art and science of nanotechnology. Hold on to your hats, the world is about to change big time. . . . A comprehensive look at nanotechnology from the perspective of science, investment, IP, and business development with a healthy dose of vision for good measure. First-rate authors with an excellent presentation of the material. Buy this book."
    --David Bishop, Ph.D., V.P. of Nanotechnology Research, Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies

    "An absolute must-read for every technology sector being impacted by nanotechnology. This book presents the true value of these technologies, delivering a comprehensive prospectus on the science to commercialization of nanotechnology."
    --Matthew Laudon, Ph.D., Executive Director, Nano Science & Technology Institute

    "This is an excellent book for anyone trying to get a general grasp on the emerging science and technology of nanotechnology in particular for business executives, engineers, or entrepreneurs who are trying to decide what this technology can mean to them."
    --Charles H. Volk, Ph.D., V.P. & Chief Technologist, Northrop Grumman, Navigation Systems Division

    "Larry Gilbert and Michael Krieger's overview of the university technology transfer process is excellent and provides a realistic perspective and understanding of the commercialization process for technologies developed in the academic environment."
    --John Ritter, Director, Office of Technology Licensing, Princeton University

    "For a broad, readable introduction to nanotechnology with its attendant entrepreneurial, social, and technological implications, this book is a great start. The most interesting chapter from my perspective was Smalley's on finding abundant, cheap energy sources. Most informative and refreshing. If you have an interest as an intelligent layperson in nanotechnology and its basic motivations and methods, this book will serve as a worthy point of departure in your search."
    --Mark S. Petrovic, Ph.D., V.P. of Research and Development, EarthLink

    "Get this book if you want to explore any part or the whole field of nanotechnology. I was interested in the many sources of funding for nanotechnology and why each source was doing it. The authors have shown an awareness that nanotechnology must be nurtured by dedicated people to achieve its real potential.
    I recommend this book because it treats the potential of nanotechnology in depth and realistically: Riches will come, but much effort is needed in the meantime."
    --Bill McLellan, winner of Richard Feynman's Nanotechnology Challenge


    Foreword by Senators Joseph Lieberman and George Allen

    1. Lessons in Innovation and Commercialization from the Biotechnology Revolution:

    Gerald Gallwas, Beckman Instruments

    2. Nanotechnology and Our Energy Challenge: Dr. Richard Smalley, Rice University

    3. Fads & Hype in Technology: The Sargasso Sea of ‘Some Day Soon’: Peter Coffee, eWeek

    4. Nanotechnology Commercialization: Steve Jurvetson, Draper Fisher Jurvetson

    5. Investment in Nanotechnology: Dr. Daniel Leff, Harris & Harris Doug Moffat, Moffat Capital

    6. Role of the U.S. Government in Nanoscale Science and Technology: Geoff Holdridge, National 7. Nanotechnology Coordination Office and WTEC, Inc.

    8. Overview of US Academic Research: Dr. Julie Chen, University of Massachusetts Lowell

    9. Understanding University Technology Transfer for Nanotechnology: Larry Gilbert, Caltech, Dr. Michael Krieger, UCLA

    10. Intellectual Property Policy and Impact: Chinh Pham, Greenberg Traurig, Charles Berman, Greenberg Traurig

    11. Entrepreneurs: Jeff Lawrence, Trillium Digital Systems, Larry Bock, Nanosys

    12. Major Corporations: Technology, Business and the Culture of Opportunity: Jim Duncan, Meggitt PLC

    13. Nanotechnology in Federal Laboratories: Dr. Meyya Meyyapan, NASA Ames Laboratory

    14. Nanoscale Materials: Dr. Mark Reed, Yale, Dr. ZL Wang, Georgia Tech, Dr. Brent Segal, Nantero Dr. Sheryl Ehrman, Maryland, Fiona Case, Case Scientific

    15. Nanotechnology-Enabled Sensors: Dr. David Nagel, George Washington University, Dr. Sharon Smith, Lockheed Martin Microelectronics, Dr. Stephen Goodnick, Arizona State, Dr. George Thompson, Intel, Dr. Axel Scherer, Caltech

    16. Drug Delivery: Dr. Suzie Pun, University of Washington, Dr. JJ Cheng, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

    17. Bio-Nano-Information Fusion: Dr. Chih-Ming Ho, UCLA, Dr. Dean Ho, UCLA, Dan Garcia, UCLA

    18. Convergence and Integration: Dr. Mike Roco, National Science Foundation

    19. Ethical Considerations in the advance of Nanotechnology, Dr. Bill Bainbridge, National Science Foundation

    20. Infinitesimal Machinery: Dr. Richard Feynman, Caltech


    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedication
    2. Foreword
    3. Preface
    4. Acknowledgments
    5. About the Author
    6. Contributors
      1. Gerald Gallwas
      2. Richard Smalley
      3. Peter Coffee
      4. Steve Jurvetson
      5. Daniel V. Leff
      6. R. Douglas Moffat
      7. Geoffrey M. Holdridge
      8. Julie Chen
      9. Larry Gilbert
      10. Michael Krieger
      11. Chinh H. Pham
      12. Charles Berman
      13. Jeff Lawrence
      14. Larry Bock
      15. Jim Duncan
      16. Meyya Meyyappan
      17. Mark Reed
      18. Sheryl Ehrman
      19. Brent Segal
      20. Zhong Lin (ZL) Wang
      21. Fiona Case
      22. David J. Nagel
      23. Sharon Smith
      24. George Thompson
      25. Stephen Goodnick
      26. Axel Scherer
      27. Suzie Hwang Pun
      28. Jianjun (JJ) Cheng
      29. Dan Garcia
      30. Dean Ho
      31. Chih-Ming Ho
      32. Mihail C. Roco
      33. William Sims Bainbridge
    7. One. Development Drivers
      1. 1. Lessons in Innovation and Commercialization from the Biotechnology Revolution
        1. The Story of Biotechnology
        2. Concept 1: Lessons From the S-Curve
        3. Concept 2: Lessons From Commercial Innovation
        4. The S-Curve Summarized
        5. Commercial Innovation Summarized
        6. The Future of Nanotechnology
        7. References
      2. 2. Nanotechnology and Our Energy Challenge
        1. Transport and Storage
        2. Energy for Everyone
      3. 3. Fads and Hype in Technology: The Sargasso Sea of “Some Day Soon”
        1. Knowing Success When We See It
        2. The Nature of Hype
        3. Clouding the Picture
        4. A Virtuous Circle
        5. When Science Gets Down to Business
        6. Far From a Fad
        7. References
    8. Two. The Players
      1. 4. Nanotechnology Commercialization: Transcending Moore’s Law with Molecular Electronics and Nanotechnology
        1. Technology Exponentials
        2. Moore’s Law
          1. The Importance of Moore’s Law
          2. Problems with the Current Paradigm
        3. Molecular Electronics
        4. The Commercialization of Nanotechnology
          1. Innovation from the Edge
          2. Market Timing
          3. The Question of Vertical Integration
          4. The Interface Problem
          5. Where Is the Scaling Hierarchy for Molecular Nanotech?
            1. The Top-Down “Chip Path”
            2. The Biological, Bottom-Up Path
            3. An Example: Hybrid Molecular Electronics
          6. IP and Business Model
        5. Systems, Software, and Other Abstractions
          1. The Biological Muse
          2. Nanotech Accelerants: Quantum Simulation and High-Throughput Experimentation
        6. Time Line
          1. Early Revenue
          2. Medium Term
          3. Long Term
        7. The Ethical Debate: Genes, Memes, and Digital Expression
        8. Conclusion
      2. 5. Investment in Nanotechnology
        1. Venture Capital Investing
          1. Nanotechnology Venture Capital Investment
          2. Nanotechnology Start-up Companies
        2. Public Markets and Nanotechnology Companies
      3. 6. The Role of the U.S. Government in Nanoscale Science and Technology
        1. The National Nanotechnology Initiative and the 21st Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act
        2. Research and Development
          1. The Federal Role in Nanoscale Research and Development: Basic and Applied
        3. Education and Workforce Development
        4. Facilities and Instrumentation
        5. Technology Transfer
        6. Responsible Development
          1. Existing Laws and Regulations and the Responsible Development of Nanotechnology
          2. Research Agencies
          3. Regulatory Agencies
        7. References
      4. 7. Overview of U.S. Academic Research
        1. National Science Foundation Funding Mechanisms
          1. Nanoscale Science and Engineering Centers (NSECs)
          2. Nanoscale Interdisciplinary Research Teams (NIRTs)
          3. Nanoscale Exploratory Research (NER)
          4. National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN)
          5. Network for Computational Nanotechnology (NCN)
          6. Education and Workforce Development
        2. NNI and NSF Research Focus Areas
        3. Future Directions
        4. Research Focus Areas of Other NNI Agencies
        5. Summary
        6. References
      5. 8. Understanding University Technology Transfer for Nanotechnology
        1. Unique Rather than Common Elements Characterize Tech Transfer Deals
        2. Why Does a University Transfer Technology?
        3. How is Technology Transferred?
          1. Sources of Technology
          2. What Are the Incentives for the Discloser?
          3. Faculty Trust
          4. Academic Culture Issues
            1. Faculty Publication
            2. Technology Transfer Offices and University Administration
          5. Types of Business Relationships
            1. Licensing
            2. Faculty Consulting
            3. Strategic Partnering with University Spin-Offs
            4. Special Funding of Faculty Research
            5. Major and Ongoing Research Partnering
          6. Risks
            1. University Licensing Litigation Risks
            2. Professor Consulting Relationships
            3. Other Litigation Risks
        4. Final Words
        5. Notes
      6. 9. Intellectual Property Policy and Impact
        1. Types of IP Protection
          1. Patents
          2. Trade Secrets
          3. Trademarks
          4. Copyrights
        2. Statutory Requirements
          1. Enforcing a Patent
          2. Provisional Application Versus Regular Application
          3. IP Challenges and Impact: Restriction on Innovation
          4. Litigation
          5. Funded Research
        3. Conclusion
        4. Reference
      7. 10. Entrepreneurs in the Technological Ecosystem
        1. Lions, Tigers, and Bears: What is the Role of an Entrepreneur?
        2. The Power of an Idea: What is a Good Idea?
        3. A Single Person can Change the World: What is an Entrepreneur?
        4. Look Forward, Think Backward: What Does an Entrepreneur Do?
        5. The Good, Bad, and Ugly: What Should an Entrepreneur Expect?
        6. Is It Worth It?
      8. 11. Major Corporations: Technology, Business, and the Culture of Opportunity
        1. Culture, Models, and Cycles
        2. The Holy Grail
      9. 12. Nanotechnology in Federal Labs
        1. The Role of Federal Research Laboratories
        2. Transferring Technology
        3. Summary
    9. Three. Materials and Industries
      1. 13. Nanoscale Materials
        1. Overview
        2. Nanoparticles
          1. Applications of Nanoparticles
          2. Production of Nanoparticles
          3. Outlook for Nanoparticles
        3. References
        4. Carbon Nanotubes
          1. Novel Properties
          2. Manufacturing and Scaling Issues
          3. Potential Applications
        5. References
        6. Nanowires
          1. Applications
            1. Biological Sensors Based on Individual Nanowires
            2. Crossed p-n Junction Light-Emitting Diodes
            3. Integrated Nanowire Logic Devices
          2. Polar-Surface Dominated Novel Nanostructures
        7. Soft Nanotechnology
      2. 14. Nanotechnology-Enabled Sensors: Possibilities, Realities, and Diverse Applications
        1. Possibilities
          1. Relentless Integration
          2. Advances in Processing
          3. Diverse Nanomaterials
          4. New Tools
        2. Realities
          1. Intensified Design Problems
          2. The Risks of Commercialization
        3. Diverse Applications
          1. Physical Sensors
          2. Chemical Sensors
          3. Biosensors
          4. Deployable Sensors
        4. References
      3. 15. Microelectronics
        1. Nanomanufacturing Product Strategy
          1. Considering Future Impacts
          2. Identifying Potential Synergies
        2. Existing Technologies
          1. Future Nanoelectronic Device Technologies
        3. Reference
        4. Photonics
        5. Conclusion
      4. 16. Drug Delivery
        1. Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery
          1. Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery
            1. Polymer Conjugates (Polymer-Drug Chemical Linkage)
            2. Polymer Micelles (Polymer Surfactant-Drug Self-Assembly)
            3. Polymer Nanoparticles (Drug Dispersion or Encapsulation in Polymer Aggregates)
            4. Polyplexes (Polymer-Nucleic Acids Complex through Charge Interaction)
            5. Liposomes
            6. Inorganic and Metallic Nanoparticles
          2. Implantable Drug Delivery
            1. Nanoporous Membranes
            2. Biochips
          3. Transdermal Drug Delivery
        2. Future Trends in Drug Delivery
        3. References
      5. 17. Bio-Nano-Information Fusion
        1. Seeing
        2. Manipulation
          1. DNA/RNA Characterization
        3. Characterization
        4. Integration
        5. Emergent Systems
        6. Conclusions
        7. Acknowledgments
        8. References
    10. Four. Convergence and Integration
      1. 18. Convergence and Integration
        1. Framework for Science and Technology Development
          1. The Opportunity
          2. Criteria for Progress
        2. Outlook for Industry
        3. Concluding Remarks
        4. Acknowledgments
        5. References
      2. 19. Ethical Considerations in the Advance of Nanotechnology
        1. The Nature of Ethics
        2. Ethics of Individual Behavior
        3. Nano-Specific Issues
        4. Converging Technologies
        5. Practical Responses
        6. References
    11. Epilogue
      1. 20. Infinitesimal Machinery
        1. Revisiting “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom”
        2. What We Can Do Today
        3. Small Machines—How to Make Them
        4. Small Machines—How to Use Them
        5. Electrostatic Actuation
        6. Mobile Microrobots
        7. Making Precise Things from Imprecise Tools
        8. Friction and Sticking
        9. Computing with Atoms
        10. Reversible Gates
        11. The Electron as Calculating Engine
        12. Heat in a Quantum Computer
    12. Acronyms and Abbreviations