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NAB Legal Guide to Broadcast Law and Regulation, 6th Edition

Book Description

To guide the industry in the 21st century, counsel for the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) and leading attorneys have prepared the only up-to-date, comprehensive broadcast regulatory publication: NAB’s Legal Guide to Broadcast Law and Regulation. Known for years as the "voice" for broadcast law, this publication addresses the full range of FCC regulatory issues facing radio and television broadcasters, as well as intellectual property, First Amendment, cable and satellite, and increasingly important online issues. It gives practicing attorneys, in-house counsel, broadcasters and other communications industry professionals practical "how to" advice on topics ranging literally from "a" (advertising) to "z" (zoning).

Now in its 6th edition, NAB’s Legal Guide to Broadcast Law and Regulation is available to keep you current on changes in the law, significant court decisions, FCC rules, agency policies and applied solutions. The National Association of Broadcasters is a nonprofit trade association that advocates on behalf of local radio and television stations and broadcast networks before Congress, the Federal Communications Commission and other federal agencies, and the courts.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Preface: A Guide to Using the Guide
  7. List of Abbreviations and Acronyms
  8. 1 Applications and Reports
    1. A. Applications
      1. 1. Applying for and constructing a new station
        1. a) Form 175—Application to Participate in an FCC Auction
        2. b) Form 301—Application for Construction Permit for Commercial Broadcast Station
        3. c) Program tests
        4. d) FCC Form 302—Application for License
        5. e) Applications for noncommercial educational broadcast licenses
      2. 2. The general processing of applications
        1. a) Acceptance of applications
        2. b) Uncontested applications
        3. c) Contested applications—petitions to deny and informal objections
        4. d) Designation for hearing
      3. 3. Transferring control or assigning a license
      4. 4. Applying for renewal of license (FCC Form 303-S)
        1. a) Detailed discussion of questions of Form 303-S
      5. 5. The handling of renewal applications
        1. a) Criteria for renewal
        2. b) Delays in grant of applications
      6. 6. Petitions to deny
      7. 7. Settlements
        1. a) Agreements to withdraw opposition
        2. b) Agreements to withdraw interest in an allotment proceeding
        3. c) Citizens’ agreements
      8. 8. Filing fee requirements
        1. a) Form of payment
        2. b) Fee filing locations
        3. c) Conditionality of grant
        4. d) Return or refund of charges
        5. e) General exemptions from charges
        6. f) Adjustments to charges
    2. B. Reports
      1. 1. Ownership report
        1. a) Attribution of interests
        2. b) Biennial ownership report—commercial stations
        3. c) Biennial ownership report—noncommercial stations
        4. d) Additional ownership reports
      2. 2. Filing of contracts
      3. 3. Employment reports
      4. 4. Children’s televisions programming report
      5. 5. Annual DTV ancillary and supplemental services report
  9. 2 On the Air
    1. A. Announcements
      1. 1. Station identification
      2. 2. Obtaining or changing call signs
      3. 3. Renewal of license announcements
        1. a) Pre-filing announcements
        2. b) Times
        3. c) Post-filing announcements
        4. d) Times
        5. e) Text of announcements if previously filed renewal application not granted
        6. f) Foreign language stations
        7. g) Silent stations
        8. h) Certificate of compliance
      4. 4. Assignment of license or transfer of control announcements
        1. a) Newspaper publication
        2. b) Broadcast
        3. c) Time of broadcast
        4. d) Contents
      5. 5. Public notice of applications for new stations or major changes
        1. a) Change of community of license notices
        2. b) Section 325(b) notices
        3. c) Applications not subject to public notice requirements
      6. 6. Sponsor identification
        1. a) Teaser advertisements
        2. b) Public service announcements
        3. c) Video news releases
        4. d) Embedded advertising (product placement and product integration)
        5. e) Announcement form and format
      7. 7. Payola and plugola
      8. 8. Broadcast of certain taped, films, or recorded material
    2. B. Programming
      1. 1. Political broadcasting
        1. a) Who is a legally qualified candidate?
        2. b) The opposing candidate
        3. c) Equal opportunities and the definition of “use”
        4. d) Censorship prohibition
        5. e) Reasonable access
        6. f) Lowest unit charge (LUC)
        7. g) Federal candidate certifications required by BCRA
        8. h) Sponsorship identification
        9. i) Requests for time
        10. j) Third-party issue advertising
        11. k) Electioneering communications
        12. l) The political file
        13. m) Online political file requirements (television broadcasters)
        14. n) Advance payment
        15. o) Candidate debates
        16. p) Federal preemption
        17. q) The employee candidate
        18. r) Fairness Doctrine
      2. 2. Obscene and indecent programming
      3. 3. Promotions and contests/hoaxes
        1. a) Station promotions and contests
        2. b) Hoaxes
      4. 4. Lotteries
        1. a) What is a lottery?
        2. b) Fishing contests
      5. 5. State-conducted lotteries and state lottery laws
      6. 6. V-chip and violence on television
      7. 7. Children’s television
        1. a) Statutory and administrative background
        2. b) Core programming and the three-hour rule
        3. c) Commercial limits
        4. d) Recordkeeping and filing requirements
        5. e) Public information initiatives
        6. f) Penalties
    3. C. Accessibility of programming
      1. 1. Video description
        1. a) Top 25 market requirements
        2. b) Pass-through and subsequent airing requirements
        3. c) Multicast program streams
        4. d) Exemptions
        5. e) Procedures for complaints
        6. f) Other issues
        7. g) Video description in video programming distributed on the Internet
      2. 2. Closed captioning
        1. a) Responsibility for compliance
        2. b) Transition schedules
        3. c) Exemptions
        4. d) Technical standards
        5. e) Consumer complaint process
        6. f) Station contact information
        7. g) Quality standards
        8. h) Electronic Newsroom Technique rules for live programming
      3. 3. Emergency information: accessibility for the hearing and visually impaired
      4. 4. IP closed captioning
        1. a) Background
        2. b) Time frame and compliance for IP captioning
        3. c) Applicable definitions
        4. d) Programming categories subject to the IP provisions of the CVAA
        5. e) Mechanisms to determine whether video programming is subject to the CVAA
        6. f) Quality of IP captions
        7. g) Exemptions and alternative means of compliance
        8. h) Procedures for complaints
        9. i) Online posting requirements for station contact information
    4. D. News and newsgathering
      1. 1. Defamation
      2. 2. Invasion of privacy
        1. a) Intrusion upon seclusion or solitude
        2. b) Public disclosure of private facts
        3. c) “False light”
        4. d) Appropriation of name or likeness for commercial purposes
      3. 3. Confidentiality
      4. 4. Reporter’s privilege or shield
      5. 5. Cameras in the courtroom
      6. 6. Recording and broadcasting telephone conversations
        1. a) Non-broadcast recording of telephone conversations
        2. b) Broadcasting telephone conversations
      7. 7. Unauthorized use of communications
      8. 8. Rebroadcasting the transmissions of other stations
      9. 9. Concealed microphones and cameras
        1. a) Wireless microphones
        2. b) Wired microphones
        3. c) Hidden cameras
    5. E. Advertising
      1. 1. Consumer leasing disclosures
        1. a) Consumer Leasing Act
        2. b) The general disclosure requirements
        3. c) Special provisions for radio and television
      2. 2. False or misleading advertisements
      3. 3. Gaming advertising
        1. a) Casino advertising
        2. b) Internet gambling
      4. 4. Advertising alcoholic beverages
        1. a) Federal control
        2. b) State control
      5. 5. Advertising tobacco products
      6. 6. CALM Act and the volume of advertisements
      7. 7. Children’s television advertising
  10. 3 Station Operation and Management
    1. A. Housekeeping details
    2. B. Major operating requirements
      1. 1. Operating power
      2. 2. Frequency tolerances
      3. 3. Modulation limits
        1. a) AM stations
        2. b) FM stations
        3. c) TV stations
      4. 4. AM service developments
    3. C. Main studio location and program origination
      1. 1. Main studio rule
      2. 2. Program origination facilities
    4. D. Operators on duty—unattended operations
    5. E. Operating hours
      1. 1. Commercial stations
        1. a) TV stations
        2. b) AM and FM stations
      2. 2. Noncommercial stations
    6. F. Authority to remain silent
    7. G. Termination of operations
    8. H. Designation of chief operator
    9. I. Posting of licenses
    10. J. The public inspection file
      1. 1. Radio stations
      2. 2. Television stations
      3. 3. Quarterly Issues/Programs Lists for radio and television
    11. K. Environmental regulations
      1. 1. Radio frequency (RF) radiation
      2. 2. PCBs
    12. L. Broadcast towers: construction, collocation and historic preservation
      1. 1. New tower construction
        1. a) Environmental issues
        2. b) Migratory birds
        3. c) Historic properties
      2. 2. Collocations
        1. a) Environmental issues
        2. b) Historic properties
      3. 3. Environmental assessments
      4. 4. Acquiring facilities
    13. M. Broadcast towers: lighting, painting, and fencing
    14. N. Labor and overtime rules
      1. 1. Creative professionals
      2. 2. Journalists
      3. 3. Small-market exemption
      4. 4. What other aspects of the rules might affect broadcast employees?
        1. a) Salary requirements
        2. b) Highly compensated employees
        3. c) Disciplinary deductions
        4. d) Duties tests
        5. e) Executive exemption
        6. f) Executive owners
        7. g) Administrative exemption
        8. h) “Learned professional” exemption
        9. i) Outside sales employees
    15. O. Equal employment opportunity procedures
      1. 1. General requirements
      2. 2. Commission’s EEO regulations
        1. a) Prong 1: widely disseminate job vacancy information
        2. b) Prong 2: provide notice of job vacancies to community groups
        3. c) Prong 3: Outreach initiatives
      3. 3. Recordkeeping and Commission filing requirements
        1. a) Recruitment records
        2. b) EEO Public File Report
        3. c) EEO Program Report, Commission Form 396
        4. d) Broadcast Mid-Term Report Form, Commission Form 397
      4. 4. Self-assessment and Commission enforcement
    16. P. Emergency alert system (EAS)
      1. 1. PEP stations
      2. 2. Station requirements
      3. 3. System tests
      4. 4. Commission enforcement of EAS
      5. 5. EAS capability
    17. Q. Regulatory fees
      1. 1. Radio
      2. 2. Television
      3. 3. Process
  11. 4 Station Ownership
    1. A. Local radio ownership
    2. B. Local television multiple ownership (television duopoly)
    3. C. Radio-television cross-ownership
    4. D. Newspaper-broadcast cross-ownership
    5. E. National television multiple ownership
    6. F. Ownership of dual networks
    7. G. Satellite operations
    8. H. Financial distress
    9. I. Attribution standards
    10. J. Time brokerage agreements
    11. K. Compliance
    12. L. Foreign ownership
  12. 5 Noncommerical Broadcasting
    1. A. General overview
      1. 1. Eligibility requirements
      2. 2. Noncommercial status and operation
    2. B. Underwriting announcements
      1. 1. Frequency, number, and length
      2. 2. Noninterruption of programming
      3. 3. Content
    3. C. Long-form fundraising activity
    4. D. Program-related material
    5. E. Political broadcasting
    6. F. Other regulatory requirements
      1. 1. Engineering issues
      2. 2. Application and report forms
      3. 3. Public inspection file
      4. 4. Application processing
      5. 5. Multiple ownership rules
      6. 6. Filing and regulatory fees
      7. 7. Operating schedules
      8. 8. FM translator stations
      9. 9. Local public notice requirements
      10. 10. Subsidiary communication services
    7. G. Education broadband service
  13. 6 FCC Enforcement
    1. A. Letter of Inquiry
    2. B. Notice of Violation
    3. C. Notice of Apparent Liability
    4. D. Notice of Opportunity for Hearing
    5. E. Admonishment
    6. F. Forfeiture Order
    7. G. Cease and desist order
    8. H. License revocation
    9. I. Non-renewal of license
    10. J. Court injunction
    11. K. Equipment seizure
    12. L. Criminal referral
  14. 7 Cable Television
    1. A. The carriage election process
    2. B. Must carry
      1. 1. Carriage requirements
      2. 2. Content of signal
      3. 3. Manner of carriage
      4. 4. Channel position
      5. 5. Market modifications
      6. 6. Remedies
    3. C. Retransmission consent
      1. 1. Consent requirements
      2. 2. Good faith negotiations
    4. D. Program exclusivity
      1. 1. Syndicated exclusivity
        1. a) Extent of protection
        2. b) Required contract language
        3. c) Notice requirements
        4. d) Cable system compliance
      2. 2. Network nonduplication rules
        1. a) Protection dependent on network affiliation agreement
        2. b) Extent of protection
        3. c) Exceptions
        4. d) Necessary language
        5. e) Notice requirements
        6. f) Cable system compliance
      3. 3. Additional considerations
      4. 4. Sports blackout rules
    5. E. Cable copyright royalty
  15. 8 Satellite Television
    1. A. Carriage of broadcast programming
      1. 1. Statutory copyright licenses
      2. 2. Broadcaster consent
    2. B. Carriage of public interest programming
    3. C. Over-the-air reception devices
  16. 9 Copyright and Trademark Issues
    1. A. An overview of copyright and trademark law
      1. 1. Copyright principles
      2. 2. The six basic exclusive rights
      3. 3. Copyright formalities
        1. a) Copyright notice
        2. b) Copyright registration
        3. c) Recordation of transfer
      4. 4. Limitations on exclusive rights
      5. 5. Trademark/service mark principles
    2. B. Copyright and trademark issues in creating station-produced materials
      1. 1. Rights to use the works of others
        1. a) Work created for the station (work made for hire)
        2. b) Preexisting works of others
      2. 2. Advertising production
        1. a) Ownership by the “author”
        2. b) Fair use
        3. c) Music rights
        4. d) Trademark issues in comparative advertising production
        5. e) “Sound alike” and “look alike”
    3. C. Copyright and trademark issues of third-party produced materials
      1. 1. Sports and live performance programming
        1. a) Nonmusical live performance
        2. b) Live musical performances
      2. 2. Program contracts
    4. D. Protecting copyright in station-produced materials
      1. 1. Retransmissions
        1. a) Cable and satellite retransmissions
        2. b) Hotel and apartment house retransmissions
        3. c) Nonprofit translator or booster retransmissions
        4. d) “Passive carrier” retransmissions
      2. 2. Other permissible uses
        1. a) School classroom uses
        2. b) Public reception on a single receiver
        3. c) Library and archival copying
        4. d) Fair use
        5. e) Works of others in a compilation program
    5. E. Trademark protections of station materials
      1. 1. Trademark protection of call signs and slogans
        1. a) Call signs
        2. b) Slogans
        3. c) Frequency or channel identifiers
      2. 2. Domain names
    6. F. Music licensing
      1. 1. Radio
      2. 2. Television
      3. 3. Streaming
      4. 4. Storecasting
      5. 5. Music-on-hold
  17. 10 Legal Issues Online
    1. A. Collection of personal information and privacy
    2. B. Liability for user-generated third-party content
      1. 1. Taking advantage of the federal statutes to limit risk for user-generated third-party content
        1. a) Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)
      2. 2. Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act
    3. C. Protection through contracts and website policies
      1. 1. Website terms of service
      2. 2. Privacy policies
      3. 3. Copyright/DMCA policy
      4. 4. Insurance
      5. 5. Procedure/operations handbooks
    4. D. Conclusion
  18. 11 Antitrust Considerations
    1. A. Joint conduct
      1. 1. Rate setting
      2. 2. Program purchasing
      3. 3. Sales arrangements
      4. 4. Station standards
      5. 5. Lobbying
      6. 6. Negotiating retransmission rights
      7. 7. Information exchanges
      8. 8. Joint ventures
    2. B. Single firm conduct
    3. C. Mergers and acquisitions
  19. Appendices
    1. Appendix 1 NAB Radio Station License Renewal Guide
    2. Appendix 2 NAB Television Station License Renewal Guide
    3. Appendix 3 Models for On-Air Announcements About a Radio Station’s License Renewal Application
    4. Appendix 4 Models for On-Air Announcements About a Television Station’s License Renewal Application
    5. Appendix 5 FCC Form 303-S
    6. Appendix 6 FCC AM Broadcast Self-Inspection Checklist
    7. Appendix 7 FCC FM Broadcast Station Self-Inspection Checklist
    8. Appendix 8 FCC TV Broadcast Station Self-Inspection Checklist
    9. Appendix 9 Federal Trade Commission’s Expanded Children’s Online Privacy Rules
    10. Appendix 10 Payola Memorandum and Affidavit
    11. Appendix 11 Your Public File: What to Keep, What to Toss, and Where to Keep It (Radio Stations)
    12. Appendix 12 Your Public File: What to Keep, What to Toss, and Where to Keep It (Television Stations)
    13. Appendix 13 Sample Issues/Programs List
    14. Appendix 14 Sample Company Harassment Policy
    15. Appendix 15 Unattended Station Operations “Best Practices”
    16. Appendix 16 A Guide to Filing Comments at the FCC
    17. Appendix 17 Ownership Reports
    18. Appendix 18 FCC Form 323
    19. Appendix 19 Changes in Ownership of Broadcast Authorizations
    20. Appendix 20 FCC Form 314
    21. Appendix 21 FCC Form 315
    22. Appendix 22 FCC Form 316
    23. Appendix 23 A Guide to Cable Copyright Payments
    24. Appendix 24 How to Register a Copyright
    25. Appendix 25 “Top 10” Supreme Court Cases in Broadcasting History – Summaries and Cases
      1. Appendix 25A FCC v. Saunders Brothers Radio Station
      2. Appendix 25B National Broadcasting Co. v. U.S.
      3. Appendix 25C Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. FCC
      4. Appendix 25D Columbia Broadcasting System v. Democratic National Committee
      5. Appendix 25E FCC v. National Citizens Committee for Broadcasting
      6. Appendix 25F FCC v. Pacifica Foundation
      7. Appendix 25G FCC v. WNCN Listeners Guild
      8. Appendix 25H Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. v. FCC (1994) (1997)
      9. Appendix 25I Greater New Orleans Broadcasting Association, Inc. v. United States
      10. Appendix 25J FCC v. Fox Televisions Stations, Inc. (2009) (2012)
  20. Index