This appendix will help you port MySQL to other operationg systems. Do check the list of currently supported operating systems first. See Section 2.2.2. If you have created a new port of MySQL, please let us know so that we can list it here and on our web site (http://www.mysql.com/), recommending it to other users.
Note: If you create a new port of MySQL, you are free to copy and distribute it under the GPL license, but it does not make you a copyright holder of MySQL.
A working Posix thread library is needed for the server. On Solaris 2.5 we use Sun PThreads (the native thread support in 2.4 and earlier versions is not good enough) and on Linux we use LinuxThreads by Xavier Leroy, Xavier.Leroy@inria.fr.
The hard part of porting to a new Unix variant without good native
thread support is probably to port MIT-pthreads. See
mit-pthreads/README and Programming POSIX Threads
The MySQL distribution includes a patched version of Provenzano’s Pthreads from MIT (see the MIT Pthreads web page at http://www.mit.edu:8001/people/proven/pthreads.html). This can be used for some operating systems that do not have POSIX threads.
It is also possible to use another user-level thread package named FSU Pthreads (see http://www.informatik.hu-berlin.de/~mueller/pthreads.htmlFSU, the Pthreads home page). This implementation is being used for the SCO port.
thr_alarm.c programs in the
directory for some tests/examples of these problems.
Both the server and the client need a working C++ compiler (we use gcc and have tried SPARCworks). Another compiler that is known to work is the Irix cc.
To compile only the client use ./configure --without-server.
There is currently no support for only compiling the server, nor is it likely to be added unless someone has a good reason for it.
If you want/need to change any
Makefile or the configure script you must
get Automake and Autoconf. We have used the automake-1.2 and
All steps needed to remake everything from the most basic files.
/bin/rm */.deps/*.P /bin/rm -f config.cache aclocal autoheader aclocal automake autoconf ./configure --with-debug=full --prefix='your installation directory' # The makefiles generated above need GNU make 3.75 or newer. # (called gmake below) gmake clean all install init-db
If you run into problems with a new port, you may have to do some debugging of MySQL! See Section D.1.
Note: Before you start debugging mysqld, first get the test programs mysys/thr_alarm and mysys/thr_lock to work. This will ensure that your thread installation has even a remote chance of working!
If you are using some functionality that is very new in MySQL, you can try to run mysqld with the --skip-new (which will disable all new, potentially unsafe functionality) or with --safe-mode, which disables a lot of optimisation that may cause problems. See Section A.4.1.
If mysqld doesn’t want to start, you should check that you don’t have
my.cnf files that interfere with your setup!
You can check your
my.cnf arguments with mysqld --print-defaults
and avoid using them by starting with mysqld --no-defaults ....
If mysqld starts to eat up CPU, or memory or if it “hangs”, you can use mysqladmin processlist status to find out if someone is executing a query that takes a long time. It may be a good idea to run mysqladmin -i10 processlist status in some window if you are experiencing performance problems or problems when new clients can’t connect.
The command mysqladmin debug will dump some information about locks in use, used memory, and query usage to the mysql log file. This may help solve some problems. This command also provides some useful information even if you haven’t compiled MySQL for debugging!
If the problem is that some tables are getting slower, and slower you should try to optimise the table with OPTIMIZE TABLE or myisamchk. See Chapter 4. You should also check the slow queries with EXPLAIN.
You should also read the OS-specific section in this manual for problems that may be unique to your environment. See Section 2.6.
If you have some very specific problem, you can always try to debug MySQL. To do this you must configure MySQL with the --with-debug or the --with-debug=full option. You can check whether MySQL was compiled with debugging by doing mysqld --help. If the --debug flag is listed with the options, you have debugging enabled. mysqladmin ver also lists the mysqld version as mysql ... --debug in this case.
If you are using gcc or egcs, the recommended configure line is:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O2" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -felide-constructors \ -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \ --with-debug --with-extra-charsets=complex
This will avoid problems with the libstdc++ library and with C++ exceptions (many compilers have problems with C++ exceptions in threaded code) and compile a MySQL version with support for all character sets.
If you suspect a memory overrun error, you can configure MySQL with --with-debug=full, which will install a memory allocation (SAFEMALLOC) checker. Running with SAFEMALLOC is, however, quite slow, so if you get performance problems you should start mysqld with the --skip-safemalloc option. This will disable the memory overrun checks for each call to malloc and free.
If mysqld stops crashing when you compile it with --with-debug, you have probably found a compiler bug or a timing bug within MySQL. In this case you can try to add -g to the CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS variables and not use --with-debug. If mysqld now dies, you can at least attach to it with gdb or use gdb on the core file to find out what happened.
When you configure MySQL for debugging you automatically enable a lot of extra safety check functions that monitor the health of mysqld. If they find something “unexpected,” an entry will be written to stderr, which safe_mysqld directs to the error log! This also means that if you are having some unexpected problems with MySQL and are using a source distribution, the first thing you should do is configure MySQL for debugging! (The second thing, of course, is to send mail to firstname.lastname@example.org and ask for help. Please use the mysqlbug script for all bug reports or questions regarding the MySQL version you are using!)
In the Windows MySQL distribution, mysqld.exe is, by default, compiled with support for trace files.
If the mysqld server doesn’t start or if you can cause the mysqld server to crash quickly, you can try to create a trace file to find the problem.
To do this you have to have a mysqld that is compiled for debugging. You can check this by executing mysqld -V. If the version number ends with -debug, it’s compiled with support for trace files.
Start the mysqld server with a trace log in
C:\mysqld.trace on Windows):
On Windows you should also use the --standalone flag to not start mysqld as a service:
In a DOS window do:
mysqld --debug --standalone
After this you can use the mysql.exe command-line tool in a second DOS window to reproduce the problem. You can take down the mysqld server with mysqladmin shutdown.
Note that the trace file will get very big! If you want to have a smaller trace file, you can use something like:
which only prints information with the most interesting tags in
If you make a bug report about this, please only send the lines from the trace file to the appropriate mailing list where something seems to go wrong! If you can’t locate the wrong place, you can ftp the trace file, together with a full bug report, to ftp://support.mysql.com/pub/mysql/secret/ so that a MySQL developer can take a look at it.
The trace file is made with the DBUG package by Fred Fish. See Section D.3.
With some older gdb versions on Linux you must use run --one-thread if you want to be able to debug mysqld threads. In this case you can only have one thread active at a time. We recommend that you upgrade to gdb 5.1 ASAP, as thread debugging works much better with this version!
When running mysqld under gdb, you should disable the stack trace with --skip-stack-trace to be able to catch segfaults within gdb.
It’s very hard to debug MySQL under gdb if you do a lot of new connections the whole time, as gdb doesn’t free the memory for old threads. You can avoid this problem by starting mysqld with -O thread_cache_size= 'max_connections +1'. In most cases just using -O thread_cache_size=5' will help a lot!
If you want to get a core dump on Linux if mysqld dies with a SIGSEGV signal, you can start mysqld with the --core-file option. This core file can be used to make a backtrace that may help you find out why mysqld died:
shell> gdb mysqld core gdb> backtrace full gdb> exit
See Section A.4.1.
If you are using gdb 4.17.x or above on Linux, you should install a
.gdb file, with the following information, in your current
set print sevenbit off handle SIGUSR1 nostop noprint handle SIGUSR2 nostop noprint handle SIGWAITING nostop noprint handle SIGLWP nostop noprint handle SIGPIPE nostop handle SIGALRM nostop handle SIGHUP nostop handle SIGTERM nostop noprint
If you have problems debugging threads with gdb, you should download gdb 5.x and try this instead. The new gdb version has very improved thread handling!
Here is an example how to debug mysqld:
shell> gdb /usr/local/libexec/mysqld gdb> run ... backtrace full # Do this when mysqld crashes
Include this output in a mail generated with mysqlbug and mail this to email@example.com.
If mysqld hangs, you can try to use some system tools, like strace or /usr/proc/bin/pstack, to examine where mysqld has hung.
strace /tmp/log libexec/mysqld
If you are using the Perl DBI interface, you can turn on debugging information by using the trace method or by setting the DBI_TRACE environment variable. See Section 8.2.2.
On some operating systems, the error log will contain a stack trace if mysqld dies unexpectedly. You can use this to find out where (and maybe why) mysqld died. See Section 4.9.1. To get a stack trace, you must not compile mysqld with the -fomit-frame-pointer option to gcc. See Section D.1.1.
If the error file contains something like the following:
mysqld got signal 11; The manual section 'Debugging a MySQL server' tells you how to use a stack trace and/or the core file to produce a readable backtrace that may help in finding out why mysqld died Attemping backtrace. You can use the following information to find out where mysqld died. If you see no messages after this, something went terribly wrong stack range sanity check, ok, backtrace follows 0x40077552 0x81281a0 0x8128f47 0x8127be0 0x8127995 0x8104947 0x80ff28f 0x810131b 0x80ee4bc 0x80c3c91 0x80c6b43 0x80c1fd9 0x80c1686
you can find where mysqld died by doing the following:
Copy the preceding numbers to a file—for example,
Make a symbol file for the mysqld server:
nm -n libexec/mysqld > /tmp/mysqld.sym
Note that many MySQL binary distributions come with this file, named mysqld.sym.gz. In this case you must unpack this by doing:
gunzip < bin/mysqld.sym.gz > /tmp/mysqld.sym
Execute resolve_stack_dump -s /tmp/mysqld.sym -n mysqld.stack.
This will print out where mysqld died. If this doesn’t help you find out why mysqld died, you should make a bug report and include the output from the preceding command with the bug report.
Note, however, that in most cases it will not help us to just have a stack trace to find the reason for the problem. To be able to locate the bug or provide a workaround, we would, in most cases, need to know the query that killed mysqld, and we would prefer to have a test case so that we can repeat the problem! See Section 18.104.22.168.
Note that before starting mysqld with --log you should check all your tables with myisamchk. See Chapter 4.
If mysqld dies or hangs, you should start mysqld with --log. When mysqld dies again, you can examine the end of the log file for the query that killed mysqld.
If you are using --log without a file name, the log is stored in the database directory as ‘hostname’.log. In most cases it’s the last query in the log file that killed mysqld, but if possible you should verify this by restarting mysqld and executing the found query from the mysql command-line tools. If this works, you should also test all complicated queries that didn’t complete.
You can also try the command EXPLAIN on all SELECT statements that take a long time to ensure that mysqld is using indexes properly. See Section 5.2.1.
You can find the queries that take a long time to execute by starting mysqld with --log-slow-queries. See Section 4.9.5.
If you find the text mysqld restarted in the error log file
hostname.err) you have probably found a query
that causes mysqld to fail. If this happens you should check all
your tables with myisamchk (see Chapter 4),
and test the queries in the MySQL log files to see if one doesn’t
work. If you find such a query, first try upgrading to the newest
MySQL version. If this doesn’t help and you can’t find anything
in the mysql mail archive, you should report the bug to
firstname.lastname@example.org. Links to mail archives are available
online at http://lists.mysql.com/.
If you have started mysqld with myisam-recover, MySQL will automatically check and try to repair MyISAM tables if they are marked as ‘not closed properly’ or ‘crashed’. If this happens, MySQL will write an entry in the hostname.err file 'Warning: Checking table ...' which is followed by Warning: Repairing table if the table needs to be repaired. If you get a lot of these errors, without mysqld having died unexpectedly just before, something is wrong and needs to be investigated further. See Section 4.1.1.
It’s, of course, not a good sign if mysqld died unexpectedly, but in this case one shouldn’t investigate the Checking table... messages. Instead, one should try to find out why mysqld died.
If you get corrupted tables or if mysqld always fails after some update commands, you can test if this bug is reproducible by doing the following:
Take down the MySQL daemon (with mysqladmin shutdown).
Make a backup of the tables (to guard against the very unlikely case that the repair will do something bad).
Check all tables with myisamchk -s database/*.MYI. Repair any wrong tables with myisamchk -r database/table.MYI.
Make a second backup of the tables.
Remove (or move away) any old log files from the MySQL data directory if you need more space.
Start mysqld with --log-bin. See Section 4.9.4. If you want to find a query that crashes mysqld, you should use --log --log-bin.
When you have gotten a crashed table, stop the mysqld server.
Restore the backup.
Restart the mysqld server without --log-bin.
Re-execute the commands with mysqlbinlog update-log-file | mysql. The update log is saved in the MySQL database directory with the name hostname-bin.#.
If the tables are corrupted again or you can get mysqld to die with the preceding command, you have found a reproducible bug that should be easy to fix! Ftp the tables and the binary log to ftp://support.mysql.com/pub/mysql/secret/ and send a mail to email@example.com or (if you are a support customer) to firstname.lastname@example.org about the problem and the MySQL team will fix it as soon as possible.
You can also use the script mysql_find_rows to just execute some of the update statements if you want to narrow down the problem.