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Music Copyright Law

Book Description

Gain an in-depth understanding of a topic that is vital to the success of anyone in or entering the music industry, with MUSIC COPYRIGHT LAW. From songwriters and performers to managers, producers, and agents - everyone is affected by the issues covered in this book. Avoiding the technical jargon and "lawyerspeak" that bogs down other books on the subject, the book explores the world of copyright law and hones in on how it applies to music. It begins by building a foundational knowledge of the fundamentals of copyright law, what it protects, the benefits of registering a copyright, and what to do when copyright has been infringed. Once the fundamentals are established, coverage expands to include controversies involving copyright and music in the digital age and the debates over online music. Packed with practical examples that bring complex concepts to life, this book is a must-have for any professional in or entering music business.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Foreword
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. About the Authors
  5. Introduction
    1. Note on This Edition
    2. Disclaimer
  6. Quotes about Music Copyright for the New Millennium
  7. 1. What Is Copyright?
    1. I. Copyright: A Type of Property
    2. II. Why Do We Need Copyright?
      1. A. The Author’s Right Philosophy
      2. B. The Utilitarian Philosophy
      3. C. Other Philosophies
      4. D. Economic Rights Philosophy
    3. III. Other Types of Intellectual Property Protection
      1. A. Patents
      2. B. Trademarks
      3. C. Trade Secrets
    4. IV. Copyright’s Importance to the Economy and the Music Industry
    5. Endnotes
  8. 2. The History of Copyright
    1. I. The World before Copyright
    2. II. Copyright’s English Origins
      1. A. The Statute of Anne
    3. III. Copyright in the United States
      1. A. The Colonial States
      2. B. The Constitutional Copyright Clause
      3. C. The Copyright Act of 1790
      4. D. The Copyright Act of 1831
      5. E. The Copyright Act of 1909
      6. F. The Copyright Act of 1976
    4. IV. International Developments
    5. V. Summary
    6. Endnotes
  9. 3. What Can Be Protected by Copyright?
    1. I. Requirements for Copyright
      1. A. Originality
      2. B. Expression
      3. C. Fixation
    2. II. Categories of Copyrightable Works
      1. A. Musical Works
        1. (1) The Originality and Expression Requirements for Musical Works
          1. (a) Lyrics
          2. (b) Melody
          3. (c) Harmony
          4. (d) Rhythm
        2. (2) The Fixation Requirement for Musical Works
      2. B. Sound Recordings
      3. C. Literary Works
      4. D. Dramatic Works
      5. E. Pantomines and Choreographic Works
      6. F. Pictorial, Graphic, and Sculptural Works
      7. G. Motion Pictures and Other Audiovisual Works
    3. III. Compilations
      1. A. Collective Works
    4. IV. What Is Not Protected by Copyright?
      1. A. The Public Domain
      2. B. Ideas versus Expression
      3. C. Facts
      4. D. Names, Titles, Slogans, and Short Phrases
      5. E. Unfixed Works
      6. F. Works of the United States Government
    5. Endnotes
  10. 4. Ownership of Copyright
    1. I. Initial Ownership
    2. II. Joint Ownership
      1. A. Requirements for Joint Ownership
        1. (1) Intent Requirement
        2. (2) Copyrightability of Individual Contributions
      2. B. Rights and Duties of Joint Owners
        1. (1) Equal, Undivided Ownership Interests
        2. (2) Right to License
        3. (3) Duty to Account to Co-Owners
        4. (4) Joint Authorship Problems
      3. C. Community Property
    3. III. Works Made for Hire
      1. A. Two Categories of Works Made for Hire
        1. (1) Works Prepared by Employees within the Scope of Employment
          1. (a) Who Is an Employee?
          2. (b) When Is a Work Prepared within the Scope of Employment?
        2. (2) Specially Ordered or Commissioned Works
    4. IV. Transfer of Copyright Ownership
      1. A. The Writing Requirement
        1. (1) What Kind of Writing Is Required?
      2. B. Recording Copyright Transfers
        1. (1) Priority Rules for Transfers
        2. (2) How to Record a Transfer
    5. V. Termination of Transfers
      1. A. Rationale for the Termination Right
      2. B. Transfers Made Beginning January 1, 1978
        1. (1) Who Can Terminate?
        2. (2) When Can the Termination Right Be Exercised?
        3. (3) What Must Be Done to Exercise the Termination Right?
        4. (4) What Happens after Termination?
        5. (5) Agreements to Transfer before Creation of a Work
      3. C. Transfers Made before January 1, 1978
      4. D. The Derivative Works Exception
    6. VI. Ownership of Sound Recordings
    7. VII. Orphan Copyrights
    8. Endnotes
  11. 5. The Reproduction Right
    1. I. Introduction: Exclusive Rights
    2. II. The Reproduction Right
      1. A. Reproduction of Musical Works
        1. (1) The Compulsory Mechanical License
      2. (a) Obtaining a Compulsory License
        1. (2) Negotiated Mechanical Licenses
        2. (3) Mechanical Royalty Licensing Agencies
        3. (4) Foreign Mechanical Royalty Rates
        4. (5) Digital Phonorecord Deliveries
      3. B. Reproduction of Sound Recordings
        1. (1) The Dubbing Limitation
        2. (2) Home Taping
        3. (3) The Audio Home Recording Act
          1. (a) Royalty System
          2. (b) Copy Protection
          3. (c) Infringement Exemption
          4. (d) The Diamond Rio Case
        4. (4) Sampling
    3. Endnotes
  12. 6. The Derivative and Distribution Rights
    1. I. The Derivative Right
      1. A. What Is a Derivative Work?
      2. B. Requirements for Derivative Works
      3. C. Types of Derivative Works
      4. D. Degree of Protection in Derivative Works
      5. E. Derivative Musical Arrangements
      6. F. Derivatives of Sound Recordings
      7. G. Arrangements Under the Compulsory Mechanical License
      8. H. Copyrighting the Uncopyrightable
    2. II. The Distribution Right
      1. A. Record Piracy
        1. (1) Penalties for Record Piracy
        2. (2) Fighting Record Piracy
      2. B. Limitations on the Distribution Right
        1. (1) The First Sale Doctrine
          1. (a) Used CDs
          2. (b) Record Rental
          3. (2) Other Limitations on the Distribution Right
    3. Endnotes
  13. 7. Public Performance and Display Rights
    1. I. The Public Performance Right
      1. A. What Is a Performance?
      2. B. What Is a Public Performance?
      3. C. Performing Rights Organizations
        1. (1) History of Performing Rights Organizations
        2. (2) Operation of Performing Rights Organizations
        3. (3) Protecting PRO Members and Licensees: Consent Decrees
        4. (4) Foreign Performing Rights Organizations
      4. D. Limitations on the Public Performance Right
        1. (1) Face-to-Face Teaching Activities
        2. (2) The Teach Act
        3. (3) Religious Services
        4. (4) Nonprofit Performances of Nondramatic Literary or Musical Works
        5. (5) The Homestyle Receiving Apparatus Exemption
        6. (6) The Fairness in Music Licensing Act
        7. (7) Retail Record Sales
        8. (8) Noncommercial Broadcasting
      5. E. Sound Recordings and the Performance Right
      6. F. The Digital Performance Right in Sound Recordings Act
        1. (1) Exempt Performances
        2. (2) Performances Subject to Compulsory Licenses
        3. (a) How Are Compulsory Licenses Obtained?
        4. (b) What Will the Compulsory Royalty Rate Be?
        5. (c) Who Gets the Money?
        6. (3) Performances Subject to Negotiated Licenses
        7. (4) Digital Transmissions of Sound Recordings vs. Public Performances of Sound Recordings
    2. II. The Public Display Right
      1. A. Limitations on the Public Display Right
        1. (1) Display of a Single Image at a Single Site
        2. (2) Display in Situations Where Performance Is Exempted
    3. Endnotes
  14. 8. Duration of Copyright
    1. I. Evolution of Copyright Term
      1. A. The 1909 Copyright Act
        1. (1) When to Renew?
        2. (2) Assignment of Renewal Rights
        3. (3) Termination of Transfer of Renewal Term
      2. B. The 1976 Copyright Act
    2. II. Determining Copyright Duration
      1. A. Works Created from 1978 to Present
        1. (1) Anonymous Works, Pseudonymous Works, and Works Made for Hire
        2. (2) How Do You Know if a Copyright Owner Is Dead?
        3. (3) Copyright Actually Lasts Longer than Life Plus 70 Years
      2. B. Works Created but Not Published before 1978
      3. C. Works Published before 1978
        1. (1) First Extension of Renewal Term
        2. (2) Second Extension of Renewal Term
      4. D. Determining Whether a Work Is in the Public Domain
      5. E. Restoration of Copyright in Foreign Works
      6. F. Duration of Assignments
    3. III. Copyright Term in Other Countries
      1. A. Canada
      2. B. The European Union
      3. C. Australia
      4. D. Japan
      5. E. China
      6. F. South Korea
      7. G. Mexico
    4. IV. The Rule of the Shorter Term
    5. Endnotes
  15. 9. Copyright Formalities
    1. I. The Copyright Office
      1. A. Structure of the Copyright Office
        1. (1) Receipt Analysis and Control Division
        2. (2) Registration Program
        3. (3) Information and Records Division
        4. (4) Licensing Division
        5. (5) Copyright Acquisitions Division
      2. B. Copyright Office Records
    2. II. Copyright Registration
      1. A. What Is Copyright Registration?
      2. B. Why Should You Register?
      3. C. Who Can Register?
      4. D. When Should You Register?
      5. E. How to Register?
        1. (1) Applying through the Electronic Copyright Office Online System (eCO)
        2. (2) Applying with Paper Registration Forms
          1. (a) Fill-In Form CO
          2. (b) Traditional Paper Registration Forms
        3. (3) Completing Registration Forms
          1. (a) Title Information
          2. (b) Author Information
          3. (c) Creation and Publication Dates
          4. (d) Copyright Claimant Information
          5. (e) Previous Registration
          6. (f) Derivative Work or Compilation
          7. (g) Deposit Account
          8. (h) Certification
        4. (4) Submitting the Registration Application
      6. F. Registering a Collection of Works
      7. G. Expedited Registration
      8. H. The Examination Process
      9. I. Correcting and Supplementing Registrations
        1. (1) Correcting a Registration
        2. (2) Supplementing a Registration
        3. (3) Effect of Supplemental Registration
      10. J. Alternatives to Registration
        1. (1) The Myth of the Poor Man’s Copyright
        2. (2) Registration Services
      11. K. Preregistration of Works
    3. III. Copyright Deposit
      1. A. Mandatory Deposit
      2. B. Penalties for Failure to Deposit
      3. C. What Must Be Deposited
      4. D. Exemptions from the Deposit Requirement
    4. IV. Copyright Notice
      1. A. What Should a Copyright Notice Contain?
      2. B. Where Should Copyright Notice Be Placed?
    5. Endnotes
  16. 10. Infringement of Copyright
    1. I. What Is Copyright Infringement?
    2. II. What if You Believe Your Work Has Been Infringed?
    3. III. How to Bring an Infringement Lawsuit
      1. A. Who Can Sue for Infringement?
      2. B. Where to Bring a Copyright Infringement Lawsuit
    4. IV. How Do You Prove Infringement?
      1. A. Ownership of a Valid Copyright
      2. B. Copying of a Copyrighted Work
        1. (1) Access
          1. (a) Direct Evidence of Access
        2. (b) Circumstantial Evidence of Access
        3. (2) Substantial Similarity
        4. (3) Fragmented Similarity
        5. (4) Striking Similarity
        6. (5) Presumption of Copying
      3. C. Some Famous Music Infringement Cases
        1. (1) The Song Is Mine—Sanford v. Jackson
        2. (2) Being Famous Can Be Dangerous—Cartier v. Jackson[15]
        3. (3) Thieving Diva or Publicity-Hungry Plaintiff?—Selletti v. Carey[16]
        4. (4) Subconscious Songwriting—Bright Tunes Music Corp. v. Harrisongs Music, Ltd.[17]
        5. (5) Infringement Isn’t a Wonderful Thing—Three Boys Music Corporation v. Michael Bolton[18]
        6. (6) I’m Not That Innocent (or Am I?)—Cottrill v. Spears[19]
        7. (7) Independent Infringement or Copyright Destiny—Toliver v. Sony Music Entertainment, Inc.[20]
        8. (8) Fair Play by Coldplay? Satriani v. Christopher Martin, et al.[21]
        9. (9) “Caught Up”... in a Losing Case—Pyatt v. Raymond, et al.[24]
    5. V. Liability for Infringement
      1. A. Contributory Infringement
      2. B. Vicarious Infringement
      3. C. Inducement Liability
      4. D. Joint and Several Liability
    6. Endnotes
  17. 11. Defenses to Infringement
    1. I. Statute of Limitations
    2. II. Abandonment of Copyright
    3. III. Independent Creation
    4. IV. Fair Use
      1. A. What Is Fair Use?
      2. B. Origins of Fair Use
      3. C. Fair Use Under the 1976 Copyright Act
        1. (1) The Purpose and Character of the Use
        2. (2) The Nature of the Copyrighted Work
        3. (3) The Amount and Substantiality of the Portion Used
        4. (4) The Effect of the Use upon the Potential Market for or Value of the Copyrighted Work
        5. (5) Parody as Fair Use
          1. (a) The 2 Live Crew “Pretty Woman” Case
          2. (b) Other Parody Cases
    5. V. De Minimis Copying
    6. VI. Innocent Intent
    7. Endnotes
  18. 12. Remedies for Copyright Infringement
    1. I. Coercive Remedies
      1. A. Injunction
      2. B. Impoundment
      3. C. Destruction
    2. II. Compensatory Remedies
      1. A. Actual Damages and Profits
      2. B. Statutory Damages
        1. (1) Illegal File Sharing and Statutory Damages
      3. C. Costs and Attorneys’ Fees
    3. III. Criminal Copyright Infringement
      1. A. The 1976 Copyright Act
      2. B. The No Electronic Theft Act
      3. C. Pre-Release Piracy
      4. D. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act
    4. Endnotes
  19. 13. International Copyright Protection
    1. I. History of U.S. Attempts at International Protection
      1. A. Bilateral Treaties
      2. B. Multinational Treaties
        1. (1) The Berne Convention
          1. (a) The National Treatment Principle
          2. (b) Minimal Standards of Protection
          3. (c) Formalities
          4. (d) Exclusive Rights
          5. (e) U.S. Membership in Berne
          6. (f) Protection of Foreign Copyrighted Works
        2. (2) The Universal Copyright Convention
        3. (3) The Geneva and Rome Conventions
        4. (4) The North American Free Trade Agreement
        5. (5) The General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs
          1. (a) Neighboring Rights
          2. (b) Restoration of Foreign Copyrights
        6. (6) The WIPO Treaties
          1. (a) The WIPO Copyright Treaty
          2. (b) The WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty
      3. C. Differences in Copyright Term for Sound Recordings
    2. II. Countries That Have No Copyright Relations with the United States
    3. III. Piracy and the Use of Economic Pressure to Enforce Copyright
    4. IV. What to Do if Your Work Is Infringed in a Foreign Country
    5. Endnotes
  20. 14. Copyright and Digital Technology
    1. I. Copyright Law in the Internet Age
    2. II. New Technologies
      1. A. Digital Technology
      2. B. The Internet
    3. III. How Music Is Used on the Internet
      1. A. Streaming
      2. B. Downloading
    4. IV. How Does Copyright Apply to the Internet?
      1. A. The Reproduction Right
      2. B. The Public Performance Right
      3. C. The Reproduction/Performance Controversy
      4. D. The Distribution Right
    5. V. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act
      1. A. Anti-Piracy Provisions
        1. (1) Anti-Circumvention
        2. (2) Protection of Copyright Management Information
      2. B. Online Service Provider Liability
        1. (1) Transitory Communications
        2. (2) System Caching
        3. (3) Hosting at the Direction of Users
          1. (a) Testing the Bounds of Safe Harbors
          2. (b) Clouds and Music Lockers
        4. (4) Information Location Tools
    6. VI. Balance or Battleground?
      1. A. Net Neutrality
      2. B. The Future of Protecting Intellectual Property on the Net
        1. (1) Copyright Alert System
        2. (2) Protect IP Act of 2011
        3. (3) Toward a “Copyright Ecosystem”
    7. Endnotes
  21. 15. The Online Music War
    1. I. Legal Enforcement
      1. A. What Is Filesharing?
      2. B. The War Begins: A&M Records v. Napster[4]
        1. (1) The Ruling
        2. (2) Napster’s Arguments
        3. (3) The Aftermath
      3. C. Grokster, Parts One and Two: The Music Industry Suffers Its First Legal Losses
      4. D. RIAA v. The People
        1. (1) Virgin Records America, Inc. v. Thomas[12]
        2. (2) Sony BMG Music Entertainment v. Tenenbaum[13]
      5. E. Grokster and Streamcast, Part Three: Filesharing D-Day
      6. F. The Emergence of an International Standard
      7. G. Have the Filesharing Lawsuits Helped?
        1. (1) Decrease in Illegal Filesharing?
        2. (2) Public Awareness
        3. (3) Legitimate Alternatives
    2. II. Three Strikes and You’re Out?: The Role of Internet Service Providers
    3. III. Copyright Education
    4. IV. Conclusion
    5. Endnotes