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Multimedia Information Storage and Retrieval: Techniques and Technologies

Book Description

"Since multimedia systems are required to store and manipulate a variety of media types -- including text, graphics, images, sound, audio, and video among many others -- applications such as video-on-demand systems, interactive television, and video conferencing are becoming widely available at warp speed. This presents new challenges and obstacles to those in the multimedia industry.

Multimedia Information Storage and Retrieval: Techniques and Technologies offers solutions to these challenges, providing data placement techniques, scheduling methods, caching techniques and emerging characteristics of multimedia information. Academicians, students, professionals and practitioners in the multimedia industry will benefit from this ground-breaking publication."

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Foreword
  3. Preface
  4. Acknowledgment
  5. I. Background
    1. I. Introduction
    2. II. Multimedia Information
      1. Introduction
      2. Multimedia Data
        1. What is Multimedia Information?
        2. Digital Multimedia Data
        3. Multimedia Objects
      3. Multimedia Applications
        1. Major System Configuration
        2. Data Storage and Distribution
        3. Delivery Network and Scheduling
        4. Video-on-Demand Systems
        5. Video Conference System
      4. Data Representations
        1. Numbers and Text
        2. Graphics
        3. Animations
        4. Images
          1. Image Bits Per Pixel
          2. RGB Representation
          3. YUV Representation
          4. YCbCr Representation
          5. Representation for Printing CMYK
        5. Sound and Audio
          1. Sound Concept
          2. Computer Processing of Sound
          3. Digitization of Sound Wave
          4. Sample Values
          5. Standard Audio/Sound Formats
          6. MIDI Format
        6. Video
          1. Video Concept
          2. Video Frame Rates
          3. Aspect Ratio
          4. Viewing Distance
          5. Computer Video Formats
        7. Summary to Data Representation
      5. Multimedia Access Streams
        1. Classification of Streams
        2. Request Streams Summary
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. References
    3. III. Storage System Architectures
      1. Introduction
      2. Server Architectures
        1. Simple Multimedia Server System
        2. Distributed Multimedia Server System
      3. Input/Output Processors
      4. Storage Devices
        1. Zoned Disks
        2. Spiral Track Layout
        3. Millipede Project
        4. Nano RAM
      5. Disk Performance
        1. Individual Disk Access Operation
        2. Performance of Zoned Disks
          1. Seek Time
          2. Rotational Latency
          3. Data Transfer Time
      6. Disk Array
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. References
    4. IV. Data Compression Techniques and Standards
      1. Introduction
      2. Compression Model
      3. Text Compression
        1. Symbolwise Methods
        2. Dictionary Methods
        3. LZ Compressions
        4. Arithmetic Coding
      4. Image Compression
        1. JPEG2000 Compression
      5. Video Compression
        1. MPEG2 Compression
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. References
    5. 5. Summary to Section I
  6. IIa. Data Placement on Disks
    1. V. Statistical Placement on Disks
      1. Introduction
      2. Frequency Based Placement
      3. Bandwidth Based Placement
      4. Chapter Summary
      5. References
    2. VI. Striping on Disks
      1. Introduction
      2. Simple Striping
      3. Staggered Striping
      4. Pseudorandom Placement
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. References
    3. VII. Replication Placement on Disks
      1. Introduction
      2. Replication to Increase Availability
      3. Replication to Reduce Network Load
      4. Replication to Reduce Start-Up Latency
      5. Replication to Avoid Disk Multitasking
      6. Replication to Maintain Balance of Space and Load
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. References
    4. VIII. Constraint Allocation on Disks
      1. Introduction
      2. Phase Based Constraint Allocation
      3. Region Based Constraint Allocation
      4. Chapter Summary
      5. References
    5. 10. Summary to Section IIa: Data Placement on Disks
  7. IIb. Data Placement on Hierarchical Storage Systems
    1. IX. Tertiary Storage Devices
      1. Introduction
      2. Magnetic Tapes
      3. Optical Disks
      4. Optical Tapes
      5. Robotic Tape Library
      6. Performance of the Tertiary Storage Devices
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. References
    2. X. Contiguous Placement on Hierarchical Storage Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. Contiguous Placement
      3. Log Structured Placement
      4. Chapter Summary
      5. References
    3. XI. Statistical Placement on Hierarchical Storage Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. Frequency Based Placement
      3. Discussion
      4. Chapter Summary
      5. References
    4. XII. Striping on Hierarchical Storage Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. Parallel Tape Striping
      3. Performance of Parallel Tape Striping
      4. Triangular Placement
      5. Performance of Triangular Placement
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. References
    5. XIII. Constraint Allocation on Hierarchical Storage Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. Interleaved Contiguous Placement
      3. Storage Pattern Preserving Policy
      4. Storage Pattern Altering Policy
      5. Concurrent Striping
      6. Performance Analysis
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. References
    6. 16. Summary to Section IIb: Data Placement on Hierarchical Storage Systems
  8. III. Disk Scheduling Methods
    1. XIV. Scheduling Methods for Disk Requests
      1. Introduction
      2. First-In-First-Out Method
      3. The SCAN Algorithm
      4. Chapter Summary
      5. References
    2. XV. Feasibility Conditions of Concurrent Streams
      1. Introduction
      2. Feasibility Condition for a Storage Device to Accept New Streams
      3. Feasibility of Homogeneous Streams
      4. Feasibility Condition of Heterogeneous Streams
      5. Feasibility of Heterogeneous Streams Over Multiple Storage Devices
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. References
    3. XVI. Scheduling Methods for Request Streams
      1. Introduction
      2. Earliest Deadline First Scheduling
      3. The SCAN-EDF Scheduling Method
      4. Group Sweeping Scheduling
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. References
    4. 20. Summary to Section III: Disk Scheduling
  9. IV. Data Migration
    1. XVII. Staging Methods
      1. Introduction
      2. Staging Method
      3. Performance of the Staging Method
      4. Chapter Summary
      5. References
    2. XVIII. Time Slicing Method
      1. Introduction
      2. Time Slicing Method
      3. Performance
      4. Chapter Summary
      5. References
    3. XIX. Normal Pipelining
      1. Introduction
      2. The Normal Pipelining Method
      3. Chapter Summary
      4. References
    4. XX. Space Efficient Pipelining
      1. Introduction
      2. The Basic Space Efficient Pipelining Algorithm
      3. Circular Buffer Size and Start-Up Latency
      4. Buffer Replacement Policies
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. References
    5. XXI. Segmented Pipelining
      1. Introduction
      2. Segmented Pipelining
      3. Analysis of Segmented Pipelining
        1. Unlimited Disk Bandwidth
        2. Limited Disk Bandwidth
        3. Approximation of Disk Space
        4. Reposition Latency
      4. Performance of Segmented Pipelining
      5. Discussion
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. References
    6. 26. Summary to Section IV: Data Migration
  10. V. Cache Replacement Policy
    1. XXII. Memory Caching Methods
      1. Introduction
      2. The Least Recently Used Method
      3. Object Access Patterns
      4. The Least Frequently Used Method
      5. The LRU-Min Method
      6. The Greedy Dual Size Method
      7. The Least Unified Value Method
      8. The Mix Method
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. References
      11. Exercises
    2. XXIII. Stream Dependent Caching
      1. Introduction
      2. The Resident Leader Method
        1. Objectives
        2. Details of the Method
        3. Analysis
      3. Variable Length Segmentation
        1. Objectives
        2. Details of the Method
        3. Analysis
      4. The Video Staging Method
        1. Objectives
        2. Details of the Method
        3. Discussion
      5. The Hotspot Caching Method
        1. Objectives
        2. Details of the Method
        3. Discussion
      6. Interval Caching
        1. Objectives
        2. Details of the Method
        3. Discussion
      7. Layered Based Caching
        1. Objectives
        2. Details of the Method
        3. Discussion
      8. The Cost Based Method for Wireless Networks
        1. Objective
        2. Details of the Method
        3. Analysis
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. References
    3. XXIV. Cooperative Web Caching
      1. Introduction
      2. Hierarchical Web Caches
        1. Objectives
        2. Details of the Method
        3. Analysis
      3. Front and Rear Partitioning
        1. Objectives
        2. Details of the Method
        3. Analysis
      4. Directory Based Cooperation
        1. Objectives
        2. Details of the Method
        3. Analysis
      5. Hash Based Cooperation
        1. Objectives
        2. Details of the Method
        3. Analysis
      6. The Multiple Hotspot Caching Method
        1. Objectives
        2. Details of the Method
        3. Discussion
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. References
    4. 30. Summary to Section V: Cache Replacement Policy
  11. About the Author