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Multi-terminal Direct-Current Grids: Modeling, Analysis, and Control

Book Description

A generic DC grid model that is compatible with the standard AC system stability model is presented and used to analyse the interaction between the DC grid and the host AC systems.

A multi-terminal DC (MTDC) grid interconnecting multiple AC systems and offshore energy sources (e.g. wind farms) across the nations and continents would allow effective sharing of intermittent renewable resources and open market operation for secure and cost-effective supply of electricity. However, such DC grids are unprecedented with no operational experience. Despite lots of discussions and specific visions for setting up such MTDC grids particularly in Europe, none has yet been realized in practice due to two major technical barriers:

  • Lack of proper understanding about the interaction between a MTDC grid and the surrounding AC systems.

  • Commercial unavailability of efficient DC side fault current interruption technology for conventional voltage sourced converter systems

  • This book addresses the first issue in details by presenting a comprehensive modeling, analysis and control design framework. Possible methodologies for autonomous power sharing and exchange of frequency support across a MTDC grid and their impact on overall stability is covered. An overview of the state-of-the-art, challenges and on-going research and development initiatives for DC side fault current interruption is also presented.

    Table of Contents

    1. Cover
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright
    4. Dedication
    5. Foreword
    6. Preface
    7. Acronyms
    8. Symbols
    9. Chapter 1: Fundamentals
      1. 1.1 Introduction
      2. 1.2 Rationale Behind MTDC Grids
      3. 1.3 Network Architectures of MTDC Grids
      4. 1.4 Enabling Technologies and Components of MTDC Grids
      5. 1.5 Control Modes in MTDC Grid
      6. 1.6 Challenges for MTDC Grids
      7. 1.7 Configurations of MTDC Converter Stations
      8. 1.8 Research Initiatives on MTDC Grids
      9. 1.9 Focus and Scope of the Monograph
    10. Chapter 2: The Voltage-Sourced Converter (VSC)
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 Ideal Voltage-Sourced Converter
      3. 2.3 Practical Voltage-Sourced Converter
      4. 2.4 Control
      5. 2.5 Simulation
      6. 2.6 Symbols of the VSC
    11. Chapter 3: Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation of AC–MTDC Grids
      1. 3.1 Introduction
      2. 3.2 MTDC Grid Model
      3. 3.3 AC Grid Model
      4. 3.4 AC–MTDC Load flow Analysis
      5. 3.5 AC–MTDC Grid Model for Nonlinear Dynamic Simulation
      6. 3.6 Small-signal Stability Analysis of AC–MTDC Grid
      7. 3.7 Transient Stability Analysis of AC–MTDC Grid
      8. 3.8 Case Studies
      9. 3.9 Case Study 1: The North Sea Benchmark System
      10. 3.10 Case Study 2: MTDC Grid Connected to Equivalent AC Systems
      11. 3.11 Case Study 3: MTDC Grid Connected to Multi-machine AC System
    12. Chapter 4: Autonomous Power Sharing
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 Steady-state Operating Characteristics
      3. 4.3 Concept of Power Sharing
      4. 4.4 Power Sharing in MTDC Grid
      5. 4.5 AC–MTDC Grid Load flow Solution
      6. 4.6 Post-contingency Operation
      7. 4.7 Linear Model
      8. 4.8 Case Study
    13. Chapter 5: Frequency Support
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 Fundamentals of Frequency Control
      3. 5.3 Inertial and Primary Frequency Support from Wind Farms
      4. 5.4 Wind Farms in Secondary Frequency Control (AGC)
      5. 5.5 Modified Droop Control for Frequency Support
      6. 5.6 AC–MTDC Load Flow Solution
      7. 5.7 Post-Contingency Operation
      8. 5.8 Case Study
    14. Chapter 6: Protection of MTDC Grids
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 Converter Station Protection
      3. 6.3 DC Cable Fault Response
      4. 6.4 Fault-blocking Converters
      5. 6.5 DC Circuit Breakers
      6. 6.6 Protection Strategies
    15. References
    16. Index
    17. End User License Agreement