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MPLS Configuration on Cisco IOS Software

Book Description

A complete configuration manual for MPLS, MPLS VPNs, MPLS TE, QoS, Any Transport over MPLS (AToM), and VPLS 

  • Understand the crucial Cisco commands for various MPLS scenarios

  • Understand fundamentals of MPLS operation and learn to configure basic MPLS in Frame Relay and ATM-based environments

  • Master fundamentals of MPLS VPN operation including Multiprotocol BGP (MBGP) operation, VPNv4 route exchange, and basic MPLS VPN configuration in the provider network

  • Understand and configure various PE-CE routing protocols in MPLS VPN networks

  • Understand MPLS VPN provisioning in an Inter-provider VPN (Inter-AS) and Carrier Supporting Carrier (CSC) environment

  • Learn MPLS TE and its advanced features

  • Examine AToM with configuration examples for like-to-like and any-to-any L2 VPN implementations and VPLS components and operation, VPLS configuration and verification, and VPLS topologies

  • Learn about MPLS QoS, including configuration and implementation of uniform and short pipe modes

  • MPLS Configuration on Cisco IOS Software is a complete and detailed resource to the configuration of Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks and associated features. Through its practical, hands-on approach, you’ll become familiar with MPLS technologies and their configurations using Cisco IOS® Software.

    MPLS Configuration on Cisco IOS Software covers basic-to-advanced MPLS concepts and configuration. Beyond its emphasis on MPLS, you’ll learn about applications and deployments associated with MPLS, such as traffic engineering (TE), Layer 2 virtual private networks (VPN), and Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS). You’ll receive practical guidance and deployment scenarios that can be enhanced by re-creation of the setups and configurations demonstrated within this book.

    You’ll move quickly from a brief overview of MPLS technology and basic MPLS configuration on Cisco® routers to more advanced topics. Several chapters provide instruction on VPN connectivity options, including implementing Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) in MPLS VPNs. You’ll receive configuration guidelines for advanced MPLS implementations such as MPLS TE, quality of service (QoS), and extranet VPNs. You’ll learn about implementation of Layer 2 VPNs versus Layer 3 VPNs with Cisco Any Transport over MPLS (AToM). And you’ll see demonstrations of implementing VPLS on Cisco routers complete with the configurations and platform support.

    “I highly recommend MPLS Configuration on Cisco IOS Software as required reading for those in search of practical guidance of the technology and nuances of configuring MPLS for next-generation networks for voice, video, data, and application service offerings across a wide variety of deployment scenarios.”

    –Carlos Dominguez, Senior Vice President, Worldwide Service Provider Operations, Cisco Systems®

    This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press®, which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedications
    2. About the Authors
      1. About the Technical Reviewers
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. Icons Used in This Book
    5. Command Syntax Conventions
    6. Foreword
    7. Introduction
      1. Who Should Read This Book?
      2. How This Book Is Organized
    8. 1. MPLS Overview
      1. Unicast IP Forwarding in Traditional IP Networks
      2. Overview of MPLS Forwarding
        1. Architectural Blocks of MPLS
      3. MPLS Terminology
      4. MPLS Control and Data Plane Components
      5. MPLS Operation
        1. MPLS Label Assignment
        2. LDP Session Establishment
        3. MPLS Label Distribution with LDP
        4. MPLS Label Retention
      6. Special Outgoing Label Types
      7. Penultimate Hop Popping
      8. Frame-Mode MPLS
        1. Frame-Mode MPLS Operation
        2. Loop Prevention in Frame-Mode MPLS
      9. Cell-Mode MPLS
        1. Cell-Mode MPLS Operation
        2. Loop Detection in Cell-Mode MPLS
        3. ATM VC-Merge
        4. Cell Interleave with VC-Merge Implementation
    9. 2. Basic MPLS Configuration
      1. Frame-Mode MPLS Configuration and Verification
        1. Basic Frame-Mode MPLS Overview, Configuration, and Verification
          1. Basic Frame-Mode MPLS Configuration Steps
          2. Verification of Basic Frame-Mode MPLS Operation
          3. Control and Data Plane Forwarding in Basic Frame-Mode MPLS
            1. Control Plane Operation in Basic Frame-Mode MPLS
            2. Data Forwarding Operation in Basic Frame-Mode MPLS
          4. Final Device Configurations for Basic Frame-Mode MPLS
        2. Frame-Mode MPLS over RFC 2684 Routed PVC
          1. Configuration Steps for Frame-Mode MPLS Over RFC 2684 Routed PVC
          2. Configuration of the LS1010 ATM Switch
          3. Verification Steps for Frame-Mode MPLS Over RFC 2684 Routed PVC
          4. Final Device Configuration for Frame-Mode MPLS Over RFC 2684 Routed PVC
      2. Cell-Mode MPLS over ATM Overview, Configuration, and Verification
        1. Basic Cell-Mode MPLS Configuration and Verification
          1. Basic Cell-Mode MPLS Configuration Flowchart for Edge LSRs
          2. Basic Cell-Mode MPLS Configuration Flowchart for LSRs
          3. Basic Cell-Mode MPLS Configuration Steps
            1. Configuration Steps for Edge ATM LSR
            2. Configuration Steps for ATM LSR
          4. Verification of Basic Cell-Mode MPLS Configuration
          5. Control and Data Forwarding Operation in Basic Cell-Mode MPLS Configuration
            1. Control Plane Operation in Basic Cell-Mode MPLS Configuration
            2. Data Forwarding Operation in Basic Cell-Mode MPLS Configuration
          6. Final Device Configurations for Basic Cell-Mode MPLS
        2. Configuring Cell-Mode MPLS with VC-Merge
          1. Configuration Flowchart for Cell-Mode MPLS with VC-Merge
          2. Configuration Steps for Cell-Mode MPLS with VC-Merge on Edge ATM LSR
          3. Configuration Steps for Cell-Mode MPLS with VC-Merge on ATM LSR
          4. Final Configuration for Devices in Cell-Mode MPLS with VC-Merge
          5. Verification Steps for Cell-Mode MPLS with VC-Merge on ATM LSR
        3. Configuring MPLS Over ATM Without VC-Merge
          1. Verify MPLS Over ATM Without VC-Merge
        4. MPLS Over VP Tunnels Configuration and Verification
          1. Configuration Flowchart for MPLS over VP Tunnels on Edge ATM LSR
          2. Configuration Flowchart for Creating an ATM PVP on ATM Switch
          3. Configuration Steps for MPLS over VP Tunnels
          4. Verification Steps for MPLS over VP Tunnels
          5. Final Device Configurations for MPLS over VP Tunnels
        5. Implementing Cell-Mode MPLS with BPX8600 and 7200 as Label Switch Controller
          1. Configuring BPX+LSC as ATM LSR
            1. Configuring the BPX
            2. Configuration of the Label Switch Controller
            3. Configuration of Edge ATM LSRs
          2. Verification of Cell-Mode MPLS with BPX+LSC Operation
      3. Command Reference
    10. 3. Basic MPLS VPN Overview and Configuration
      1. VPN Categories
      2. MPLS VPN Architecture and Terminology
      3. MPLS VPN Routing Model
        1. VRF: Virtual Routing and Forwarding Table
        2. Route Distinguisher, Route Targets, MP-BGP, and Address Families
        3. MPLS VPN Control Plane Operation
        4. MPLS VPN Data Plane Operation
      4. MPLS VPN Basic Configuration
        1. Configuration of CE Routers
        2. Configuring MPLS Forwarding and VRF Definition on PE Routers
        3. Final VRF Configuration on PE1-AS1 Router
        4. Verification of VRF Configuration on PE Routers
        5. Configuration of BGP PE-PE Routing on PE Routers
        6. BGP PE-PE Routing Final Configuration on PE1-AS1 and PE2-AS1 Router
        7. Verification and Monitoring of BGP PE-PE Routing on PE Routers
        8. Configuration of P Router
        9. Label Verification and Control and Data Plane Operation
      5. Outbound Route Filters
      6. Command Reference
    11. 4. PE-CE Routing Protocol—Static and RIP
      1. Static PE-CE Routing Overview, Configuration, and Verification
        1. Configuration Flowchart to Implement Static PE-CE Routing
        2. Configuring Static PE-CE Routing
        3. Static PE-CE Routing—Final Device Configurations for CE Routers (CE1-A and CE2-A)
        4. Static PE-CE Routing—Final Device Configuration for Provider Routers (P1-AS1 and P2-AS1)
        5. Static PE-CE Routing—Final Device Configurations for PE Routers (PE1-AS1 and PE2-AS1)
        6. Verification of Static PE-CE Routing
      2. Static PE-CE Routing Command Reference
      3. RIPv2 PE-CE Routing Overview, Configuration, and Verification
        1. Configuration Flowchart to Implement RIPv2 PE-CE Routing
        2. Configuring RIPv2 PE-CE Routing
        3. RIPv2 PE-CE Routing—Customer Edge CE1-A and CE2-A Configuration
        4. RIPv2 PE-CE Routing—Provider Edge PE1-AS1 and PE2-AS1 Configuration
        5. Verification of RIPv2 PE-CE Routing
        6. Control Plane Forwarding Operation
        7. Data Forwarding Operation
      4. RIPv1 PE-CE Routing Configuration and Verification
        1. RIPv1 PE-CE Routing—PE1-AS1 and CE1-A Final Configuration
        2. Verification of RIPv1 PE-CE Routing
      5. RIP PE-CE Routing Command Reference
    12. 5. PE-CE Routing Protocol—OSPF and EIGRP
      1. OSPF PE-CE Routing Protocol Overview, Configuration and Verification
        1. Traditional OSPF Routing Model
        2. MPLS VPN or OSPF Superbackbone Concept
          1. BGP Extended Communities for OSPF PE-CE Routing
        3. OSPF Route-Propagation Using MPLS VPN Superbackbone Concept
          1. OSPF Domain ID Is Same on All PE Routers
          2. OSPF Domain ID Is Different on All PE Routers
          3. Impact of Configuring OSPF Domain ID on PE Routers
        4. OSPF Down Bit and Domain Tag
          1. OSPF Down Bit
          2. OSPF Route Tag or VPN Route Tag
        5. Configuring and Verifying OSPF PE-CE Routing
          1. Configuration Scenario 1—OSPF Process ID Is Same for Customer A and Different for Customer B VPNs
            1. Final Configuration for Provider and Edge Routers
            2. Verify OSPF PE-CE Routing
          2. Configuration Scenario 2—Using OSPF Domain ID Support for LSA Type 5/Type 3 Translation
            1. Verify Route Propagation When Using OSPF Domain ID
        6. OSPF Sham-Links
          1. Configuration Flowchart for OSPF Sham-Links
          2. Configuration Scenario 3—OSPF Sham-Links
            1. Final Configuration for PE1-AS1 and PE2-AS1
            2. Final Configuration for CE1-A, CE2-A, CE3-A, and CE4-A
            3. Verify Sham-Link Operation
        7. OSPF PE-CE Routing Command Summary
      2. EIGRP PE-CE Routing Protocol Overview, Configuration, and Verification
        1. EIGRP Route Propagation
          1. Route Propagation When EIGRP AS Is Same on All PE Routers
          2. Route Propagation When EIGRP AS Is Different on All PE Routers
        2. Configuration Flowchart for EIGRP PE-CE Routing
          1. Configuration Scenario 1: Basic EIGRP PE-CE Routing Configuration
            1. Final Configuration for PE Routers
            2. Final Configuration for CE Routers
            3. Verify Basic EIGRP PE-CE Routing
        3. Routing Loops and Suboptimal Routing
          1. Routing Loops
            1. Multihomed Site Reinjecting Routes into the Backbone
            2. Backbone Reinjecting Routes into Multihomed Site
            3. Count to Infinity
          2. Suboptimal Routing
        4. BGP Cost Community Feature and EIGRP Site of Origin
          1. BGP Cost Community Feature
          2. EIGRP SoO Attribute
            1. Multihomed Sites and EIGRP SoO
            2. Backdoor Link and EIGRP SoO
            3. EIGRP SoO Configuration
          3. EIGRP PE-CE Configuration Scenario 2—BGP Cost Community Feature and EIGRP SoO in MPLS VPN Network with Backdoor Link
            1. No BGP Cost Community or EIGRP SoO
            2. Using BGP CC or EIGRP SoO
            3. Final Configurations for Networks Using BGP CC and EIGRP SoO
            4. Verify BGP CC and EIGRP SoO
        5. EIGRP PE-CE Routing Command Summary
    13. 6. Implementing BGP in MPLS VPNs
      1. BGP PE-CE Routing Protocol Overview, Configuration, and Verification
        1. Configuration Flowchart to Implement BGP PE-CE Routing for VPN Sites with Unique and Same AS Numbers
        2. Implementing BGP PE-CE Routing for VPN Sites With Unique and Same AS Numbers
          1. CE Router Configuration
          2. Final Configuration for BGP PE-CE VPN Sites Implementing Unique and Same BGP AS Numbers
          3. Verifying BGP PE-CE Routing for VPN Sites Implementing Unique and Different BGP AS Numbers
      2. Implementing Route-Reflectors in MPLS VPN Networks
        1. RR Deployment Methods
          1. Option 1—Using PE Router as VPNv4 RR
          2. Option 2—Using P Router as IPv4 and VPNv4 RR
          3. Option 3—Using P Router as RR Only for VPNv4
          4. Option 4—Dedicated Router as RR for IPv4 and VPNv4
          5. Option 5—Dedicated Router as RR for Only VPNv4
          6. Option 6—Partitioned RRs
        2. Configuring P Router as RR Only for VPNv4 Prefixes (Option 3)
          1. Configuration Flowchart for P Router as RR for Only VPNv4 Prefixes
          2. Configuration Step for PE Routers PE1-AS1 and PE2-AS1
          3. Configuration Step for P Router as RR for Only VPNv4 Prefixes
          4. CE Configurations
          5. P1-AS1-RR, PE1-AS1, and PE2-AS1 Final Configuration for MPLS VPN Using RRs
          6. Verifying MPLS VPNs Using RRs
        3. Partitioned RRs
          1. RR Partitioning Using BGP Inbound Route-Target Filters
            1. Route-Partitioning Configuration Steps on the P Routers P1-RR and P2-RR
            2. PE1-AS1, PE2-AS1, P1-AS1-RR1, and P2-AS1-RR2 Final Configuration for Partitioned RRs
            3. Verifying Partitioned RRs
          2. RR Partitioning Using Standard BGP Communities
            1. Configuration Steps on the PE Routers PE1-AS1 and PE2-AS1
            2. Configuration Steps on the P Routers P1-AS1-RR1 and P2-AS1-RR2
            3. PE1-AS1 and PE2-AS1 Final Configuration for Partitioned RRs
            4. Verifying Partitioned RRs Using Standard BGP Communities
        4. RRs and Peer Groups
          1. Configuring Peer Groups on P Routers P1-AS1-RR1 and P2-AS1-RR2
          2. P1-AS1-RR1 and P2-AS1-RR2 Final RR Configurations with Peer Groups
          3. Verifying Peer Groups and RRs
        5. BGP Confederations
          1. Configuration Flowchart to Implement BGP Confederations
          2. Configuring BGP Confederation for P Routers PE1-AS1, PE2-AS1, and P1-AS1
          3. Final BGP Confederation Configuration on PE1-AS1, P1-AS1, and PE2-AS1
          4. Verifying BGP Confederations
      3. Case Study—Hub and Spoke MPLS VPN Network Using BGP PE-CE Routing for Sites Using Unique AS Numbers
        1. Base MPLS VPN Configuration
        2. Hub and Spoke MPLS VPN Configuration for Sites Using Unique AS Numbers
        3. Verifying MPLS VPN Hub and Spoke Routing for Sites Using Unique AS Numbers
      4. Case Study—Hub and Spoke MPLS VPN Network with Sites Using Same AS Numbers
        1. Verifying MPLS VPN Hub and Spoke Routing for Spoke Sites Using Same AS Numbers
      5. Command Reference
    14. 7. Inter-Provider VPNs
      1. Overview of Inter-Provider VPNs
      2. Option 1: Inter-Provider VPN Using Back-to-Back VRF Method
        1. Control Plane Forwarding in Option 1
        2. Data Forwarding in Option 1
        3. Configuring Back-to-Back VRF Method
          1. CE CE1-A and CE2-A Configuration for Option 1
          2. Provider Router, PE, and PE ASBR Router Configurations for Option 1
          3. Verifying Option 1
      3. Option 2: Inter-Provider VPNs Using ASBR-to-ASBR Approach
        1. Option 2a: ASBR-ASBR Approach Using Next-Hop-Self Method
          1. Control Plane Forwarding in Option 2a
          2. Data Forwarding in Option 2a
          3. Configuration Flowchart to Implement Inter-Provider VPN Operation Using Option 2a
          4. Configuration Step to Implement Inter-Provider VPN Operation Using Option 2a
            1. ASBR1-AS1 and ASBR2-AS2 Final Configurations for Option 2a
            2. Verifying Inter-Provider VPN Operation Using Option 2a
        2. Option 2b: ASBR-to-ASBR Approach Using Redistribute Connected
          1. Control Plane Forwarding in Option 2b
          2. Data Forwarding in Option 2b
          3. Configuration Flowchart for Implementing Option 2b
          4. Configuring Inter-Provider VPNs Using Option 2b
            1. Final Router Configurations for ASBRs in Option 2b
            2. Verification of Control Plane Forwarding When Using Option 2b
            3. Verification of Data Forwarding in Option 2b
        3. Option 2c: Multi-Hop MP-eBGP Between ASBRs
          1. Control Plane Forwarding in Option 2c
          2. Data Plane Forwarding in Option 2c
          3. Configuring Multi-Hop MP-eBGP Between ASBRs
            1. Configuration Flowchart for Implementing Option 2c
            2. ASBR1-AS1 and ASBR2-AS2 Configurations for Option 2c
            3. Verifying Inter-Provider VPN Operation Option 2c
      4. Option 3: Multi-Hop MP-eBGP Between RR and eBGP Between ASBRs
        1. Control Plane Forwarding in Option 3
        2. Data Forwarding in Option 3
        3. Configuration Flowchart to Implement Option 3
        4. Configuration and Verification of Option 3
          1. ASBR and RR Configurations in Option 3
          2. Verifying Inter-Provider VPN Operation Using Option 3
      5. Option 4: Non-VPN Transit Provider
        1. Control Plane Forwarding in Option 4
        2. Data Forwarding in Option 4
        3. Configuration Flowchart in Option 4
        4. Configuration and Verification of Option 4
          1. ASBR and RR Configurations in Option 4
          2. Verifying Inter-Provider VPN Operation Using Option 4
      6. Case Study—Inter-AS Implementing Route-Reflector and BGP Confederation in Provider Networks
      7. Case Study—Multi-Homed Inter-AS Provider Network
      8. Command Reference
    15. 8. Carrier Supporting Carriers
      1. Carrier Supporting Carriers Overview
        1. Label Exchange Methods in CSC Architecture
          1. Using IGP for Label Exchange
          2. Using BGP for Label Exchange
      2. Deployment Scenarios with CSC Architecture
        1. CSC Network—Customer Carrier Not Running MPLS
          1. Control Plane Forwarding Operation—Customer Carrier Not Running MPLS
          2. Data Forwarding Operation—Customer Carrier Not Running MPLS
          3. Configuring the CSC Model—Customer Carrier Not Running MPLS
          4. Verify CSC Model—Customer Carrier Not Running MPLS
        2. CSC Network—Customer Carrier Running MPLS
          1. Control Plane Forwarding Operation—Customer Carrier Running MPLS
          2. Data Forwarding Operation—Customer Carrier Running MPLS
          3. Configuring the CSC Model—Customer Carrier Running MPLS
          4. Verify CSC Model—Customer Carrier Running MPLS
        3. CSC Network—Customer Carrier Providing MPLS VPN Service
          1. Control Plane Forwarding Operation—Customer Carrier Providing MPLS VPN Service
          2. Data Forwarding Operation—Customer Carrier Providing MPLS VPN Service
          3. Configuring the CSC Model—Customer Carrier Providing MPLS VPN Service
          4. Verify CSC Model—Customer Carrier Providing MPLS VPN Service
      3. CSC Architecture Benefits
      4. Command Reference
    16. 9. MPLS Traffic Engineering
      1. TE Basics
      2. MPLS TE Theory
        1. MPLS TE Overview
        2. RSVP with TE Extensions: Signaling
        3. RSVP Operation in MPLS TE
      3. Constraint-Based Routing and Operation in MPLS TE
        1. Maximum Versus Available Bandwidth
        2. Constraint-Based SPF
        3. OSPF Extension for MPLS TE
        4. IS-IS Extensions for MPLS TE
      4. Configuring MPLS TE
        1. MPLS TE Configuration Flowchart
        2. Configuring Dynamic Paths and Explicit Paths with MPLS TE
        3. Verification of MPLS TE Tunnel Creation
        4. Final Configurations for Dynamic and Explicit Tunnels with MPLS TE
        5. Unequal Cost Load Balancing Across Multiple TE Tunnels
        6. MPLS TE Fast ReRoute Link Protection
        7. Implementing MPLS VPNs over MPLS TE
        8. Verification of MPLS VPN over TE with PE to PE Tunnels
        9. Configuration of MPLS VPN over TE with PE to P Tunnels
      5. Command Reference
    17. 10. Implementing VPNs with Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Version 3
      1. L2TPv3 Overview
        1. Operation of L2TPv3
        2. L2TPv3 Modes of Operation
        3. L2TPv3 Prerequisites
        4. Tunnel Server Card Operation on GSR 12000 Series Routers When Implementing L2TPv3
        5. L2TPv3 Header Format
      2. Configuring L2TPv3 Tunnels for Layer 2 VPN
      3. Configuring L2TPv3 Static Tunnels
        1. Verification of Static L2TPv3 Tunnel Operation
        2. Final Device Configuration for L2TPv3 Static Tunnels
      4. Configuring L2TPv3 Dynamic Tunnels
        1. Verification of Dynamic L2TPv3 Tunnel Operation
        2. Final Device Configurations for L2TPv3 Dynamic Tunnels
      5. Implementing Layer 3 VPNs over L2TPv3 Tunnels
        1. Configuring L3VPN over L2TPv3 Tunnels
        2. Verification for L3VPN over L2TPv3 Tunnels
        3. Final Configurations for L3VPN over L2TPv3 Tunnels for PE Routers
      6. Command Reference
    18. 11. Any Transport over MPLS (AToM)
      1. Introduction to Layer 2 VPNs
        1. VPWS and VPLS
        2. Pseudo Wire Reference Model
        3. AToM Terminology
        4. How AToM Works
          1. LDP Label Mapping Procedure
          2. PSN Tunnel and VC Label Distribution
            1. Control Plane Operation
            2. Data Plane Operation
          3. VC Label Withdrawal Procedure
          4. Control Word
      2. Implementing AToM for Like to Like Circuits
        1. ATM over MPLS
          1. AAL5 over MPLS
            1. PE and Provider Router Configuration
            2. Configuration Flowchart for AAL5 over MPLS
            3. Configuring AAL5 over MPLS
            4. AAL5 over MPLS Configuration
            5. Verification of AAL5 over MPLS
          2. ATM Cell Relay over MPLS
            1. Configuration Flowchart for ATM Cell over MPLS
            2. Configuring ATM Cell over MPLS
            3. ATM Cell Relay over MPLS Configuration
            4. Verification of ATM Cell Relay over MPLS
          3. OAM in ATM AAL5 and ATM Cell Relay over MPLS
        2. Ethernet over MPLS
          1. Router-Based Ethernet over MPLS—Port Mode
            1. Configuration Flowchart for Router-Based Ethernet over MPLS—Port Mode
            2. Configuring Router-Based Ethernet over MPLS—Port Mode
            3. Device Configuration for Router-Based Ethernet over MPLS—Port Mode
            4. Verification of Ethernet over MPLS—Port Mode
            5. Control Plane and Data Plane—Ethernet over MPLS (Port Mode)
          2. Router-Based Ethernet over MPLS—VLAN Mode
            1. Configuration Flowchart for Router-Based Ethernet over MPLS—VLAN Mode
            2. Configuring Ethernet over MPLS—VLAN Mode
            3. Device Configuration for Router-Based Ethernet over MPLS—VLAN Mode
            4. Verification of Ethernet over MPLS—VLAN Mode
          3. Router-Based EoMPLS—VLAN Rewrite
          4. Switch-Based Ethernet over MPLS—Port Mode
            1. Configuration Flowchart for Ethernet over MPLS—Port, Dot1Q, and Tunnel Mode
            2. Backbone Configuration for PE1 and PE2
            3. Configuring Ethernet over MPLS—Port Mode
            4. Switch-Based Ethernet over MPLS—Port Mode Configuration
            5. Verification of Ethernet over MPLS—Port Mode
          5. Switch-Based Ethernet over MPLS—VLAN Mode
            1. Configuration Flowchart for Ethernet over MPLS—VLAN Mode
            2. Configuring Ethernet over MPLS—VLAN Mode
            3. Final Configurations for Switch-Based Ethernet over MPLS—VLAN Mode
            4. Verification of Ethernet over MPLS—VLAN Mode
          6. Switch-Based Ethernet over MPLS—dot1q Tunnel Mode
            1. Configuration Flowchart for Ethernet over MPLS—dot1Q Mode
            2. Configuring Ethernet over MPLS—dot1q Mode
            3. Switch-Based Ethernet over MPLS—Dot1q Tunnel Mode
            4. Verification of Ethernet over MPLS—VLAN Mode
        3. PPP over MPLS
          1. Configuration Flowchart for PPP over MPLS
          2. Configuring PPP over MPLS
          3. Device Configuration for PPP over MPLS
          4. Verification of PPP over MPLS
          5. Data Plane Forwarding for PPP over MPLS
        4. HDLC over MPLS
          1. Configuration Flowchart for HDLC over MPLS
          2. Configuring HDLC over MPLS
          3. Verify HDLC over MPLS
          4. Final Configuration for HDLC over MPLS
        5. Frame Relay over MPLS
          1. Configuration Steps for Frame Relay over MPLS—DLCI Mode
          2. Configuring Frame Relay over MPLS—DLCI Mode
          3. Verification of Frame Relay over MPLS—DLCI Mode
          4. Final Configuration for Frame Relay over MPLS (DLCI Mode)
      3. L2 VPN—Any to Any Interworking
        1. Bridged Interworking Mode
        2. Routed Interworking Mode
        3. L2 VPN Interworking Limitations
          1. L2 VPN Interworking Limitations for Ethernet/VLAN
          2. L2 VPN Interworking Limitations for Frame Relay
          3. L2 VPN Interworking Limitations for AAL5
        4. Configuring Layer 2 VPN Interworking
        5. Ethernet to VLAN Interworking
          1. Configuration Steps—Ethernet to VLAN Interworking
          2. Final Configuration for Ethernet to VLAN Interworking
          3. Verification of Ethernet to VLAN Interworking over MPLS
          4. Control Plane and Data Forwarding Operation
        6. Frame Relay to AAL5 Interworking
          1. Configuration Steps—Frame Relay to AAL5 Interworking
          2. Verification of Frame Relay to AAL5 Interworking over MPLS
        7. Frame Relay to PPP Interworking
          1. Configuration Steps—Ethernet to VLAN Interworking
          2. Verification of Frame Relay to PPP Interworking
        8. Final Configurations for Devices to Implement Frame Relay to PPP Interworking
        9. Frame Relay to VLAN Interworking
          1. Configuration Steps for Frame Relay to VLAN Interworking
          2. Verification of Frame Relay to VLAN Interworking over MPLS
          3. Final Configuration for Frame Relay to VLAN Interworking
        10. AAL5 to VLAN Interworking
          1. Configuration Steps—VLAN to AAL5 Interworking
          2. Verification of AAL5 to VLAN Interworking over MPLS
          3. Final Device Configurations to Implement ATM to Ethernet VLAN Interworking
      4. Local Switching
        1. Configuration Flowchart for Local Switching Among Like Circuits
        2. Local Switching—Frame Relay to Frame Relay
          1. Configuring Frame Relay to Frame Relay Local Switching
          2. Frame Relay to Frame Relay Local Switching Configuration
          3. Verify Frame Relay to Frame Relay Local Switching
        3. Local Switching—Ethernet to Ethernet
          1. Configuring Ethernet to Ethernet Local Switching
          2. Ethernet to Ethernet Switching Configuration
          3. Verification of Ethernet to Ethernet Local Switching
        4. Local Switching—ATM to ATM
          1. Configuring ATM to ATM Local Switching
          2. Final Configurations for ATM to ATM Local Switching
          3. Verify ATM to ATM Local Switching
        5. Local Switching—Ethernet to Frame Relay
          1. Configuring Ethernet to Frame Relay Local Switching
            1. Final Configurations for Implementation of Ethernet to Frame Relay Local Switching
            2. Verify Ethernet to Frame Relay Local Switching
      5. Command Reference
    19. 12. Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS)
      1. VPLS Overview
        1. VPLS Components
        2. VPLS Operation
          1. MAC Address Learning
          2. MAC Address Withdrawal
      2. VPLS Topology—Single PE or Direct Attachment
        1. Configuration Flowchart for Direct Attachment VPLS
        2. Direct Attachment VPLS Configuration Scenario 1—Using Port and 802.1Q VLAN Modes
          1. Verification of VPLS Connectivity
          2. VPLS Configurations on PE Router
          3. CE Router Configurations for Customer A and Customer B
        3. Direct Attachment VPLS Configuration Scenario 2—Using Dot1q Tunnel Mode and Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling
          1. Verify Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling for CDP and MSTP
          2. PE Configurations
          3. CE Configurations for Customers A and B
      3. Hierarchical VPLS—Distributed PE Architecture
        1. Configuration Flowchart for H-VPLS Using Q-in-Q Mode
        2. H-VPLS Configuration Scenario 1—802.1Q Tunneling (Q-in-Q)
        3. Verification of VPLS Service
        4. PE Configurations
        5. u-PE Configurations
        6. CE Configurations for Customer A and Customer B
      4. Command Reference
    20. 13. Implementing Quality of Service in MPLS Networks
      1. Introduction to QoS—Classification and Marking
        1. Classification and Marking
          1. IP Precedence, DSCP, and ToS Relationships
          2. MPLS EXP Bit Marking
        2. Congestion Management, Congestion Avoidance, Traffic Shaping, and Policing
      2. MPLS QoS Implementation
      3. MPLS QoS Operating Modes
        1. Uniform Mode
        2. Pipe Mode
        3. Short Pipe Mode
        4. Long Pipe Mode
        5. Summary of MPLS QoS Modes
      4. Modular QoS CLI: Configuration of QoS on Cisco Routers
      5. Configuration and Implementation of MPLS QoS in Uniform Mode and Short Pipe Mode Operation
        1. Implementing Uniform Mode
        2. Implementing Short Pipe Mode
      6. Implementing MPLS QoS for Layer 2 VPN Implementations
        1. Implementing QoS with AToM
        2. Implementing QoS with VPLS
        3. Implementing QoS with L2TPv3
      7. Command Reference
    21. 14. MPLS Features and Case Studies
      1. Case Study 1: Implementing Multicast Support for MPLS VPNs
        1. Operation of Multicast MPLS VPN
        2. Configuration of Multicast Support for MPLS VPN
        3. Implementing Multicast Support for MPLS VPNs
        4. Verifications for Case Study 1
      2. Case Study 2: Implementing Multi-VRF CE, VRF Selection Using Source IP Address, VRF Selection Using Policy-Based Routing, NAT and HSRP Support in MPLS VPN, and Multicast VPN Support over Multi-VRF CE
        1. Configuration of Core Devices in Case Study 2
        2. Theory and Configuration of Features in Case Study 2
          1. Multi-VRF CE
          2. VRF Selection Based on Source IP Address and Policy-Based Routing
          3. HSRP Integration with MPLS VPN
          4. NAT Integration to MPLS VPN
          5. Multicast VPN Support over Multi-VRF CE
        3. Verifications for Case Study 2
        4. Final Configurations for Case Study 2
      3. Case Study 3: Implementing Layer 2 VPNs over Inter-AS Topologies Using Layer 2 VPN Pseudo-Wire Switching
        1. Layer 2 VPN Pseudo-Wire Switching Theory and Configuration
        2. Verifications for Case Study 3
        3. Final Configurations for Case Study 3
      4. Case Study 4: Implementing Layer 3 VPNs over Layer 2 VPN Topologies and Providing L2 VPN Redundancy
        1. Layer 3 VPN over L2 VPN Configuration
        2. Implementing L2 VPN Redundancy
        3. Layer 2 VPN Pseudo-Wire Redundancy Configuration for Customer A Traffic from PE1-A to PE2-A
        4. Verifications for Case Study 4
        5. Final Configurations for Case Study 4
      5. Case Study 5: Implementing Dynamic Layer 3 VPNs Using mGRE Tunnels
        1. Configuring Layer 3 VPN over mGRE Tunnels
        2. Verifications for Case Study 5
        3. Final Configurations for Layer 3 VPN over mGRE Tunnels for PE Routers
      6. Case Study 6: Implementing Class-Based Tunnel Selection with MPLS Traffic Engineering
        1. Implementing Class-Based Tunnel Selection
        2. Configuring CBTS
        3. Verification of Class-Based Tunnel Selection
        4. Final Configurations for Case Study 6
      7. Case Study 7: Implementing Hub and Spoke Topologies with OSPF
        1. Hub and Spoke with OSPFv2: Configuration of CE Routers and Spoke PE Routers
        2. Configuration of Hub-PE Router and Verification of OSPF Hub and Spoke Operation
      8. Case Study 8: Implementing Hub and Spoke Topologies with EIGRP
        1. Configurations for the CE and Spoke PE Routers
        2. Configurations for the Hub PE Router and Verification of EIGRP Hub and Spoke Operation
      9. Case Study 9: Implementing VPLS Services with the GSR 12000 Series
        1. Theory and Operation of VPLS on a GSR 12000 Series
        2. GSR VPLS Packet Forwarding
        3. GSR VPLS Requirements and Configuration
      10. Case Study 10: BGP Site of Origin
      11. Command Reference