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MPLS and Next-Generation Networks: Foundations for NGN and Enterprise Virtualization

Book Description

Understand the business case for deploying MPLS-based services and solutions

  • Provides network managers and architects a precise MPLS primer

  • Defines MPLS service problems and their associated solutions

  • Includes ROI models for MPLS-based solutions

  • Discusses pros and cons of various options for each MPLS service

  • Network managers often question the value that MPLS brings to their business environment. This book provides them with a precise guide for evaluating the benefits of MPLS-based applications and solutions. The book guides the network manager through the business case for MPLS by exploring other technology alternatives, including their applications, benefits, and deficiencies. Understanding the service creation process as the basis for MPLS-based solutions is pivotal when describing the benefits that MPLS offers. Furthermore, the book explores MPLS technology and its components, providing an overview of the architecture necessary to reap the true advantages that MPLS brings to a service provider or enterprise network. These advantages include new revenue opportunities and a total cost of ownership reduction that positively impacts a company's bottom-line. ROI models and case study examples further confirm the business impact and help decision-makers create a blueprint for MPLS service creation. Specific aspects such as security, network management, advanced services and the future of the technology complete the book, helping decision makers assess MPLS as a candidate for implementation. In short, you can use this comprehensive guide to understand and build a business case for the inclusion of MPLS in your network.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedications
    2. About the Authors
    3. About the Technical Reviewers
    4. Acknowledgments
    5. Icons Used in This Book
      1. Command Syntax Conventions
    6. Foreword
    7. Introduction
      1. Who Should Read This Book?
      2. How This Book Is Organized
    8. 1. The Business Case for MPLS
      1. 1. The Dynamics of Service Creation and Deployment
        1. Industry Dynamics and Challenges
        2. What About the Enterprise Market?
          1. Service Provider Business Engineering
        3. Business Drivers and Requirements
          1. Enterprise Customers
          2. Enterprise Motivations for Migrating to Layer 3 Services
        4. Service Providers and Enterprise: The Battle of Outsourcing Versus Do-It-Yourself
          1. Do-It-Yourself
          2. Enterprise Segmentation
          3. Central Services with an Enterprise Campus
        5. Subscribing to a Managed Layer 3 MPLS VPN Service
        6. The Case for Building VPNs—Layer 2 or Layer 3
        7. Existing Technologies—Frame Relay, ATM, and IP-Based Networks: What Can They Solve?
          1. Frame Relay
          2. Asynchronous Transfer Mode
          3. The Internet Protocol
        8. Service Examples
        9. Summary
      2. 2. The Scope of Service Types
        1. Overview of Layer 2 Services
          1. Ethernet Services
        2. Next-Generation Network Overview and Interworking Functions
        3. Layer 3 Services
        4. Remote Access
        5. Value-Added Services
        6. Summary
    9. 2. The Technical Case for MPLS
      1. 3. Technology Overview: Making the Technology Case for MPLS and Technology Details
        1. Available Technologies and Options
        2. Why MPLS? (High-Level Detail)
        3. MPLS and Quality of Service
          1. Differentiating Service with Traffic Engineering
          2. Multicast
        4. Benefits
        5. MPLS Technology Details
        6. Layer 3 VPNs
          1. Peer-to-Peer Model
          2. VRF and its Function
          3. MPLS Label Stack Role
          4. Topologies
        7. Carrier Supporting Carrier and Inter-Provider Autonomous Systems
        8. Traffic Engineering
        9. DiffServ
        10. Layer 2 VPNs
        11. Summary
    10. 3. Mpl Services and Components
      1. 4. Layer 2 VPNs
        1. Taxonomy
        2. Introducing AToM
          1. Pseudowire Systems Architecture
          2. Packet Forwarding
          3. Layer 2 Transport Types (Like-to-Like)
          4. Ethernet Service
          5. Link Layer Service
          6. Frame Relay Service
          7. ATM Service
          8. Configuration of Pseudowires
        3. Layer 2 Interworking
          1. Interworking Modes
          2. Interworking Models and Applications
        4. Virtual Private LAN Service
          1. Considerations for VPLS
        5. Provisioning and Signaling
          1. LDP Signaling
          2. BGP Signaling
        6. Benefits of L2VPNs
        7. Inter-AS L2VPNs
        8. Supported IETF Standards
        9. Summary
        10. Standards and References
      2. 5. Layer 3 VPNs
        1. Technology Overview
          1. Separation of Routing Information Between VPNs
          2. Constrained Distribution of Routing Information
          3. Forwarding Packets Through the Network Core
          4. Packet Flow Through the Network
        2. Corporate Intranet
        3. Corporate Extranet
        4. Internet Access
          1. Dedicated Per-VPN Internet Access
          2. Shared PE—Internet and VPN
          3. Dedicated PE—Shared Backbone
          4. Managed Central Service—Shared Internet Access
        5. Scaling MPLS VPNs to Multi-AS, Multi-Provider, and Hierarchical Networks
          1. Inter-AS VPNs
          2. Carrier Supporting Carrier
        6. Heterogeneous Networks
        7. Managed Central Services
          1. Making Applications and Services VRF-Aware
          2. VRF-Aware Address Management
        8. Supported IETF Drafts
        9. Summary
          1. Standards and References
      3. 6. Remote Access and IPSec Integration with MPLS VPNs
        1. Technology Overview
          1. Dial Access
            1. Individual Access
            2. CE Dial Backup Access
            3. Dial-Out Access
          2. DSL Access
            1. Routed Encapsulation
            2. Bridged Encapsulation
          3. Cable Access
        2. PE-CE Routing Protocols
        3. Scalability and Network Convergence for Remote Access
        4. Summary
      4. 7. MPLS Security
        1. Security and NGN
        2. Security Overview and MPLS
        3. MPLS VPN and Security
        4. Attack Scenarios
          1. Internet/Extranet and MPLS Security
        5. IPSec
          1. MPLS VPN (BGP VPN) Security Issues and Options
        6. Layer 2 and Unmanaged VPN Service Considerations
          1. Design Option Examples
          2. Carrier’s Carrier Network and Inter-Autonomous Considerations
          3. Customer Edge Router Security Considerations
        7. Overall Best Practice Recommendations
        8. Summary
        9. Standards and References
          1. Other Cisco Press Security Book References
      5. 8. Traffic Engineering
        1. Problem Statement
        2. Technology Overview
          1. IGP Extensions and Distribution of Constraints
          2. Signaling of TE Tunnels
          3. Forwarding Packets Through the Network Core
            1. Sequence of Operation
            2. TE Tunnel Maintenance
        3. TE Applications and Examples
          1. Intra-Area TE
          2. Inter-Autonomous System TE
          3. Quality of Service and TE
          4. Traffic Handling of Delay-Sensitive Traffic
        4. Protection and Restoration
          1. Link Protection
          2. Node Protection
          3. Path Protection
          4. Usage Scenarios
          5. Scalability of Protection Mechanisms
        5. Scaling MPLS TE
        6. MPLS Traffic Engineering and Multicast
        7. Standards and References
        8. Summary
      6. 9. Quality of Service
        1. Problem Statement
          1. IP QoS
            1. QoS Building Blocks
            2. IntServ
            3. DiffServ
            4. Packet Handling
            5. The Hybrid Model
          2. MPLS QoS
            1. MPLS DiffServ
            2. Traffic Engineering and DiffServ
            3. DiffServ-Aware Traffic Engineering
          3. MPLS QoS Service Examples
            1. Point-to-Cloud Model
            2. Olympic Service Model
            3. Traffic-Engineered Voice Model
          4. Virtual Leased Line
            1. On-Demand QoS
          5. MPLS and IntServ
            1. Traffic Flows to MPLS DiffServ Mapping
            2. Tunnel-Based Admission Control
        2. Standards and References
        3. Summary
      7. 10. Multicast and NGNs
        1. Problem Statement
        2. MPLS Multicast VPN Overview
          1. Multicast VPN Operational Details
        3. MPLS Multicast VPN Applications and Examples
        4. Multicast Security and Management Considerations
        5. Standards and References
        6. Summary
      8. 11. IPv6 and MPLS
        1. Problem Statement
        2. Technology Overview
          1. IPv6 PE
            1. Multiprotocol BGP Extensions
            2. Packet Path
          2. IPv6 VPNs (6VPE)
            1. Route Tagging
            2. Virtual Routing and Forwading with IPv6
            3. Packet Path
            4. The Coexistence of IPv4 L3VPN and IPv6 L3VPN
          3. IPv6 Network Core
          4. Inter-AS Networks for 6PE and v6VPNs
          5. IPv6 QoS
          6. MPLS QoS for IPv6
        3. Management and IPv6
        4. Summary
    11. 4. Bringing Your MPLS Plan Together
      1. 12. Network Management and Provisioning
        1. Problem Statement
        2. Fault Management, Configuration Management, Accounting Management, Performance Management, and Security Management
          1. MPLS OAM
        3. VRF-Aware ICMP Ping and LSP Ping/Trace Mechanisms
        4. Dealing with Equal Cost Multipaths
          1. Noncompliant Routers
          2. LSR Self-Test
        5. Virtual Circuit Connection Verification and Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
        6. A Word About Interworking OAM
          1. Any to Any
          2. Local Switching
          3. Encapsulation Types and Modes
            1. ATM over MPLS
              1. ATM N:1 Mode
              2. ATM 1:1 Mode
              3. AAL5 SDU Mode
              4. AAL5 PDU Mode
          4. Frame Relay over MPLS
        7. Generic Failure Types
          1. Interface Failure
          2. Pseudowire Failures
          3. Tunnel LSP Failures
        8. Configuration Management for MPLS-Based Networks
        9. Accounting for MPLS-Based Networks
        10. Performance Management for MPLS-Based Networks
        11. Security Management for MPLS-Based Networks
        12. Per-VPN Management
          1. IP Addressing
          2. VRF-Aware Network Address Translation
          3. Supported MIBs
        13. Standards and References
        14. Summary
      2. 13. Design Considerations: Putting it All Together
        1. VRF-Aware Feature
          1. IP Addressing: VRF-Aware DHCP
          2. DHCP Deployment Examples
          3. Deployment Guideline Summary
          4. VRF-Aware Network Address Translation
        2. NAT-PE System Flow
          1. Inside-to-Outside Packet Flow
          2. Outside-to-Inside Packet Flow
        3. Deployment Guideline Summary
        4. Management, Provisioning, and Troubleshooting
        5. Equipment Scalability Versus Network Scalability
          1. Network Element Characteristics
          2. Network Parameters
          3. Network-Wide Scale
          4. Management and Scalability
          5. Layer 2 VPNs—What to Expect
            1. Same Grade of Service
            2. Planning and Sizing
            3. Density
            4. Management
        6. Summary
      3. 14. MPLS Case Studies
        1. The Background on Equant
          1. Equant Business Drivers
          2. Equant Services
        2. VPN Bridge Case Study
          1. Background
          2. Customer Issues/Objectives
          3. The Account Team’s Keys to Success
          4. Case Study Conclusion
        3. Summary
      4. 15. The Future of MPLS
        1. Integrating IP and Optical Networks (Transport Area)
          1. How Does it Work?
          2. Bandwidth On-Demand Service
          3. Challenges Faced with GMPLS and UCP
        2. Future Layer 3 Services
          1. Label-Switched Multicast
          2. Dynamic Encrypted VPNs
          3. Content-Based Services
          4. Adaptive Networks for Integration of Voice and Video
          5. Security Enhancements
        3. Future Layer 2 Services
          1. ATM-MPLS Interworking
          2. Layer 2 VPNs Across Multiple Provider Networks
          3. VPLS Service Across a NonEthernet Last Mile
        4. Future Enhancements in Provisioning and Management
          1. Adaptive Self-Healing Networks
        5. Increasing Enterprise Deployment of MPLS
        6. Summary
          1. So, What Is the Future of MPLS?
        7. A View from George Swallow
        8. A View from Adrian Farrell