You are previewing Movement-Aware Applications for Sustainable Mobility: Technologies and Approaches.
O'Reilly logo
Movement-Aware Applications for Sustainable Mobility: Technologies and Approaches

Book Description

Movement-Aware Applications for Sustainable Mobility: Technologies and Approaches focuses on the use of location sensing technology and its wider applicability in supporting sustainable mobility, and presents current research on developing innovative approaches for gathering, representing, storing and analyzing movement data sets being generated from location sensing technology. Offering a unique opportunity for learning about how different techniques are being used to develop new movement-aware applications, this reference work gives students, researchers and practitioners the opportunity to acquire new concepts in the production, awareness and use of sensors, data, and information products for supporting sustainable mobility.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. Foreword
  4. Preface
    1. ORGANISATION OF THIS BOOK
  5. Acknowledgment
  6. 1. State-of-the-Art in Tracking and Sensing
    1. 1. Data Collection on Personal Movement Using Mobile ICTs: Old Wine in New Bottles?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE INITIATION OF ICT-AIDED DATA COLLECTION METHODS
      4. A DESIGN FRAMEWORK FOR ICT-AIDED PERSONAL ACTIVITY AND TRAVEL SURVEYS
      5. THE "PASSIVE" STREAM
      6. THE "ACTIVE" STREAM
      7. SOME EMERGING CLASSES OF ICT-AIDED PERSON-BASED DATA COLLECTION
      8. CONCLUSION: HOW MUCH NEW WINE?
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTES
    2. 2. Challenges of Sensor Discovery
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. OGC SENSOR WEB ENABLEMENT
      5. WHAT IS "SENSOR DISCOVERY"
        1. Sensor Instance Discovery
        2. Sensor Service Discovery
      6. CHALLENGES OF SENSOR DISCOVERY
        1. Dynamic Network Structure
        2. Integration of Sensor Status Information
        3. Semantics
        4. Metadata Models and Harvesting
      7. HOW TO HANDLE SENSOR DISCOVERY IN PRACTICE
        1. The Sensor Instance Registry
        2. The Sensor Observable Registry
        3. Metadata for Sensor Discovery
        4. Integration Into Existing Catalogues
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    3. 3. Ubiquitous Travel Environments and Travel Control Strategies: Prospects and Challenges
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DATA COLLECTION STRATEGIES
      4. INFORMATION CONTROL STRATEGIES
      5. NON-STRATEGIC BEHAVIOR
      6. STRATEGIC BEHAVIOR
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    4. 4. Setting the Stage for the Integration of Demand Responsive Transport and Location-Based Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. USING LOCATION AWARENESS TO SUPPORT PARATRANSIT
        1. Positioning and Tracking
        2. Paratransit as a Demand Responsive Transport System
        3. Issues to be Resolved
        4. Location Awareness and Vehicle Tracking
        5. Travel Demand Miner
        6. Geotagger
        7. Trip Negotiator
        8. Ride Finder
        9. Track Reviewer
        10. Integration in a Closed or Open Shop Model
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
  7. 2. Exploring New Methods on the Analysis of Movement Behaviour
    1. 5. Developing an Interactions Ontology for Characterising Pedestrian Movement Behaviour
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. A REPRESENTATION OF PEDESTRIAN MOVEMENT BASED ON INTERACTIONS
        1. Elements of Representation
          1. Patterns
          2. Context
          3. Behaviour
          4. Interactions
        2. Examples of Interactions
          1. Encounter
          2. Approaching
          3. Guiding - Following
          4. Visiting
          5. Route Choosing
          6. Attraction
          7. Flocking
          8. Aggregation
          9. Trail Formation
      5. THE INTERACTIONS ONTOLOGY
      6. APPLICATION SCENARIO
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    2. 6. GUESS: On the Prediction of Mobile Users' Movement in Space
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AN OVERVIEW OF MAP-MATCHING TECHNIQUES
      4. GUESS: PREDICTING MOVEMENT IN SPACE
        1. Representation of a Road Network
        2. Prediction Model
        3. Prediction Results
        4. Topological Distance in the Prediction Process
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    3. 7. Revealing Taxi Driver's Mobility Intelligence through His Trace
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESEARCH AREA AND DATA
        1. Transit Authority
        2. Description of GPS Traces
      4. CLASSIFICATION OF TAXI DRIVERS
        1. Calculation of Taxi Fares
        2. Operation Activity Eigenvectors
        3. Operation Zone Distribution of Top Taxi Drivers
          1. Spatial Distribution of Top Taxi Drivers
          2. Correlation of Top Drivers Space Time Path
      5. COMPARING THE SPATIAL-TEMPORAL OPERATION PATTERN OF TOP AND ORDINARY DRIVERS
        1. Operation Spatial-Temporal Distribution
        2. Operation Center of Different Time Period
          1. Cluster Algorithm
          2. Cluster Results
        3. Fractal Analysis of the Traces of Top Driver and Ordinary Driver
          1. Fractal Analysis
          2. Results
      6. CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK
      7. REFERENCES
    4. 8. Archiving Nature's Heartbeat Using Smartphones
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MOBILE PHONES AS SENSORS AND PEOPLE AS SITES
        1. Smartphones as Sensors
        2. Fixed Installation Sites
        3. People as Sites
        4. Challenges with Smartphones as Sensors
          1. Quality of Sensors
          2. Sensor Heterogeneity
          3. Internet Connection and Power Consumption
          4. Harsh Environment
      5. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
        1. Server Side Operations
        2. Sensor Side Operations
      6. DATA COLLECTION AND QUALITY CONTROL
        1. Data Quality Control on the Sensor Side
        2. Data Quality Control on the Server Side
          1. Sensor Identification
          2. Noise Reduction
          3. Data Augmentation
          4. Data Analysis and Pattern Recognition
      7. APPLICATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ENDNOTE
  8. 3. Privacy Issues and New Perspectives on Movement-Aware Services
    1. 9. Law and Technology: Anonymity and Right to Anonymity in a Connected World
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TODAY'S COMPLEX COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT
        1. "Chains of Devices" and Varying Levels of Protection
        2. Concept of Anonymity and Anonymous Data
      4. ANONYMITY AND SECURITY ENVIRONMENT
        1. Properties of Identifiers Relevant to Anonymity
      5. THE DEFINITION OF ANONYMOUS DATA: ABSOLUTE OR RELATIVE?
      6. DEGREES OF ANONYMITY, AUDIENCES, AND DATA CONTROLLERS
      7. FUTURE TRENDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. A RIGHT TO ANONYMITY?
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTE
    2. 10. Show Me My Way: The Use of Human Spatio–Temporal Behaviour Patterns for Developing Ubiquitous Wayfinding Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELEVANT INFLUENCE FACTORS ON HUMAN SPATIOTEMPORAL BEHAVIOUR
        1. Influence Factors Determining Pedestrian Route Choice Behaviour
        2. Empirical Techniques for Monitoring Spatio-Temporal Behaviour
      4. THE IDENTIFICATION OF PEDESTRIAN MOBILITY STYLES AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATION IN UBIQUITOUS NAVIGATION AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS
        1. Methodology and Empirical set-Up
        2. Data Collection
        3. Analysis and Identification of Initial Types of Behaviour
          1. Results Based on Shadowing Datasets
          2. Results Based on Self-Assessment Interviews
          3. Further Analysis and Ongoing Work
        4. Using Pedestrian Typologies for Customising Mobile Way finding Tools
      5. POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF UBIQUITOUS INFORMATION SERVICES ON MOVEMENT PATTERNS AND THE PERCEPTION OF SPACE
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    3. 11. FriendFreight: Leveraging Real-Time Location Information for a Sustainable Community-Based Goods Delivery Service
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE FRIENDFREIGHT SCENARIO
      4. CITY LOGISTICS: TRADITIONAL APPROACHES TO OPTIMIZING THE MOVEMENT OF GOODS THROUGH THE USE OF REALTIME LOCATION INFORMATION
      5. BUILDING INCENTIVE STRUCTURES, TRUST AND RECIPROCITY IN SERVICES THAT RELY ON THE TRANSFER OF DIGITAL INFORMATION
      6. TESTING THE FEASIBILITY OF THE FRIENDFREIGHT SERVICE
        1. The Establishment of Freight Capacity
        2. Goods
          1. Types of Goods in High Demand That Can Be Carried by Bikes
          2. Average Hourly Demand for These Types of Goods
          3. Locations Where These Goods are Needed
          4. Locations Where These Goods can be Found
          5. Average Distances Between Points-of-Sale and Residences
        3. Cyclists
      7. MODELING THE LOGISTICS SYSTEM
        1. Defining the Variables
      8. TEST RESULTS
        1. Test 1
        2. Test 2
      9. CONCLUSION, LIMITATIONS AND FURTHER WORK
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
    4. 12. Attribute Hierarchies to Tally Fish
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTEROPERABILITY IN MANAGING IDENTITIES
      4. IDENTITY AND INTERMEDIARIES
      5. THE ELECTRONIC FISH LOGBOOK
      6. SNOWFLAKE: AN ATTRIBUTE BASED MODEL FOR INTEROPERABLE IDENTITIES
      7. VALIDATION-CENTRIC INTEROPERABILITY
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
  9. 4. Selected Readings
    1. 13. Video-Based Motion Capture for Measuring Human Movement
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EXISTING TECHNOLOGY
        1. Main Commercial Motion Capture Methods
        2. Computer Vision-Based Motion Capture
        3. Use of Computer Vision-Based Methods
        4. Common Motion Tracking Approaches
        5. Estimation of Kinematics and Skeleton Structures
      4. CHALLENGES AND OUTSTANDING PROBLEMS IN VISION-BASED METHOD
        1. Computer Imaging Issues
        2. Hardware Issues
      5. MOTION CAPTURE SYSTEM: A FRAMEWORK
        1. Camera System
        2. 3D Human Modeling
        3. Building the 3D Human Model
        4. A Proposed Method for 3D Human Reconstruction
        5. Human Tracking
        6. Results & Discussions
      6. FUTURE WORKS
        1. Human Skin Deformation and Shading
        2. Automatic Posture Pre-Positioning
        3. Full-Body and Multiple People Tracking
        4. Computational Efficiency
      7. IMPACT OF VISION-BASED MOTION CAPTURE AND PRACTICAL APPLICATION FOR THE FUTURE
        1. Educationally Contextualized Interactive Digital Media
        2. Inter-Disciplinary & Holistic Learning
        3. 3D Spatial Understanding
        4. Future Research: Extension of Developed Technology into Related Applications
        5. Sports Analysis
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
    2. 14. Navigating a Speckled World: Interacting with Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REQUIREMENTS
      4. NAVIGATING INFORMATION SPACE
      5. OBJECT IDENTIFICATION
      6. EXPLORATION
      7. WAYFINDING
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    3. 15. Modelling Pedestrian Movement to Measure On-Street Crime Risk
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE MEASURE AND ANALYSIS OF STREET CRIME
      4. AIMS OF THIS RESEARCH
      5. STUDY AREA AND DATA
        1. Study Area
        2. Crime Data
        3. Pedestrian Data
        4. Crime and Pedestrian Features of the Study Area
      6. METHODOLOGY
        1. Pedestrian Modeling
        2. Observation samples
        3. Land Use
        4. Pedestrian Capacity
        5. Street Configuration
        6. Access to Public Transport
        7. Model Testing
        8. Linking Crime Data to Pedestrian Flows
        9. Calculating Street Crime Density and Street Crime Rates
        10. Street Crime in the West End Study Area
      7. PEDESTRIAN
      8. DISCUSSION
        1. Street Crime Rate Statistics
        2. Street Crime Rate Geographic Patterns
        3. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Street Crime Rates Using Pedestrian Modeling
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
    4. 16. A Framework for Data Warehousing and Mining in Sensor Stream Application Domains
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Sensor Stream Application Domain
        2. Data Warehousing and Mining Issues
          1. Data Collecting Issues
          2. Data Preprocessing Issues
          3. Data Extraction
          4. Data Transformation
          5. Data Loading
          6. Data Storage and Processing Issues
          7. Data Storage
          8. Data Processing
          9. Data Reporting and Analysis Issues
      4. A FRAMEWORK FOR DOMAIN-DRIVEN DATA WAREHOUSING AND MINING FROM SENSOR STREAMS
      5. CASE STUDY
        1. The Traffic Management Sensor Stream Application
          1. Framework Setup and Implementation
          2. Raw Data Stage
          3. Data Preprocessing Stage
          4. Data Warehousing and Data Mining Stage
          5. Query Processing Stage
          6. Performance Study
          7. Performance Study of Estimation Accuracy
          8. Performance Study of Running Time
          9. Performance Study of Memory Usage
          10. Analysis Summary
        2. The Environmental Monitoring Sensor stream Application
          1. Framework Setup and Implementation
          2. Raw Data Stage
          3. Data Preprocessing Stage
          4. Data Warehousing and Data Mining Stage
          5. Query Processing Stage
          6. Performance Study
          7. Performance Study of Estimation Accuracy
          8. Performance Study of Running Time
          9. Performance Study of Memory Usage
          10. Analysis Summary
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
      7. REFERENCES
  10. Compilation of References
  11. About the Contributors