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Morphing Aerospace Vehicles and Structures

Book Description

Morphing Aerospace Vehicles and Structures provides a highly timely presentation of the state-of-the-art, future directions and technical requirements of morphing aircraft. Divided into three sections it addresses morphing aircraft, bio-inspiration, and smart structures with specific focus on the flight control, aerodynamics, bio-mechanics, materials, and structures of these vehicles as well as power requirements and the use of advanced piezo materials and smart actuators. The tutorial approach adopted by the contributors, including underlying concepts and mathematical formulations, unifies the methodologies and tools required to provide practicing engineers and applied researchers with the insight to synthesize morphing air vehicles and morphing structures, as well as offering direction for future research.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Series
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. List of Contributors
  6. Foreword
  7. Series Preface
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. 1: Introduction
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 The Early Years: Bio-Inspiration
    3. 1.3 The Middle Years: Variable Geometry
    4. 1.4 The Later Years: A Return to Bio-Inspiration
    5. 1.5 Conclusion
  10. Part I: Bio-Inspiration
    1. 2: Wing Morphing in Insects, Birds and Bats: Mechanism and Function
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 Insects
      3. 2.3 Birds
      4. 2.4 Bats
      5. 2.5 Conclusion
      6. Acknowledgements
    2. 3: Bio-Inspiration of Morphing for Micro Air Vehicles
      1. 3.1 Micro Air Vehicles
      2. 3.2 MAV Design Concepts
      3. 3.3 Technical Challenges for MAVs
      4. 3.4 Flight Characteristics of MAVs and NAVs
      5. 3.5 Bio-Inspired Morphing Concepts for MAVs
      6. 3.6 Outlook for Morphing at the MAV/NAV scale
      7. 3.7 Future Challenges
      8. 3.8 Conclusion
  11. Part II: Control and Dynamics
    1. 4: Morphing Unmanned Air Vehicle Intelligent Shape and Flight Control
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 A-RLC Architecture Functionality
      3. 4.3 Learning Air Vehicle Shape Changes
      4. 4.4 Mathematical Modeling of Morphing Air Vehicle
      5. 4.5 Morphing Control Law
      6. 4.6 Numerical Examples
      7. 4.7 Conclusions
      8. Acknowledgments
    2. 5: Modeling and Simulation of Morphing Wing Aircraft
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 Modeling of Aerodynamics with Morphing
      3. 5.3 Modeling of Flight Dynamics with Morphing
      4. 5.4 Actuator Moments and Power
      5. 5.5 Open-Loop Maneuvers and Effects of Morphing
      6. 5.6 Control of Gull-Wing Aircraft using Morphing
      7. 5.7 Conclusion
      8. Appendix
    3. 6: Flight Dynamics Modeling of Avian-Inspired Aircraft
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 Unique Characteristics of Flapping Flight
      3. 6.3 Vehicle Equations of Motion
      4. 6.4 System Identification
      5. 6.5 Simulation and Feedback Control
      6. 6.6 Conclusion
    4. 7: Flight Dynamics of Morphing Aircraft with Time-Varying Inertias
      1. 7.1 Introduction
      2. 7.2 Aircraft
      3. 7.3 Equations of Motion
      4. 7.4 Time-Varying Poles
      5. 7.5 Flight Dynamics with Time-Varying Morphing
    5. 8: Optimal Trajectory Control of Morphing Aircraft in Perching Maneuvers
      1. 8.1 Introduction
      2. 8.2 Aircraft Description
      3. 8.3 Vehicle Equations of Motion
      4. 8.4 Aerodynamics
      5. 8.5 Trajectory Optimization for Perching
      6. 8.6 Optimization Results
      7. 8.7 Conclusions
  12. Part III: Smart Materials and Structures
    1. 9: Morphing Smart Material Actuator Control Using Reinforcement Learning
      1. 9.1 Introduction to Smart Materials
      2. 9.2 Introduction to Reinforcement Learning
      3. 9.3 Smart Material Control as a Reinforcement Learning Problem
      4. 9.4 Example
      5. 9.5 Conclusion
    2. 10: Incorporation of Shape Memory Alloy Actuators into Morphing Aerostructures
      1. 10.1 Introduction to Shape Memory Alloys
      2. 10.2 Aerospace Applications of SMAs
      3. 10.3 Characterization of SMA Actuators and Analysis of Actuator Systems
      4. 10.4 Conclusion
    3. 11: Hierarchical Control and Planning for Advanced Morphing Systems
      1. 11.1 Introduction
      2. 11.2 Morphing Dynamics and Performance Maps
      3. 11.3 Application to Advanced Morphing Structures
      4. 11.4 Conclusion
    4. 12: A Collective Assessment
      1. 12.1 Looking Around: State-of-the-Art
      2. 12.2 Looking Ahead: The Way Forward
      3. 12.3 Conclusion
  13. Index