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Monolithic Nanoscale Photonics-Electronics Integration in Silicon and Other Group IV Elements

Book Description

Silicon technology is evolving rapidly, particularly in board-to-board or chip-to chip applications. Increasingly, the electronic parts of silicon technology will carry out the data processing, while the photonic parts take care of the data communication. For the first time, this book describes the merging of photonics and electronics in silicon and other group IV elements. It presents the challenges, the limitations, and the upcoming possibilities of these developments. The book describes the evolution of CMOS integrated electronics, status and development, and the fundamentals of silicon photonics, including the reasons for its rapid expansion, its possibilities and limitations. It discusses the applications of these technologies for such applications as memory, digital logic operations, light sources, including drive electronics, optical modulators, detectors, and post detector circuitry. It will appeal to engineers in the fields of both electronics and photonics who need to learn more about the basics of the other field and the prospects for the integration of the two.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Copyright
  4. Acknowledgments
  5. Introduction: Scope and Purpose of Book
  6. Epigraph
  7. Chapter 1. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors
    1. Part One: Basics of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors
    2. Part Two: Strain Engineering in Group IV Materials
    3. Part Three: Chemical Vapor Deposition of Group IV Materials
    4. Part Four: Improvement of the Channel Mobility
    5. References
  8. Chapter 2. Basics of Integrated Photonics
    1. General
    2. Basics of Lasers, Modulators, Detectors, and Wavelength Selective Devices
    3. Basics of Photonic Detectors
    4. Detector Characteristics
    5. Responsivity
    6. Dark Current
    7. Noise Characteristics of Photodetectors
    8. Modulators: Principles and Mechanisms of Optical Modulation
    9. Photonics Switches: Spatial Routing of High-Speed Data Streams
    10. References
  9. Chapter 3. Silicon and Group IV Photonics
    1. Part One: Silicon Photonics Elements for Integrated Photonics
    2. Part Two: Bandgap Engineering in Group IV Materials for Photonic Application
    3. Part Three: Group IV Photodetectors
    4. Part Four: Graphene, New Photonic Material
    5. References
  10. Chapter 4. Moore’s Law for Photonics and Electronics
    1. Downscaling of CMOS
    2. Evolution of Logic CMOS Since 1970
    3. Transistor Physical Parameters
    4. Lithography
    5. Strain Engineering and Downscaling
    6. Gate Electrode
    7. Gate Dielectric
    8. Contact Resistance
    9. Substrate Design
    10. Heat Production
    11. Short Channel Effects
    12. Drain-Induced Barrier Lowering
    13. Punch Through
    14. Mobility Degradation
    15. Velocity Saturation
    16. Hot Electron Effect
    17. 3D Chips, New Vision for Downscaling
    18. Downscaling for Next 30 Years
    19. Moore’s Law for Integrated Photonics Devices and Some Vision for the Future
    20. References
  11. Chapter 5. Complementing Silicon With Other Materials for Light Emission, Efficient Light Modulation and Subwavelength Light Confinement
    1. Part One: Light-Emitting Sources in Si as Photonic Material
    2. Part Two: Competing and Complementing Technologies and Materials to an all Group IV-Based Photonics Approach
    3. Authors’ Final Words
    4. References