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Modern Particle Physics

Book Description

Unique in its coverage of all aspects of modern particle physics, this textbook provides a clear connection between the theory and recent experimental results, including the discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN. It provides a comprehensive and self-contained description of the Standard Model of particle physics suitable for upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students studying experimental particle physics. Physical theory is introduced in a straightforward manner with full mathematical derivations throughout. Fully-worked examples enable students to link the mathematical theory to results from modern particle physics experiments. End-of-chapter exercises, graded by difficulty, provide students with a deeper understanding of the subject. Online resources available at www.cambridge.org/MPP feature password-protected fully-worked solutions to problems for instructors, numerical solutions and hints to the problems for students and PowerPoint slides and JPEGs of figures from the book.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 The Standard Model of particle physics
    2. 1.2 Interactions of particles with matter
    3. 1.3 Collider experiments
    4. 1.4 Measurements at particle accelerators
    5. Summary
    6. Problems
  10. 2 Underlying concepts
    1. 2.1 Units in particle physics
    2. 2.2 Special relativity
    3. 2.3 Non-relativistic quantum mechanics
    4. Summary
    5. Problems
  11. 3 Decay rates and cross sections
    1. 3.1 Fermi's golden rule
    2. 3.2 Phase space and wavefunction normalisation
    3. 3.3 Particle decays
    4. 3.4 Interaction cross sections
    5. 3.5 Differential cross sections
    6. Summary
    7. Problems
  12. 4 The Dirac equation
    1. 4.1 The Klein-Gordon equation
    2. 4.2 The Dirac equation
    3. 4.3 Probability density and probability current
    4. 4.4 *Spin and the Dirac equation
    5. 4.5 Covariant form of the Dirac equation
    6. 4.6 Solutions to the Dirac equation
    7. 4.7 Antiparticles
    8. 4.8 Spin and helicity states
    9. 4.9 Intrinsic parity of Dirac fermions
    10. Summary
    11. Problems
  13. 5 Interaction by particle exchange
    1. 5.1 First- and second-order perturbation theory
    2. 5.2 Feynman diagrams and virtual particles
    3. 5.3 Introduction to QED
    4. 5.4 Feynman rules for QED
    5. Summary
    6. Problems
  14. 6 Electron-positron annihilation
    1. 6.1 Calculations in perturbation theory 6.2 Electron-positron annihilation
    2. 6.3 Spin in electron-positron annihilation
    3. 6.4 Chirality
    4. 6.5 *Trace techniques
    5. Summary
    6. Problems
  15. 7 Electron-proton elastic scattering
    1. 7.1 Probing the structure of the proton
    2. 7.2 Rutherford and Mott scattering
    3. 7.3 Form factors
    4. 7.4 Relativistic electron-proton elastic scattering
    5. 7.5 The Rosenbluth formula
    6. Summary
    7. Problems
  16. 8 Deep inelastic scattering
    1. 8.1 Electron-proton inelastic scattering
    2. 8.2 Deep inelastic scattering
    3. 8.3 Electron-quark scattering
    4. 8.4 The quark-parton model
    5. 8.5 Electron-proton scattering at the HERA collider
    6. 8.6 Parton distribution function measurements
    7. Summary
    8. Problems
  17. 9 Symmetries and the quark model
    1. 9.1 Symmetries in quantum mechanics
    2. 9.2 Flavour symmetry
    3. 9.3 Combining quarks into baryons
    4. 9.4 Ground state baryon wavefunctions
    5. 9.5 Isospin representation of antiquarks
    6. 9.6 SU(3) flavour symmetry
    7. Summary
    8. 9.7 *Addendum: Flavour symmetry revisited
    9. Problems
  18. 10 Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD)
    1. 10.1 The local gauge principle
    2. 10.2 Colour and QCD
    3. 10.3 Gluons
    4. 10.4 Colour confinement
    5. 10.5 Running of αS and asymptotic freedom
    6. 10.6 QCD in electron-positron annihilation
    7. 10.7 Colour factors
    8. 10.8 Heavy mesons and the QCD colour potential
    9. 10.9 Hadron-hadron collisions
    10. Summary
    11. Problems
  19. 11 The weak interaction
    1. 11.1 The weak charged-current interaction
    2. 11.2 Parity
    3. 11.3 V - A structure of the weak interaction
    4. 11.4 Chiral structure of the weak interaction
    5. 11.5 The W-boson propagator
    6. 11.6 Helicity in pion decay
    7. 11.7 Experimental evidence for V - A
    8. Summary
    9. Problems
  20. 12 The weak interactions of leptons
    1. 12.1 Lepton universality
    2. 12.2 Neutrino scattering
    3. 12.3 Neutrino scattering experiments
    4. 12.4 Structure functions in neutrino interactions
    5. 12.5 Charged-current electron-proton scattering
    6. Summary
    7. Problems
  21. 13 Neutrinos and neutrino oscillations
    1. 13.1 Neutrino flavours
    2. 13.2 Solar neutrinos
    3. 13.3 Mass and weak eigenstates
    4. 13.4 Neutrino oscillations of two flavours
    5. 13.5 Neutrino oscillations of three flavours
    6. 13.6 Neutrino oscillation experiments
    7. 13.7 Reactor experiments
    8. 13.8 Long-baseline neutrino experiments
    9. 13.9 The global picture
    10. Summary
    11. Problems
  22. 14 CP violation and weak hadronic interactions
    1. 14.1 CP violation in the early Universe
    2. 14.2 The weak interactions of quarks
    3. 14.3 The CKM matrix
    4. 14.4 The neutral kaon system
    5. 14.5 Strangeness oscillations
    6. 14.6 B-meson physics
    7. 14.7 CP violation in the Standard Model
    8. Summary
    9. Problems
  23. 15 Electroweak unification
    1. 15.1 Properties of the W bosons
    2. 15.2 The weak interaction gauge group
    3. 15.3 Electroweak unification
    4. 15.4 Decays of the Z
    5. Summary
    6. Problems
  24. 16 Tests of the Standard Model
    1. 16.1 The Z resonance
    2. 16.2 The Large Electron-Positron collider
    3. 16.3 Properties of the W boson
    4. 16.4 Quantum loop corrections
    5. 16.5 The top quark
    6. Summary
    7. Problems
  25. 17 The Higgs boson
    1. 17.1 The need for the Higgs boson
    2. 17.2 Lagrangians in Quantum Field Theory
    3. 17.3 Local gauge invariance
    4. 17.4 Particle masses
    5. 17.5 The Higgs mechanism
    6. 17.6 Properties of the Higgs boson
    7. 17.7 The discovery of the Higgs boson
    8. Summary
    9. 17.8 *Addendum: Neutrino masses
    10. Problems
  26. 18 The Standard Model and beyond
    1. 18.1 The Standard Model
    2. 18.2 Open questions in particle physics
    3. 18.3 Closing words
  27. Appendix A The Dirac delta-function
    1. A.1 Definition of the Dirac delta-function
    2. A.2 Fourier transform of a delta-function
    3. A.3 Delta-function of a function
  28. Appendix B Dirac equation
    1. B.1 Magnetic moment of a Dirac fermion
    2. B.2 Covariance of the Dirac equation
    3. B.3 Four-vector current Problems
  29. Appendix C The low-mass hadrons
  30. Appendix D Gauge boson polarisation states
    1. D.1 Classical electromagnetism
    2. D.2 Photon polarisation states
    3. D.3 Polarisation states of massive spin-1 particles
    4. D.4 Polarisation sums
  31. Appendix E Noether's theorem
    1. Problem
  32. Appendix F Non-Abelian gauge theories
  33. References
  34. Further reading
  35. Index