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Modern Lens Design

Book Description

Unlike the first edition, which was more a collection of lens designs for use in larger projects, the 2nd edition of Modern Lens Design is an optical “how-to.” Delving deep into the mechanics of lens design, optics legend Warren J. Smith reveals time-tested methods for designing top-quality lenses. He deals with lens design software, primarily OSLO, by far the current market leaders, and provides 7 comprehensive worked examples, all new to this edition. With this book in hand, there’s no lens an optical engineer can’t design.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Modern Lens Design
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Contents
  5. Preface
  6. Chapter 1. Introduction
    1. 1.1 Lens Design Books
    2. 1.2 Reference Material
    3. 1.3 Specifications
    4. 1.4 Lens Design
    5. 1.5 Lens Design Program Features
    6. 1.6 About This Book
  7. Chapter 2. Automatic Lens Design: Managing the Lens Design Program
    1. 2.1 Optimization
    2. 2.2 The Merit Function
    3. 2.3 Local Minima
    4. 2.4 The Landscape Lens
    5. 2.5 Types of Merit Functions
    6. 2.6 Stagnation
    7. 2.7 Generalized Simulated Annealing
    8. 2.8 Considerations about Variables for Optimization
    9. 2.9 How to Increase the Speed or Field of a System and Avoid Ray Failure Problems
    10. 2.10 Test Plate Fits, Melt Fits, Thickness Fits, and Reverse Aberration Fits
    11. 2.11 Spectral Weighting
    12. 2.12 How to Get Started
  8. Chapter 3. Improving a Design
    1. 3.1 Lens Design Tip Sheet: Standard Improvement Techniques
    2. 3.2 Glass Changes: Index and V-value
    3. 3.3 Splitting Elements
    4. 3.4 Separating a Cemented Doublet
    5. 3.5 Compounding an Element
    6. 3.6 Vignetting and Its Uses
    7. 3.7 Eliminating a Weak Element—the Concentric Problem
    8. 3.8 Balancing Aberrations
    9. 3.9 The Symmetrical Principle
    10. 3.10 Aspheric Surfaces
  9. Chapter 4. Evaluation: How Good Is This Design?
    1. 4.1 The Uses of a Preliminary Evaluation
    2. 4.2 OPD versus Measures of Performance
    3. 4.3 Geometric Blur Spot Size versus Certain Aberrations
    4. 4.4 Interpreting MTF—The Modulation Transfer Function
    5. 4.5 Fabrication Considerations
  10. Chapter 5. Lens Design Data
    1. 5.1 About the Sample Lens Designs
    2. 5.2 Lens Prescriptions, Drawings, and Aberration Plots
    3. 5.3 Estimating the Potential of a Redesign
    4. 5.4 Scaling a Design, Its Aberrations, and Its Modulation Transfer Function
    5. 5.5 Notes on the Interpretation of Ray Intercept Plots
    6. 5.6 Various Evaluation Plots
  11. Chapter 6. Telescope Objectives
    1. 6.1 The Thin Airspaced Doublet
    2. 6.2 Merit Function for a Telescope Objective
    3. 6.3 The Design of an f/7 Cemented Doublet Telescope Objective
    4. 6.4 Spherochromatism
    5. 6.5 Zonal Spherical Aberration
    6. 6.6 Induced Aberrations
    7. 6.7 Three-Element Objectives
    8. 6.8 Secondary Spectrum (Apochromatic Systems)
    9. 6.9 The Design of an f/7 Apochromatic Triplet
    10. 6.10 The Diffractive Surface in Lens Design
    11. 6.11 A Final Note
  12. Chapter 7. Eyepieces and Magnifiers
    1. 7.1 Eyepieces
    2. 7.2 A Pair of Magnifier Designs
    3. 7.3 The Simple, Classical Eyepieces
    4. 7.4 Design Story of an Eyepiece for a 6 × 30 Binocular
    5. 7.5 Four-Element Eyepieces
    6. 7.6 Five-Element Eyepieces
    7. 7.7 Very High Index Eyepiece/Magnifier
    8. 7.8 Six- and Seven-Element Eyepieces
  13. Chapter 8. Cooke Triplet Anastigmats
    1. 8.1 Airspaced Triplet Anastigmats
    2. 8.2 Glass Choice
    3. 8.3 Vertex Length and Residual Aberrations
    4. 8.4 Other Design Considerations
    5. 8.5 A Plastic, Aspheric Triplet Camera Lens
    6. 8.6 Camera Lens Anastigmat Design “from Scratch”—The Cooke Triplet
    7. 8.7 Possible Improvements to Our “Basic” Triplet
    8. 8.8 The Rare Earth (Lanthanum) Glasses
    9. 8.9 Aspherizing the Surfaces
    10. 8.10 Increasing the Element Thickness
  14. Chapter 9. Split Triplets
  15. Chapter 10. The Tessar, Heliar, and Other Compounded Triplets
    1. 10.1 The Classic Tessar
    2. 10.2 The Heliar/Pentac
    3. 10.3 The Portrait Lens and the Enlarger Lens
    4. 10.4 Other Compounded Triplets
    5. 10.5 Camera Lens Anastigmat Design “from Scratch”—The Tessar and Heliar
  16. Chapter 11. Double-Meniscus Anastigmats
    1. 11.1 Meniscus Components
    2. 11.2 The Hypergon, Topogon, and Metrogon
    3. 11.3 A Two Element Aspheric Thick Meniscus Camera Lens
    4. 11.4 Protar, Dagor, and Convertible Lenses
    5. 11.5 The Split Dagor
    6. 11.6 The Dogmar
    7. 11.7 Camera Lens Anastigmat Design “from Scratch”—The Dogmar Lens
  17. Chapter 12. The Biotar or Double-Gauss Lens
    1. 12.1 The Basic Six-Element Version
    2. 12.2 Twenty-Eight Things That Every Lens Designer Should Know About the Double-Gauss/Biotar Lens
    3. 12.3 The Seven-Element Biotar—Split-Rear Crown
    4. 12.4 The Seven-Element Biotar—Broken Contact Front Doublet
    5. 12.5 The Seven-Element Biotar—One Compounded Outer Element
    6. 12.6 The Eight-Element Biotar
    7. 12.7 A “Doubled Double-Gauss” Relay
  18. Chapter 13. Telephoto Lenses
    1. 13.1 The Basic Telephoto
    2. 13.2 Close-up or Macro Lenses
    3. 13.3 Telephoto Designs
    4. 13.4 Design of a 200-mm f/4 Telephoto for a 35-mm Camera “from Scratch”
  19. Chapter 14. Reversed Telephoto (Retrofocus and Fish-Eye) Lenses
    1. 14.1 The Reversed Telephoto Principle
    2. 14.2 The Basic Retrofocus Lens
    3. 14.3 Fish-Eye, or Extreme Wide-Angle Reversed Telephoto, Lenses
  20. Chapter 15. Wide-Angle Lenses with Negative Outer Elements
  21. Chapter 16. The Petzval Lens; Head-up Display Lenses
    1. 16.1 The Petzval Portrait Lens
    2. 16.2 The Petzval Projection Lens
    3. 16.3 The Petzval with a Field Flattener
    4. 16.4 Very High Speed Petzval Lenses
    5. 16.5 Head-up Display (HUD) Lenses, Biocular Lenses, and Head/Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) Systems
  22. Chapter 17. Microscope Objectives
    1. 17.1 General Considerations
    2. 17.2 Classical Objective Design Forms: The Aplanatic Front
    3. 17.3 Flat-Field Objectives
    4. 17.4 Reflecting Objectives
    5. 17.5 The Microscope Objective Designs
  23. Chapter 18. Mirror and Catadioptric Systems
    1. 18.1 The Good and the Bad Points of Mirrors
    2. 18.2 The Classical Two-Mirror Systems
    3. 18.3 Catadioptric Systems
    4. 18.4 Aspheric Correctors and Schmidt Systems
    5. 18.5 Confocal Paraboloids
    6. 18.6 Unobscured Systems
    7. 18.7 Design of a Schmidt-Cassegrain “from Scratch”
  24. Chapter 19. Infrared and Ultraviolet Systems
    1. 19.1 Infrared Optics
    2. 19.2 IR Objective Lenses
    3. 19.3 IR Telescopes
    4. 19.4 Laser Beam Expanders
    5. 19.5 Ultraviolet Systems
    6. 19.6 Microlithographic Lenses
  25. Chapter 20. Zoom Lenses
    1. 20.1 Zoom Lenses
    2. 20.2 Zoom Lenses for Point and Shoot Cameras
    3. 20.3 A 20x Video Zoom Lens
    4. 20.4 A Zoom Scanner Lens
    5. 20.5 A Possible Zoom Lens Design Procedure
  26. Chapter 21. Projection TV Lenses and Macro Lenses
    1. 21.1 Projection TV Lenses
    2. 21.2 Macro Lenses
  27. Chapter 22. Scanner/f-θ, Laser Disk and Collimator Lenses
    1. 22.1 Monochromatic Systems
    2. 22.2 Scanner Lenses
    3. 22.3 Laser Disk, Focussing, and Collimator Lenses
  28. Chapter 23. Tolerance Budgeting
    1. 23.1 The Tolerance Budget
    2. 23.2 Additive Tolerances
    3. 23.3 Establishing the Tolerance Budget
  29. Chapter 24. Formulary
    1. 24.1 Sign Conventions, Symbols, and Definitions
    2. 24.2 The Cardinal Points
    3. 24.3 Image Equations
    4. 24.4 Paraxial Ray Tracing (Surface by Surface)
    5. 24.5 Invariants
    6. 24.6 Paraxial Ray Tracing (Component by Component)
    7. 24.7 Two-Component Relationships
    8. 24.8 Third-Order Aberrations—Surface Contributions
    9. 24.9 Third-Order Aberrations—Thin Lens Contributions: The G-Sum Equations
    10. 24.10 Stop Shift Equations
    11. 24.11 Third-Order Aberrations—Contributions from Aspheric Surfaces
    12. 24.12 Conversion of Aberrations to Wavefront Deformation (Optical Path Difference)
  30. Glossary
  31. References
  32. Index
  33. footnote
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