Along with array operations the Fortran 90 standard introduced the concept of functions returning arrays. Such functions can be used for a very compact, high-level programming style, much like what John Backus, the “father” of Fortran, advocated in his speech for accepting the ACM Award .
While Fortran 90 allowed the programmer to define functions that return arrays of data, Fortran 95 introduced the concept of elemental functions and procedures. In combination with several features were introduced in Fortran 2003, these have become even more powerful and easy to use.
Many of the intrinsic functions work directly on arrays and Fortran's array operations transform one array into another, without the need for explicit ...