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Modern Engineering Thermodynamics

Book Description

Designed for use in a standard two-semester engineering thermodynamics course sequence. The first half of the text contains material suitable for a basic Thermodynamics course taken by engineers from all majors. The second half of the text is suitable for an Applied Thermodynamics course in mechanical engineering programs.

The text has numerous features that are unique among engineering textbooks, including historical vignettes, critical thinking boxes, and case studies. All are designed to bring real engineering applications into a subject that can be somewhat abstract and mathematical.

Over 200 worked examples and more than 1,300 end of chapter problems provide the use opportunities to practice solving problems related to concepts in the text.

 
  • Provides the reader with clear presentations of the fundamental principles of basic and applied engineering thermodynamics.
  • Helps students develop engineering problem solving skills through the use of structured problem-solving techniques.
  • Introduces the Second Law of Thermodynamics through a basic entropy concept, providing students a more intuitive understanding of this key course topic.
  • Covers Property Values before the First Law of Thermodynamics to ensure students have a firm understanding of property data before using them.
  • Over 200 worked examples and more than 1,300 end of chapter problems offer students extensive opportunity to practice solving problems.
  • Historical Vignettes, Critical Thinking boxes and Case Studies throughout the book help relate abstract concepts to actual engineering applications.
  • For greater instructor flexibility at exam time, thermodynamic tables are provided in a separate accompanying booklet.
  • Available online testing and assessment component helps students assess their knowledge of the topics. Email textbooks@elsevier.com for details.
  • Table of Contents

    1. Cover Image
    2. Table of Contents
    3. Title
    4. Copyright
    5. Dedication
    6. Preface
    7. Acknowledgments
    8. Resources that Accompany this Book
    9. List of Symbols
    10. Prologue
    11. Chapter 1. The Beginning
      1. 1.1 What is Thermodynamics?
      2. 1.2 Why is Thermodynamics Important Today?
      3. 1.3 Getting Answers: A Basic Problem Solving Technique
      4. 1.4 Units and Dimensions
      5. 1.5 How do we Measure Things?
      6. 1.6 Temperature Units
      7. 1.7 Classical Mechanical and Electrical Units Systems
      8. 1.8 Chemical Units
      9. 1.9 Modern Units Systems
      10. 1.10 Significant Figures
      11. 1.11 Potential and Kinetic Energies
      12. Summary
    12. Chapter 2. Thermodynamic Concepts
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 The Language of Thermodynamics1
      3. 2.3 Phases of Matter
      4. 2.4 System States and Thermodynamic Properties
      5. 2.5 Thermodynamic Equilibrium
      6. 2.6 Thermodynamic Processes
      7. 2.7 Pressure and Temperature Scales
      8. 2.8 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
      9. 2.9 The Continuum Hypothesis
      10. 2.10 The Balance Concept
      11. 2.11 The Conservation Concept
      12. 2.12 Conservation of Mass
      13. Summary7
    13. Chapter 3. Thermodynamic Properties
      1. 3.1 The Trees and The Forest
      2. 3.2 Why are Thermodynamic Property Values Important?
      3. 3.3 Fun with Mathematics
      4. 3.4 Some Exciting New Thermodynamic Properties
      5. 3.5 System Energy
      6. 3.6 Enthalpy
      7. 3.7 Phase Diagrams
      8. 3.8 Quality
      9. 3.9 Thermodynamic Equations of State
      10. 3.10 Thermodynamic Tables
      11. 3.11 How do you Determine the “Thermodynamic State”?
      12. 3.12 Thermodynamic Charts
      13. 3.13 Thermodynamic Property Software
      14. Summary
    14. Chapter 4. The First Law of Thermodynamics and Energy Transport Mechanisms
      1. 4.1 Introducción (Introduction)
      2. 4.2 Emmy Noether and the Conservation Laws of Physics
      3. 4.3 The First Law of Thermodynamics
      4. 4.4 Energy Transport Mechanisms
      5. 4.5 Point and Path Functions
      6. 4.6 Mechanical Work Modes of Energy Transport
      7. 4.7 Nonmechanical Work Modes of Energy Transport
      8. 4.8 Power Modes of Energy Transport
      9. 4.9 Work Efficiency
      10. 4.10 The Local Equilibrium Postulate
      11. 4.11 The State Postulate
      12. 4.12 Heat Modes of Energy Transport
      13. 4.13 Heat Transfer Modes
      14. 4.14 A Thermodynamic Problem Solving Technique
      15. 4.15 How to Write a Thermodynamics Problem
      16. Summary
    15. Chapter 5. First Law Closed System Applications
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 Sealed, Rigid Containers
      3. 5.3 Electrical Devices
      4. 5.4 Power Plants
      5. 5.5 Incompressible Liquids
      6. 5.6 Ideal Gases
      7. 5.7 Piston-Cylinder Devices
      8. 5.8 Closed System Unsteady State Processes
      9. 5.9 The Explosive Energy of Pressure Vessels
      10. Summary
    16. Chapter 6. First Law Open System Applications
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 Mass Flow Energy Transport
      3. 6.3 Conservation of Energy and Conservation of Mass Equations for Open Systems
      4. 6.4 Flow Stream Specific Kinetic and Potential Energies
      5. 6.5 Nozzles and Diffusers
      6. 6.6 Throttling Devices
      7. 6.7 Throttling Calorimeter
      8. 6.8 Heat Exchangers
      9. 6.9 Shaft Work Machines
      10. 6.10 Open System Unsteady State Processes
      11. Summary
    17. Chapter 7. Second Law of Thermodynamics and Entropy Transport and Production Mechanisms
      1. 7.1 Introduction
      2. 7.2 What is Entropy?
      3. 7.3 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
      4. 7.4 Carnot's Heat Engine and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
      5. 7.5 The Absolute Temperature Scale
      6. 7.6 Heat Engines Running Backward
      7. 7.7 Clausius's Definition of Entropy
      8. 7.8 Numerical Values for Entropy
      9. 7.9 Entropy Transport Mechanisms
      10. 7.10 Differential Entropy Balance
      11. 7.11 Heat Transport of Entropy
      12. 7.12 Work Mode Transport of Entropy
      13. 7.13 Entropy Production Mechanisms
      14. 7.14 Heat Transfer Production of Entropy
      15. 7.15 Work Mode Production of Entropy
      16. 7.16 Phase Change Entropy Production
      17. 7.17 Entropy Balance and Entropy Rate Balance Equations
      18. Summary
    18. Chapter 8. Second Law Closed System Applications
      1. 8.1 Introduction
      2. 8.2 Systems Undergoing Reversible Processes
      3. 8.3 Systems Undergoing Irreversible Processes
      4. 8.4 Diffusional Mixing
      5. Summary
    19. Chapter 9. Second Law Open System Applications
      1. 9.1 Introduction
      2. 9.2 Mass Flow Transport of Entropy
      3. 9.3 Mass Flow Production of Entropy
      4. 9.4 Open System Entropy Balance Equations
      5. 9.5 Nozzles, Diffusers, and Throttles
      6. 9.6 Heat Exchangers
      7. 9.7 Mixing
      8. 9.8 Shaft Work Machines
      9. 9.9 Unsteady State Processes in Open Systems
      10. Summary
      11. Final Comments on the Second Law
    20. Chapter 10. Availability Analysis
      1. 10.1 What is Availability?
      2. 10.2 Fun with Scalar, Vector, and Conservative Fields
      3. 10.3 What are Conservative Forces?
      4. 10.4 Maximum Reversible Work
      5. 10.5 Local Environment
      6. 10.6 Availability
      7. 10.7 Closed System Availability Balance
      8. 10.8 Flow Availability
      9. 10.9 Open System Availability Rate Balance
      10. 10.10 Modified Availability Rate Balance (MARB) Equation
      11. 10.11 Energy Efficiency Based on the Second Law
      12. Summary
    21. Chapter 11. More Thermodynamic Relations
      1. 11.1 Kynning (Introduction)
      2. 11.2 Two New Properties: Helmholtz and Gibbs Functions
      3. 11.3 Gibbs Phase Equilibrium Condition
      4. 11.4 Maxwell Equations
      5. 11.5 The Clapeyron Equation
      6. 11.6 Determining u, h, and s from p, v, and T
      7. 11.7 Constructing Tables and Charts
      8. 11.8 Thermodynamic Charts
      9. 11.9 Gas Tables
      10. 11.10 Compressibility Factor and Generalized Charts
      11. 11.11 Is Steam Ever an Ideal Gas?
      12. Summary
    22. Chapter 12. Mixtures of Gases and Vapors
      1. 12.1 Wprowadzenie (Introduction)
      2. 12.2 Thermodynamic Properties of Gas Mixtures
      3. 12.3 Mixtures of Ideal Gases
      4. 12.4 Psychrometrics
      5. 12.5 The Adiabatic Saturator
      6. 12.6 The Sling Psychrometer
      7. 12.7 Air Conditioning
      8. 12.8 Psychrometric Enthalpies
      9. 12.9 Mixtures of Real Gases
      10. Summary
      11. Design Problems
      12. Computer Problems
      13. Special Problems
    23. Chapter 13. Vapor and Gas Power Cycles
      1. 13.1 Bevezetésének (Introduction)
      2. 13.2 Part I. Engines and Vapor Power Cycles
      3. 13.3 Carnot Power Cycle
      4. 13.4 Rankine Cycle
      5. 13.5 Operating Efficiencies
      6. 13.6 Rankine Cycle with Superheat
      7. 13.7 Rankine Cycle with Regeneration
      8. 13.8 The Development of the Steam Turbine
      9. 13.9 Rankine Cycle with Reheat
      10. 13.10 Modern Steam Power Plants
      11. 13.11 Part II. Gas Power Cycles
      12. 13.12 Air Standard Power Cycles
      13. 13.13 Stirling Cycle
      14. 13.14 Ericsson Cycle
      15. 13.15 Lenoir Cycle
      16. 13.16 Brayton Cycle
      17. 13.17 Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines
      18. 13.18 Otto Cycle
      19. 13.19 Atkinson Cycle
      20. 13.20 Miller Cycle
      21. 13.21 Diesel Cycle
      22. 13.22 Modern Prime Mover Developments
      23. 13.23 Second Law Analysis of Vapor and Gas Power Cycles
      24. Summary
    24. Chapter 14. Vapor and Gas Refrigeration Cycles
      1. 14.1 Introduksjon (Introduction)
      2. 14.2 Part I. Vapor Refrigeration Cycles
      3. 14.3 Carnot Refrigeration Cycle
      4. 14.4 In the Beginning there was Ice
      5. 14.5 Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle
      6. 14.6 Refrigerants
      7. 14.7 Refrigerant Numbers
      8. 14.8 CFCs and the Ozone Layer
      9. 14.9 Cascade and Multistage Vapor-Compression Systems
      10. 14.10 Absorption Refrigeration
      11. 14.11 Commercial and Household Refrigerators
      12. 14.12 Part II. Gas Refrigeration Cycles
      13. 14.13 Air Standard Gas Refrigeration Cycles
      14. 14.14 Reversed Brayton Cycle Refrigeration
      15. 14.15 Reversed Stirling Cycle Refrigeration
      16. 14.16 Miscellaneous Refrigeration Technologies
      17. 14.17 Future Refrigeration Needs
      18. 14.18 Second Law Analysis of Refrigeration Cycles
      19. Summary
    25. Chapter 15. Chemical Thermodynamics
      1. 15.1 Einführung (Introduction)
      2. 15.2 Stoichiometric Equations
      3. 15.3 Organic Fuels
      4. 15.4 Fuel Modeling
      5. 15.5 Standard Reference State
      6. 15.6 Heat of Formation
      7. 15.7 Heat of Reaction
      8. 15.8 Adiabatic Flame Temperature
      9. 15.9 Maximum Explosion Pressure
      10. 15.10 Entropy Production in Chemical Reactions
      11. 15.11 Entropy of Formation and Gibbs Function of Formation
      12. 15.12 Chemical Equilibrium and Dissociation
      13. 15.13 Rules for Chemical Equilibrium Constants
      14. 15.14 The van't Hoff Equation
      15. 15.15 Fuel Cells
      16. 15.16 Chemical Availability
      17. Summary
    26. Chapter 16. Compressible Fluid Flow
      1. 16.1 Introducerea (Introduction)
      2. 16.2 Stagnation Properties
      3. 16.3 Isentropic Stagnation Properties
      4. 16.4 The Mach Number
      5. 16.5 Converging-Diverging Flows
      6. 16.6 Choked Flow
      7. 16.7 Reynolds Transport Theorem
      8. 16.8 Linear Momentum Rate Balance
      9. 16.9 Shock Waves
      10. 16.10 Nozzle and Diffuser Efficiencies
      11. Summary
    27. Chapter 17. Thermodynamics of Biological Systems
      1. 17.1 Introdução (Introduction)
      2. 17.2 Living Systems
      3. 17.3 Thermodynamics of Biological Cells
      4. 17.4 Energy Conversion Efficiency of Biological Systems
      5. 17.5 Metabolism
      6. 17.6 Thermodynamics of Nutrition and Exercise
      7. 17.7 Limits to Biological Growth
      8. 17.8 Locomotion Transport Number
      9. 17.9 Thermodynamics of Aging and Death
      10. Summary
    28. Chapter 18. Introduction to Statistical Thermodynamics
      1. 18.1 Introduction
      2. 18.2 Why Use a Statistical Approach?
      3. 18.3 Kinetic Theory of Gases
      4. 18.4 Intermolecular Collisions
      5. 18.5 Molecular Velocity Distributions
      6. 18.6 Equipartition of Energy
      7. 18.7 Introduction to Mathematical Probability
      8. 18.8 Quantum Statistical Thermodynamics
      9. 18.9 Three Classical Quantum Statistical Models
      10. 18.10 Maxwell-Boltzmann Gases
      11. 18.11 Monatomic Maxwell-Boltzmann Gases
      12. 18.12 Diatomic Maxwell-Boltzmann Gases
      13. 18.13 Polyatomic Maxwell-Boltzmann Gases
      14. Summary
    29. Chapter 19. Introduction to Coupled Phenomena
      1. 19.1 Introduction
      2. 19.2 Coupled Phenomena
      3. 19.3 Linear Phenomenological Equations
      4. 19.4 Thermoelectric Coupling
      5. 19.5 Thermomechanical Coupling
      6. Summary
    30. APPENDIX A. Physical Constants and Conversion Factors
    31. APPENDIX B. Greek and Latin Origins of Engineering Terms
    32. Appendix C. Thermodynamic Tables
    33. Appendix D. Thermodynamic Charts
    34. Index