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Modern Earth Buildings

Book Description

The construction of earth buildings has been taking place worldwide for centuries. With the improved energy efficiency, high level of structural integrity and aesthetically pleasing finishes achieved in modern earth construction, it is now one of the leading choices for sustainable, low-energy building. Modern earth buildings provides an essential exploration of the materials and techniques key to the design, development and construction of such buildings.

Beginning with an overview of modern earth building, part one provides an introduction to design and construction issues including insulation, occupant comfort and building codes. Part two goes on to investigate materials for earth buildings, before building technologies are explored in part three including construction techniques for earth buildings. Modern earth structural engineering is the focus of part four, including the creation of earth masonry structures, use of structural steel elements and design of natural disaster-resistant earth buildings. Finally, part five of Modern earth buildings explores the application of modern earth construction through international case studies.

With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Modern earth buildings is a key reference work for all low-impact building engineers, architects and designers, along with academics in this field.

  • Provides an essential exploration of the materials and techniques key to the design, development and construction of modern earth buildings
  • Comprehensively discusses design and construction issues, materials for earth buildings, construction techniques and modern earth structural engineering, among other topics
  • Examines the application of modern earth construction through international case studies

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributor contact details
  6. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy
  7. Preface
  8. Part I: Introduction to modern earth buildings
    1. Chapter 1: Overview of modern earth building
      1. Abstract:
      2. 1.1 Introduction
      3. 1.2 Definition of modern earth building
      4. 1.3 The significance of modern earth building in the current and future construction industries
      5. 1.4 Changes in the modern earth building industry
      6. 1.5 Managing the demands of the modern construction industry
    2. Chapter 2: Hygrothermal behaviour and occupant comfort in modern earth buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Hygrothermal loads and modelling
      4. 2.3 Thermal and hygric properties of earth materials
      5. 2.4 Hygrothermal behaviour and passive air conditioning
      6. 2.5 Indoor health and air quality
      7. 2.6 Sources of further information
      8. 2.8 Appendix: nomenclature
    3. Chapter 3: Fabric insulation, thermal bridging and acoustics in modern earth buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Approaches to fabric insulation
      4. 3.3 Thermal bridging theory
      5. 3.4 Thermal bridging simulation tools
      6. 3.5 Acoustic reverberation
      7. 3.6 Sources of further information
      8. 3.8 Appendix: nomenclature
    4. Chapter 4: Modern earth building codes, standards and normative development
      1. Abstract:
      2. 4.1 Introduction: a short history of building codes for using earth as a building material
      3. 4.2 Types of ‘standards’ for earth buildings
      4. 4.3 Normative documents for earth building
      5. 4.4 Selecting the parameters for earth building standards
      6. 4.5 New developments in earth building standards
      7. 4.6 Conclusions
    5. Chapter 5: Passive house design: a benchmark for thermal mass fabric integration
      1. Abstract:
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Description of Passive House
      4. 5.3 Functional principles of Passive House
      5. 5.4 Case studies of Passive Houses in different climates
      6. 5.5 Examples of Passive House architecture in Germany
      7. 5.6 Future trends
      8. 5.7 Sources of further information
  9. Part II: Earth materials engineering and earth construction
    1. Chapter 6: Soil materials for earth construction: properties, classification and suitability testing
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Soil formation
      4. 6.3 Soil types
      5. 6.4 Soil consistency
      6. 6.5 Compaction of soil
      7. 6.6 Conclusion
      8. 6.8 Appendix
    2. Chapter 7: Alternative and recycled materials for earth construction
      1. Abstract
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Classification
      4. 7.3 Types of alternative material
      5. 7.4 Characteristics of alternative and recycled materials
      6. 7.5 Form of recycled and alternative materials: bulk or binder
      7. 7.6 Leaching
      8. 7.7 Physical and mechanical properties of alternative and recycled materials
      9. 7.8 The use and reuse life cycle
      10. 7.9 Future trends and conclusions
      11. 7.10 Sources of further information
      12. 7.12 Appendix
    3. Chapter 8: Soil mechanics and earthen construction: strength and mechanical behaviour
      1. Abstract:
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Basic mechanics
      4. 8.3 Fundamental soil behaviour
      5. 8.4 Effective stress
      6. 8.5 Models of shear strength for soils
      7. 8.6 Unsaturated soil behaviour
      8. 8.7 The use of soil mechanics in earthen construction
      9. 8.8 Future trends
      10. 8.9 Sources of further information
    4. Chapter 9: Soil stabilisation and earth construction: materials, properties and techniques
      1. Abstract:
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Lime stabilisation
      4. 9.3 Cement and pozzolans
      5. 9.4 Bituminous binders and emulsions
      6. 9.5 Synthetic binders, polymers and adhesives
      7. 9.6 Fibre reinforcement
      8. 9.7 Selection tool for modern stabilised earth construction
    5. Chapter 10: Integral admixtures and surface treatments for modern earth buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Integral admixtures for modern earth construction
      4. 10.3 Surface treatment for modern earth buildings
      5. 10.4 Future trends
      6. 10.5 Sources of information
    6. Chapter 11: Weathering and durability of earthen material and structures
      1. Abstract:
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Water content increase in earthen walls
      4. 11.3 Strategies to increase the durability of earth walls
      5. 11.4 Current tests for assessing the durability of earthen materials
      6. 11.5 Surface coatings and finishes of earth structures
      7. 11.6 Long-term performance testing of earth walls
      8. 11.7 Future trends and conclusions
      9. 11.8 Acknowledgements
  10. Part III: Earth building technologies and earth construction techniques
    1. Chapter 12: History of earth building techniques
      1. Abstract:
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 Earth building techniques in Asia
      4. 12.3 Earth building techniques in Africa
      5. 12.4 Earth building techniques in Europe
      6. 12.5 Earth building techniques in North America
      7. 12.6 Earth building techniques in South America
      8. 12.7 Earth building techniques in Australasia
      9. 12.8 Conclusions
    2. Chapter 13: Stabilised soil blocks for structural masonry in earth construction
      1. Abstract:
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 Soil stabilisation techniques
      4. 13.3 Production of stabilised soil blocks (SSBs)
      5. 13.4 Characteristics of stabilised soil blocks (SSBs)
      6. 13.5 Cement–soil mortars for stabilised soil block masonry
      7. 13.6 Stabilised soil block masonry
      8. 13.7 Long-term performance, repair and retrofitting of stabilised soil block buildings
      9. 13.8 Case studies of cement-stabilised soil block (CSSB) buildings
    3. Chapter 14: Modern rammed earth construction techniques
      1. Abstract:
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Material sourcing
      4. 14.3 Proportioning and mixing
      5. 14.4 Formwork
      6. 14.5 Installation
      7. 14.6 Future trends and conclusions
    4. Chapter 15: Pneumatically impacted stabilized earth (PISE) construction techniques
      1. Abstract:
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Materials used for pneumatically impacted stabilized earth (PISE) construction
      4. 15.3 The forming system
      5. 15.4 Reinforcement of pneumatically impacted stabilized earth (PISE) walls
      6. 15.5 Equipment for proportioning, mixing and placement
      7. 15.6 The pneumatically impacted stabilized earth (PISE) method
      8. 15.7 Conclusion
      9. 15.8 Appendix
    5. Chapter 16: Conservation of historic earth buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Common causes of deterioration on historic earth buildings
      4. 16.3 Conservation of earth architecture
      5. 16.4 Case study of the UNESCO heritage site of Diriyah in the Atturaif region of Saudi Arabia
      6. 16.5 Case study of earth buildings in Italy: Loreto Aprutino in the Abruzzo region
      7. 16.6 Conclusions
  11. Part IV: Modern earth structural engineering
    1. Chapter 17: Earth masonry structures: arches, vaults and domes
      1. Abstract:
      2. 17.1 Introduction
      3. 17.2 Structural theory for arches, vaults and domes
      4. 17.3 Earth masonry arches
      5. 17.4 Earth masonry vaults
      6. 17.5 Earth masonry domes
      7. 17.6 Material properties of earth masonry structure
      8. 17.7 Design and construction criteria for earth masonry structures
      9. 17.8 Future trends
      10. 17.9 Acknowledgments
    2. Chapter 18: Structural steel elements within stabilised rammed earth walling
      1. Abstract:
      2. 18.1 Introduction
      3. 18.2 Structural steel for stabilised rammed earth (SRE) walling
      4. 18.3 Design parameters for using structural steel within stabilised rammed earth (SRE) walling
      5. 18.4 The use of steel lintels for stabilised rammed earth (SRE) applications
      6. 18.5 Steel columns embedded within stabilised rammed earth (SRE) walls
      7. 18.6 Structural systems for elevated or ‘precast’ stabilised rammed earth (SRE) panels
      8. 18.7 North American structural steel
      9. 18.8 Conclusion
      10. 18.9 Acknowledgements
      11. 18.10 Sources of further information
    3. Chapter 19: Natural disasters and earth buildings: resistant design and construction
      1. Abstract:
      2. 19.1 Introduction
      3. 19.2 Earthquakes and earth buildings
      4. 19.3 Earthquake engineering
      5. 19.4 Wind and storms
      6. 19.5 Earth building design for wind resistance
      7. 19.6 Flood hazards and earth buildings
      8. 19.7 Volcanoes and landslides
      9. 19.8 Future trends
    4. Chapter 20: Embankments and dams
      1. Abstract:
      2. 20.1 Introduction
      3. 20.2 Types and selection of embankment dams
      4. 20.3 Zoning of embankment dams and construction materials
      5. 20.4 Embankment dam construction specifications
      6. 20.5 Stability analysis of embankment dams
      7. 20.6 Dam freeboard requirement
      8. 20.7 Failure mechanisms
      9. 20.8 Maintenance of embankment dams
      10. 20.9 Future trends
      11. 20.10 Norms and standards
  12. Part V: Application of modern earth construction: international case studies
    1. Chapter 21: North American modern earth construction
      1. Abstract:
      2. 21.1 Introduction
      3. 21.2 Seventh generation thinking and earth construction
      4. 21.3 The interplay of indoor and outdoor weather
      5. 21.4 Applications of earth construction in hot climates
      6. 21.5 Applications of earth construction in wet and cold climates
      7. 21.6 Optimizing rammed earth compressive strength
      8. 21.7 North American-style rammed earth
      9. 21.8 Case studies of North American earth construction
      10. 21.9 Design elegance of modern earth buildings
      11. 21.10 Future trends
      12. 21.11 Sources of further information
      13. 21.12 Acknowledgments
    2. Chapter 22: Australian modern earth construction
      1. Abstract:
      2. 22.1 Introduction
      3. 22.2 Uses of stabilised rammed earth in different regions of Australia
      4. 22.3 Approaches to material type and selection
      5. 22.4 Formwork and construction techniques: the ‘Stabilform system’
      6. 22.5 Stabilised rammed earth (SRE) walls
      7. 22.6 Designing for thermal comfort
      8. 22.7 Standards and specifications for modern earth construction in Australia
      9. 22.8 The cost of stabilised rammed earth (SRE) construction in Australia
      10. 22.9 Case studies of modern earth buildings in Victoria, Australia
      11. 22.10 Future trends
      12. 22.11 Sources of further information
      13. 22.12 Acknowledgements
    3. Chapter 23: European modern earth construction
      1. Abstract:
      2. 23.1 Introduction
      3. 23.2 Conservation and revival of traditional techniques
      4. 23.3 Modern earth construction techniques
      5. 23.4 Case studies of modern earth buildings throughout Europe
      6. 23.5 Future trends
      7. 23.6 Acknowledgements
    4. Chapter 24: Modern rammed earth construction in China
      1. Abstract:
      2. 24.1 Introduction
      3. 24.2 Challenges for modern rammed earth construction in China
      4. 24.3 Opportunities for modern rammed earth construction in China
      5. 24.4 Approaches to material type and selection
      6. 24.5 Construction techniques and formwork
      7. 24.6 Case studies
      8. 24.7 Future trends
  13. Appendices
    1. Appendix 1: Techno-economic analysis and environmental assessment of stabilised rammed earth (SRE) building construction
    2. Appendix 2: Techno-economic analysis and environmental assessment of stabilized insulated rammed earth (SIREWALL) building
  14. Index