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Modeling and Simulation Support for System of Systems Engineering Applications by Andreas Tolk, Larry B. Rainey

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Chapter 2The Role of Modeling and Simulation in System of Systems Development

Mark W. Maier

The Aerospace Corporation, Chantilly, VA, USA

2.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter provides a general introduction to the concept of system of systems (SoS), their definition, the position of the concept within related concepts, the relationship of modeling and simulation issues to SoS, and the relationship of modeling and simulation to the development of SoS. Section 2.2 of Chapter 2 defines SoS and a number of related concepts and pays particular attention to the concept of emergent properties and its role in understanding both SoS and models of systems. Section 2.3 reviews a number of important examples of SoS, which will be explored in depth with respect to modeling and simulation later in the book. Section 2.4 takes up modeling issues particularly associated with SoS. Section 2.5 relates the modeling issues to the structure of architecture description documents (ADD) and distinguishing architecture as a concept or as decision from architecture as modeling artifacts.

Five key lessons come from the discussion:

  1. SoS are distinguished from other systems by formation from independently operated and managed components. While other factors also apply, it is the element of collaborative assembly and operation that is most significant.
  2. Because of the relatively abstract nature of many SoS, modeling and simulation plays an even larger role in their development than in other systems categories.
  3. “Emergence” and ...

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