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Mobile Inter-networking with IPv6 : Concepts, Principles and Practices

Book Description

A comprehensive reference on understanding, designing, and implementing IP Mobility

This authoritative reference provides readers with a thorough understanding of IP Mobility using Mobile IPv6 and companion advanced mobility protocols including network mobility and fast handovers. It illustrates basic concepts and principles behind the IP Mobility architecture and covers the practices using detailed protocol description. Of particular importance is how mobile networking will support billions of devices without restricting applications or overburdening network infrastructures, and how it will support the movement of users from network to network without compromising security.

Authors Koodli and Perkins investigate how IP mobility is used in practice and the adoption of Mobile IPv6 in CDMA cellular systems. They also cover some experimental work, including performance of VoIP handovers over WLAN, multi-access network handovers, and emerging topics such as location privacy.

In five parts, Mobile Inter-networking with IPv6 covers:

  • Features of IPv6 and IP security

  • Mobility concepts and principles, Mobile IPv6 protocol, packet handling, and network mobility

  • Advanced mobility protocols, including fast handovers, fast handover protocol, context transfers, and hierarchical mobility management

  • Applying IP mobility, including Mobile IPv6 in CDMA packet data networks, enterprise mobile networking, and WLAN fast handovers

  • Emerging topics such as multi-access and mobility, seamless IP handovers, location privacy and IP mobility, and route optimization for Mobile IPv4 using Mobile IPv6 return routability

  • With chapter exercises and handy references, readers will have plenty of opportunities to pursue topics in further detail. This is a comprehensive reference suitable for practitioners and students with a basic understanding of TCP/IP protocols.

    Table of Contents

    1. Cover
    2. TitlePage
    3. Copyright
    4. Contents
    5. List of Figures
    6. List of Tables
    7. Preface
    8. Acknowledgments
    9. Acronyms
    10. Part I Introduction and Background
      1. 1 Mobility on the Internet: Introduction
        1. References
      2. 2 IP Version 6
        1. 2.1 Motivation
        2. 2.2 Definitions
        3. 2.3 IPv6 Format
          1. 2.3.1 IPv6 Header Format
          2. 2.3.2 IPv6 Extension Headers
        4. 2.4 IPv6 Addresses
        5. 2.5 Neighbor Discovery Protocol
          1. 2.5.1 Router Discovery
        6. 2.6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration
          1. 2.6.1 Looking for a Neighbor
          2. 2.6.2 Duplicate Address Detection (DAD)
        7. 2.7 Summary
        8. References
      3. 3 IP Security
        1. 3.1 Introduction
        2. 3.2 What is IPsec?
        3. 3.3 Security Associations
          1. 3.3.1 SA Types
          2. 3.3.2 Selectors
          3. 3.3.3 The Databases
        4. 3.4 Traffic Processing
        5. 3.5 Internet Key Exchange (IKE) Protocol
        6. 3.6 Summary
        7. References
    11. Part II IP Mobility
      1. 4 Mobility Concepts and Principles
        1. 4.1 Introduction
        2. 4.2 Roaming and Handover Together Constitute the Mobility Problem
          1. 4.2.1 Roaming Problem: How Packets Reach the Current Location of the Mobile Node
          2. 4.2.2 Robustness Problem: Connection Must Withstand Change of IP Address
          3. 4.2.3 Beyond Robustness: Supporting Real-time Mobility
        3. 4.3 Internet Principle: Core Network Transparency
        4. 4.4 Network-controlled Mobility
        5. 4.5 Application Layer and Session Layer Mobility
        6. 4.6 Supporting Mobility Using IP
        7. 4.7 Summary
        8. Exercises
        9. References
      2. 5 Mobility Support Using Mobile IP
        1. 5.1 Introduction
        2. 5.2 Mobility Events and Actions
          1. 5.2.1 Detecting Movement to a New Subnet
          2. 5.2.2 Regaining IP Connectivity
          3. 5.2.3 Packet Forwarding Subsequent to Movement
          4. 5.2.4 Route-optimized Communication Between a Mobile Node and Its Correspondents
        3. 5.3 How Mobile IP Supports IP Mobility
          1. 5.3.1 Mobile IP Terminology
          2. 5.3.2 Subnet Movement Detection in Mobile IP
          3. 5.3.3 Location Update to the Home Agent, and Correspondents
          4. 5.3.4 Packet Forwarding
        4. 5.4 Limitations Of the Base Mobile IP protocol
        5. 5.5 Summary
        6. Exercises
        7. References
      3. 6 Mobile IPv6 Protocol
        1. 6.1 Binding Cache Management
        2. 6.2 Return Routability Development
        3. 6.3 Security Management
        4. 6.4 Delivering Packets to The Care-of Address
        5. 6.5 Home Agent Discovery
        6. 6.6 Movement Detection and Link Establishment
        7. 6.7 Summary
        8. Exercises
        9. References
      4. 7 Binding Cache Management
        1. 7.1 Home Address Destination Option
        2. 7.2 Mobility Header
        3. 7.3 Binding Update
          1. 7.3.1 Home Agent Actions for Receiving Binding Updates
          2. 7.3.2 Mobile Node Actions for Sending Binding Updates
          3. 7.3.3 Correspondent Node Actions for Receiving Binding Updates
        4. 7.4 Binding Acknowledgement (BACK)
        5. 7.5 Binding Refresh Request (BRR)
        6. 7.6 Binding Error (BERR)
        7. 7.7 Mobility Message Options
          1. 7.7.1 Binding Authorization Data option
          2. 7.7.2 Nonce Indices
          3. 7.7.3 Alternate Care-of Address
          4. 7.7.4 Binding Refresh Advice
          5. 7.7.5 Pad Options
        8. 7.8 Summary
        9. References
      5. 8 Return Routability
        1. 8.1 Return Routability-Theory of Operation
        2. 8.2 Home Test Init (HoTI) Message
        3. 8.3 Care-of Test In it (CoTI) Message
        4. 8.4 Home Test (HoT) Message
        5. 8.5 Care-of Test (CoT) Message
        6. 8.6 Using the Binding Management Key
        7. 8.7 Threat Models to Worry About
          1. 8.7.1 Hijacking Data
          2. 8.7.2 Address Ownership
          3. 8.7.3 Use of the Home Address Option
          4. 8.7.4 Use of Routing Header Type 2
        8. 8.8 Securing Route Optimization Using a Static Shared Key
        9. 8.9 Summary
        10. References
      6. 9 IP Security for Mobile Nodes and their Home Agents
        1. 9.1 Introduction
        2. 9.2 Establishing a Security Association Between a Mobile Node and its Home Agent
        3. 9.3 Binding Update and IP sec Processing at a Mobile Node
        4. 9.4 Binding Update and IP sec Processing at a Home Agent
        5. 9.5 IKE, IP SEC and Mobile IPv6
        6. 9.6 Summary
        7. References
      7. 10 Packet Handling
        1. 10.1 Overview
        2. 10.2 IPv6-in-IPv6 encapsulation
        3. 10.3 Routing Header Type 2
        4. 10.4 Encapsulating Packets to the Mobile Node
        5. 10.5 Reverse Tunneling
        6. 10.6 Direct Delivery to a Correspondent Node
        7. 10.7 Delivering Packets to a Mobile Node Directly
        8. 10.8 Sending Binding Updates
        9. 10.9 Inline Signaling or Piggybacking
        10. 10.10 Summary
        11. References
      8. 11 Movement Detection
        1. 11.1 Movement Detection Algorithm
        2. 11.2 IP Address Configuration
        3. 11.3 Returning Home
        4. 11.4 Changes to Neighbor Discovery
        5. References
      9. 12 Dynamic Home Agent Discovery
        1. 12.1 Motivation
        2. 12.2 Home Agent and Prefix Discovery
          1. 12.2.1 Dynamic Home Agent Discovery
          2. 12.2.2 Mobile Prefix Discovery
        3. 12.3 Discovery of other Home Agents
        4. References
      10. 13 Network Mobility
        1. 13.1 Introduction
        2. 13.2 NEMO Model and Terminology
        3. 13.3 NEMO Basic Protocol
        4. 13.4 NEMO Route Optimization
        5. 13.5 Prefix Delegation and Management
        6. 13.6 Summary
        7. Exercises
        8. References
    12. Part III Advanced Mobility Protocols
      1. 14 Fast Handovers
        1. 14.1 Snapshot of a Mobile Node’s Actions
        2. 14.2 Enabling Fast Handovers
          1. 14.2.1 Connectivity Latency Bottlenecks
          2. 14.2.2 Reducing the Connectivity Latency
          3. 14.2.3 Bottlenecks in Reception Latency
          4. 14.2.4 Reducing Reception Latency
        3. 14.3 Understanding the Implications of Packet Rerouting
          1. 14.3.1 Avoiding Address Collisions Alltogether
        4. 14.4 Summary
        5. Exercises
        6. References
      2. 15 Fast Handovers Protocol
        1. 15.1 Neighborhood Prefix Discovery
          1. 15.1.1 Sending Router Solicitation for Proxy Advertisement
          2. 15.1.2 Sending a Proxy Router Advertisement
        2. 15.2 Forwarding SetUp
          1. 15.2.1 Fast Binding Update
          2. 15.2.2 Fast Binding Acknowledgment
        3. 15.3 Interaccess Router Communication
        4. 15.4 Announcing Attachment
        5. 15.5 Summary
        6. 15.6 Chapter Notes
        7. Exercises
        8. References
      3. 16 Context Transfers
        1. 16.1 Introduction
        2. 16.2 Context Creation on an Access Router
        3. 16.3 Context Transfer Design
          1. 16.3.1 Data Structure Representation
          2. 16.3.2 Context Data Structure Format
          3. 16.3.3 Using Context Transfer Options with Handover Signaling
        4. 16.4 Summary
        5. Exercises
        6. References
      4. 17 Hierarchical Mobility Management
        1. 17.1 Introduction
        2. 17.2 Hierarchical Mobility Model
        3. 17.3 Protocol Operation
          1. 17.3.1 Mobility Anchor Point Discovery
          2. 17.3.2 Mobility Anchor Point Registration
          3. 17.3.3 Packet Forwarding
        4. 17.4 Summary
        5. Exercises
        6. References
    13. Part IV Applying IP Mobility
      1. 18 Mobile IPv6 in CDMA Packet Data Networks
        1. 18.1 Introduction
        2. 18.2 Mobile IPv6 Operation
          1. 18.2.1 Data Link Layer Establishment
          2. 18.2.2 Bootstrapping Home Network Parameters
          3. 18.2.3 Mobile IPv6 Home Registration
        3. 18.3 IP Reachability Service
        4. 18.4 Mobile IPv6 and IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)
          1. 18.4.1 Overview of SIP
          2. 18.4.2 Personal Mobility and Device Mobility
        5. 18.5 Summary
        6. Exercises
        7. References
      2. 19 Enterprise Mobile Networking
        1. 19.1 Introduction
        2. 19.2 VPN Mobility
          1. 19.2.1 IKEv2 Mobility and Multihoming (Mobike)
        3. 19.3 Middlebox Management
        4. 19.4 Adapting IPv6 Fast Handovers for IPv4 Networks
          1. 19.4.1 Protocol Operation
        5. 19.5 Summary
        6. References
      3. 20 Fast Handover in a Wireless LAN
        1. 20.1 Introduction
        2. 20.2 Establishing connectivity in WLAN
        3. 20.3 Handover Bottlenecks
          1. 20.3.1 WLAN Considerations
          2. 20.3.2 IP Considerations
        4. 20.4 Improving Handover Support
        5. 20.5 Related Work
        6. 20.6 Summary
        7. References
    14. Part V Emerging Topics in IP Mobility
      1. 21 Multiaccess and Mobility
        1. 21.1 Introduction
        2. 21.2 Mobility Between Networks
        3. 21.3 Case Study: VoIP Handovers
          1. 21.3.1 Experiment Framework
          2. 21.3.2 An Experiment
          3. 21.3.3 Analysis
          4. 21.3.4 Summary
        4. 21.4 Taxonomy of Research Problems
        5. 21.5 Chapter Notes
        6. References
      2. 22 Seamless Handovers
        1. 22.1 Introduction
        2. 22.2 Background and Problem Description
          1. 22.2.1 Header Compression
          2. 22.2.2 Seamless Mobility with Header Compression
        3. 22.3 Design of Header Compression Context Transfer
          1. 22.3.1 Defining Context Structure
          2. 22.3.2 Relocation Timing and State Consistency
          3. 22.3.3 State Update Rules
          4. 22.3.4 Synchronization with Handover Signaling
        4. 22.4 Performance Study
          1. 22.4.1 Basic Handover
          2. 22.4.2 Predictive Context Transfer
          3. 22.4.3 Reactive Context Transfer
          4. 22.4.4 Behavior of State Transitions During Handover
        5. 22.5 Chapter Notes
        6. Exercises
        7. References
      3. 23 Location Privacy and IP Mobility
        1. 23.1 Introduction
        2. 23.2 Location Privacy Problem with Mobile IPv6
          1. 23.2.1 Revealing the Home Address
          2. 23.2.2 Disclosing the Care-of Address
          3. 23.2.3 Problem Illustration
        3. 23.3 Hiding the Home Address from Onlookers
          1. 23.3.1 Privacy-Tag Computation
          2. 23.3.2 Privacy Tag in Route-Optimized Binding Update
          3. 23.3.3 Related Work
          4. 23.3.4 Using a Pseudo Home Address
          5. 23.3.5 Protecting Mobile IPv6 Messages
        4. 23.4 Disclosing the Care-of Address
        5. 23.5 Conclusion
        6. Exercises
        7. References
      4. 24 Route Optimization for Mobile IPv4 using Return Routability
        1. 24.1 Introduction
        2. 24.2 Reference Model and Assumptions
        3. 24.3 Protocol Operation
        4. 24.4 Message Formats
        5. 24.5 Security Implications
      5. Exercises
      6. References
    15. Glossary
    16. Index