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Mobile Computing and Wireless Networks: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications

Book Description

We live in a wireless society, one where convenience and accessibility determine the efficacy of the latest electronic gadgets and mobile devices. Making the most of these technologies—and ensuring their security against potential attackers—requires increased diligence in mobile technology research and development. Mobile Computing and Wireless Networks: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications brings together a comprehensive range of voices and research in the area of mobile and wireless technologies, exploring the successes and failures, advantages and drawbacks, and benefits and limitations of the technology. With applications in a plethora of different research and topic areas, this multi-volume reference work benefits researchers, service providers, end-users, and information technology professionals. This four-volume reference work includes a diverse array of chapters and authors covering topics such as m-commerce, network ethics, mobile agent systems, mobile learning, communications infrastructure, and applications in fields such as business, healthcare, government, tourism, and more.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: Introduction to Mobile and Wireless Communications Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
      4. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      5. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 2: E-Learning and the Semantic Web
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-LEARNING AND THE SEMANTIC WEB: LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      5. RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND GAPS
      6. DISCUSSION OF THE NEW INTIIAL HOLISTIC 3.0 E-LEARNING MODEL AND FUTURE WORKS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. APPENDIX
    3. Chapter 3: Web 3.0 and E-Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. EVOLUTION OF THE WEB AND GROWTH OF E-LEARNING
      5. THE WEB 3.0 CHALLENGE
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. TRAINING IN WEB 3.0 TECHNOLOGIES
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 4: The Augmented Reality Marketing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 5: Mobile Learning Services on Cloud
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOBILE LEARNING SERVICES
      4. MOBILE CLOUD COMPUTING
      5. MOBILE CLOUD COMPUTING IN E-LEARNING
      6. MODEL FOR DELIVERING MOBILE LEARNING SERVICES THROUGH CLOUD COMPUTING
      7. PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT AS A PROOF OF CONCEPT
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 6: A Review on Semantic Text and Multimedia Retrieval and Recent Trends
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SEMANTIC WEB
      4. TREND OF RESEARCHES
      5. INVESTIGATION OF APPLICATIONS ON SEMANTIC WEB
      6. SEMANTIC TEXT RETRIEVAL
      7. SEMANTIC MULTIMEDIA RETRIEVAL
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 7: An Aesthetics of Digital Virtual Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS AESTHETICS IN DIGITAL VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS?
      3. 1. INTRINSIC QUALITIES OF ART IN DIGITAL VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS
      4. 2. AN AESTHETICS OF DIGITAL VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      8. ENDNOTES
      9. APPENDIX: SELECTED ARTWORKS BY THE AUTHOR
    8. Chapter 8: Street Poetry in Augmented Reality
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. STREET POETRY IN AUGMENTED REALITY
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 9: An Overview of Maritime Wireless Mesh Communication Technologies and Protocols
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. CHALLENGES IN MARITIME COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS
      4. 3. MARITIME WIRELESS MESH NETWORKS AND SYSTEMS
      5. 4. MARITIME COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 10: Agent-Based Resource Management for Mobile Cloud
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MOBILE CLOUD COMPUTING
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 11: SDWS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WEB SERVICE MODELS AND DESCRIPTION LANGUAGES
      4. DESIGN OF ONTOLOGICAL MODELS
      5. SDWS ARCHITECTURE
      6. EVALUATION
      7. RELATED WORK
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    12. Chapter 12: Ubiquitous Semantic Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ENDNOTES
    13. Chapter 13: A Comprehensive Review of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) Based Energy-Efficient Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. ARCHITECTURE AND COMMUNICATION ARCHITECTURE OF SENSOR NODE
      4. 3. CONCEPT COVERAGE TO “SWARM INTELLIGENCE”
      5. 4. ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION (ACO)
      6. 5. MAX-MIN ANT SYSTEM
      7. 6. ACO BASED ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
      8. 7. COMPARISON OF ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING PROTOCOLS BASED ON ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK
      9. 8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE
      10. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 14: Mobile Cloud Resource Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SHARED RESOURCES
      4. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 15: Online Virtual Learning Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS AND LEARNING
      4. 3. DEVELOPING WEB 3D VES: TECHNOLOGIES, CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS
      5. 4. A REVIEW OF TWO PROJECTS
      6. 5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    16. Chapter 16: A Semantically Enabled Service Delivery Platform
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SEMANTICALLY ENABLED SERVICE DELIVERY PLATFORM
      5. APPLICATION AND ADAPTATION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
  7. Section 2: Development and Design Methodologies
    1. Chapter 17: The Development of Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. RESOURCE (ENERGY) EFFICIENCY
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 18: Customer Relationship Management as an Imperative for Academic Libraries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      7. ENDNOTES
    3. Chapter 19: Semantic Web Services-Based Knowledge Management Framework
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SEMANTIC WEB ENABLED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
      4. INCORPORATING SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE (SOA) CONCEPTS INTO KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
      5. INTEGRATION OF SEMANTICS ENABLED SOA INTO SEMANTIC WEB ENABLED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 20: Urban Planning 3.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEVELOPMENT OF THREE GENERATIONS OF THE WEB
      4. TECHNOLOGY RESHAPING THE PREMISES OF URBAN PLANNING
      5. URBAN PLANNING 2.0
      6. URBAN PLANNING 3.0
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 21: Web 3.0 in Web Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. WEB 3.0 TECHNOLOGIES
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 22: Assessing Spatial Design in Virtual Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CASE STUDY 1: EXPERIENTIAL ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO (UNDERGRADUATE)
      4. CASE STUDY 2: ARTMAKING WITH VIRTUAL WORLDS – ARCHITECTURE (YEAR 10)
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      8. ENDNOTES
      9. APPENDIX A: UG ASSESSMENT RUBRICS
      10. APPENDIX B: YR10 ASSESSMENT RUBRICS
      11. APPENDIX C: SOFTWARE AND TECHNOLOGY UTILISED
      12. CRITICAL RESPONSE
    7. Chapter 23: The Development of Virtual Reality Technologies for People on the Autism Spectrum
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OVERVIEW
      4. WHAT IS AUTISM: A BRIEF OVERVIEW
      5. VIRTUAL REALITY TECHNOLOGY USED BY PEOPLE WITH AUTISM
      6. THE USE AND ROLE OF VIRTUAL WORLDS FOR PEOPLE WITH AUTISM
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 24: Performance Improvement of Clustered WSN by Using Multi-Tier Clustering
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. POWER MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES
      4. 3. CLUSTERING ALGORITHM
      5. 4. MULTI-TIER CLUSTERING FOR CLUSTERD WSN
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. SUMMARY
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 25: A Web-Based Method for Ontology Population
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ONTOLOGY-BASED INFORMATION EXTRACTION
      4. AN UNSUPERVISED METHOD FOR ONTOLOGY POPULATION FROM THE WEB
      5. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    10. Chapter 26: Transport Protocol Performance for Multi-Hop Transmission in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. SIMULATION RESULTS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 27: Sensing Coverage and Connectivity in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOTIVATION FOR SENSING COVERAGE AND CONNECTIVITY RESEARCH IN CRSN
      4. SENSING COVERAGE IN AD HOC NETWORKS
      5. MODEL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SENSING COVERAGE AND CONNECTIVITY IN CRSN
      6. OPEN TOPICS FOR SENSING COVERAGE AND CONNECTIVITY IN CRSN
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 28: Design Issues of 4G-Network Mobility Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. KEY COMPONENTS OF 4G NETWORK
      4. CHARACTERISTICS OF 4G NETWORKS
      5. BACKGROUND
      6. RECENT TECHNOLOGIES
      7. PROBLEMS IN EXISTING NETWORK
      8. RESEARCH CHALLENGES
      9. OVERVIEW OF MOBILITY MANAGEMENT IN 4G NETWORK
      10. HANDOVER PROCEDURE
      11. MOBILITY MANAGEMENT AT DIFFERENT LAYERS
      12. REQUIREMENTS FOR MOBILITY MANAGEMENT IN 4G
      13. EXISTING SOLUTIONS
      14. IEEE 802.21 MEDIA INDEPENDENT HANDOVER
      15. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      16. CONCLUSION
      17. REFERENCES
      18. ADDITIONAL READING
      19. KEY WORDS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 29: Social Networking for Educational Purposes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSES
      6. DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL CULTURAL SKILLS
      7. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 30: Service-Oriented Development of Workflow-Based Semantic Reasoning Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TOWARDS SEMANTIC REASONING ON THE WEB SCALE
      4. LARGE KNOWLEDGE COLLIDER: MAKING THE SEMANTIC REASONING MORE SERVICE-ORIENTED
      5. SUCCESS STORIES AND APPLICATION EXAMPLES
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    15. Chapter 31: Towards Semantic Mashups
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TOWARDS SEMANTIC MASHUPS
      4. LIMITATION OF CONVENTIONAL MASHUPS
      5. SEMANTIC MASHUPS CHARACTERISTICS
      6. BACKGROUND TECHNOLOGIES
      7. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES FOR SEMANTIC MASHUPS DEVELOPMENT
      8. USE CASES
      9. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
  8. Section 3: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 32: Web 3.0 Technologies and Transformation of Pedagogical Activities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESEARCH BACKGROUND. WEB 3.0: THE NEW FORM OF REPRESENTATION, COMPREHENSION, AND USE OF INFORMATION. DISCUSSIONS ON THE TOPIC
      4. WEB 3.0 AND NEW TEACHING STRATEGIES
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 33: Assessing Learning with Web 2.0 Tools
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. CONTEXT
      3. 2. ASSESSING LEARNING IN THE SOCIAL WEB: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES
      4. 3. LESSONS LEARNED
      5. 4. DISCUSSION
      6. 5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      7. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 34: The Use and Uptake of Information and Communication Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE: WEB 2.0 TECHNOLOGIES IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE EDUCATION
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      6. PORTRAITS FROM THE TEACHER CANDIDATES
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. APPENDIX 1
      11. APPENDIX 2
      12. APPENDIX 3
      13. APPENDIX 4
    4. Chapter 35: Social Media Tools in Initial Teacher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CURRENT APPROACHES TO SOCIAL MEDIA
      4. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
    5. Chapter 36: Pattern Based Feature Construction in Semantic Data Mining
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. PRELIMINARIES
      5. ALGORITHM
      6. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
      11. APPENDIX
    6. Chapter 37: Sporting Safe in the Liminal Sphere
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PUBLIC SPHERE AND PRIVATE SPHERE
      4. WEB 2.0 TECHNOLOGIES
      5. WHAT SPHERE IS FACEBOOK?
      6. RE-CONCEPTUALIZING PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SPHERES
      7. ‘TACTICS’ AND FACEBOOK
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 38: Smart Technologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AUGMENTED REALITY
      4. AUGMENTED REALITY IN TOURISM
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. RESULTS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READINGS
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    8. Chapter 39: Answering Continuous Description Logic Queries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOTIVATION
      4. OVERVIEW OF OUR SYSTEM
      5. QUERY PROCESSING
      6. VOLATILE DATA UPDATING
      7. SYNTAX AND SEMANTICS
      8. EXAMPLES OF QUERY ANSWERING
      9. EXPERIMENTS
      10. RELATED WORK
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. APPENDIX: THE ONTOLOGY LANGUAGE OWL 2
    9. Chapter 40: Augmented Reality Interfaces for Smart Objects in Ubiquitous Computing Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FRAMEWORK FOR UBICOMP ENVIRONMENTS
      5. SMART OBJECT CREATION
      6. SMARTPHONE AS A PERSONAL VIEWING DEVICE
      7. WEARABLE SYSTEM AS A PERSONAL VIEWING DEVICE
      8. SYSTEM EVALUATION
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 41: Network Layer for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ROUTING IN WSN
      4. CR AND WSN ROUTING PROTOCOLS: ISSUES
      5. ROUTING IN CRSN
      6. RESEARCH CHALLENGES
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    11. Chapter 42: A Mobile Matchmaker for the Ubiquitous Semantic Web
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. SYSTEM OUTLINE
      5. USAGE SCENARIOS
      6. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    12. Chapter 43: Semantics and Agents Oriented Web Personalization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. STATE OF ART ON SEMANTIC WEB AND INTELLIGENT AGENTS IN LIGHT OF WEB PERSONALIZATION
      4. 3. SEMANTIC WEB AND INTELLIGENT AGENTS BASED ADAPTIVE WEB APPLICATIONS: STATE OF THE ART
      5. 4. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SCOPE OF SEMANTIC WEB AND SOFTWARE AGENTS IN WEB PERSONALIZATION
      6. 5. RESEARCH CHALLENGES AND FUTURE WORK
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 44: F3N
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. PROPOSED SYSTEM
      5. SIMULATION RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 45: Distributed Learning Algorithm Applications to the Scheduling of Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. SOLUTION PROCEDURE
      6. DISCUSSIONS
      7. MAJOR ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. APPENDIX 1: NOMENCLATURE
      14. APPENDIX 2
    15. Chapter 46: Augmented Reality Advertisements in Tourism Marketing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AUGMENTED REALITY
      4. AUGMENTED REALITY ADVERTISEMENTS
      5. AUGMENTED REALITY ADVERTISEMENT CASE STUDIES IN TOURISM
      6. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    16. Chapter 47: Mobile Devices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. RESEARCH RESULTS
      5. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
      6. LIMITATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    17. Chapter 48: MAC Protocol for CRSN
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAC FOR COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS (CRNS)
      5. RESULTS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  9. Section 4: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 49: The Use of Web 2.0 Technologies in Formal and Informal Learning Settings
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. TECHNOLOGICAL TOOLS IN EDUCATION: INTRODUCTION
      3. EMPIRICAL STUDIES
      4. LEARNING AND TECHNOLOGY IN FORMAL EDUCATION
      5. BROAD CONCLUSIONS FROM BOTH SETS OF DATA
      6. IMPLICATIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 50: Applications of Independent Component Analysis in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS
      4. 3. WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
      5. 4. COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORK
      6. 5. COGNITIVE RADIO SENSOR NETWORK
      7. 6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 51: Visibility of the Airport Sector
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TOOLS USED IN WEB 2.0 AND SOCIAL COMMUNICATION MEDIA
      4. VISIBILITY OF THE AIRPORT SECTOR: EMPIRICAL STUDY
      5. FUTURE LINES OF RESEARCH
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY WORDS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 52: The Adoption of Web 2.0 by the State Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW AND BACKGROUND
      4. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND HYPOTHESES
      5. DATA AND ANALYSIS
      6. ANALYSIS
      7. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. LIMITATIONS AND CONSIDERATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTES
    5. Chapter 53: Interactive Books in Augmented Reality for Mobile Devices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOBILE LEARNING
      4. AUGMENTED REALITY
      5. EVOLUTION OF AUGMENTED REALITY DEVICES
      6. MULTIMEDIA INTERACTIVE BOOK WITH AUGMENTED REALITY TO LEARNING
      7. E-SPECIFICATION, DEVELOPMENT AND AVAILABILITY OF AGERA
      8. NEEDS ASSESSMENT
      9. REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION
      10. INTERACTION DESIGN AND CONTENT ADDRESSED
      11. DEVELOPMENT AND TECHNOLOGIES
      12. TESTES OF AGERA WITH TEACHERS AND STUDENTS
      13. RESULTS OF EVALUATIONS WITH TEACHERS
      14. RESULTS OF EVALUATIONS WITH STUDENTS
      15. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      16. CONCLUSION
      17. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      18. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 54: Examining the Impact of Web 2.0 Applications on Knowledge Management Performance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHOD
      5. DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. APPENDIX
    7. Chapter 55: Utilizing Augmented Reality in Library Information Search
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. AR IN LIBRARY INFORMATION SEARCH
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 56: Augmented Reality (AR) Applications in Agriculture
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MOBILE TRENDS IN AUGMENTED REALITY
      5. APPLICATION SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 57: Reliability Evaluation Methods for Resilient Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RELIABILITY CHALLENGES AND RELATED ISSUES
      5. SOLUTION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 58: Environmental Monitoring Based on the Wireless Sensor Networking Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
      4. 3. WSN COMPONENTS IN FIVE ENVIROMENTAL MONITORING APPLICATIONS
      5. 4. GUIDELINES FOR DEPLOYING WSNS IN REAL-LIFE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING APPLICATIONS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    11. Chapter 59: Using Semantic Search and Knowledge Reasoning to Improve the Discovery of Earth Science Records
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND WORK FLOW
      5. SYSTEM ELEMENTS
      6. PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATION
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 60: How Web 2.0 Shapes Patient Knowledge Sharing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE RESEARCH
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    13. Chapter 61: Mobile Healthcare Computing in the Cloud
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. HEALTHCARE APPLICATION SCENARIOS AND SERVICES
      5. THE ARCHITECTURE AND COMPONENTS OF MOBILE HEALTHCARE
      6. MOBILE HEALTHCARE INFORMATION FLOWS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 62: Energy Consumption Analysis of Secure and Clustered Wireless Sensor Network
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. NODES CLUSTERING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
      4. 3. SECURITY IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
      5. 4. IMPLEMENTATION OF SECURE CLUSTERING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    15. Chapter 63: Weaving Web 2.0 and Facial Expression Recognition into the 3D Virtual English Classroom
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. WEB 2.0 AND LANGUAGE LEARNING
      5. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS AND LANGUAGE LEARNING
      6. INTEGRATION OF WEB 2.0 AND VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING
      7. THE ROLE OF CONSCIOUS AWARENESS IN LANGUAGE LEARNING
      8. SYSTEMATIC DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
      9. INCORPORATION OF WEB 2.0 TOOLS INTO VEC3D 5.0
      10. INCORPORATION OF FACIAL EXPRESSION RECOGNITION INTO VEC3D 5.0
      11. CURRICULUM DESIGN
      12. THE POSSIBILITY OF BLENDED SOLUTIONS
      13. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      14. CONCLUSION
      15. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      16. REFERENCES
      17. ADDITIONAL READING
      18. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. Chapter 64: Integrating E-Learning 2.0 into Online Courses
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-LEARNING 2.0
      4. RESEARCH DESIGN
      5. METHODS
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. REFERENCES
  10. Section 5: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 65: Interactive Media Steer in Educational Printing Materials
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 66: Incidental Learning in 3D Virtual Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
      5. METHODS
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. LIMITATIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 67: The Influence of Social Networking and Library 2.0 as a Gateway for Information Access and Knowledge Sharing in Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE PANORAMA OF ELECTRONIC ENVIRONMENT
      4. ACCESS TO INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE SHARING
      5. SOCIAL NETWORKING AND LIBRARY 2.0 AS GATEWAY FOR INFORMATION ACCESS AND KNOWLEDGE SHARING
      6. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL NETWORKING AND LIBRARY 2.0 FOR AFRICA
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 68: Human-Computer Interaction in Consumer Behaviour
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      4. COGNITIVE AND AFFECTIVE RESPONSES IN VIRTUAL SYSTEMS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 69: Personal Mobile Cloud Computing Affordances for Higher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DISRUPTIVE POST-PC TRENDS AND GAME CHANGERS
      4. HIGHLIGHTS OF SOCIAL NETWORKING CLOUD COMPUTING IN THE HE SECTOR: A LITERATURE REVIEW
      5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      6. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
      7. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 70: Discovering Complex Relationships of Drugs over Distributed Knowledgebases
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND RELATED WORK
      4. REPRESENTING SEMANTIC RELATIONS
      5. DRUG RELATION DISCOVERY OVER DISPERSED KNOWLEDGEBASES
      6. EVALUATION AND CASE STUDIES
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 71: The Impact of Web 2.0 in the Teaching and Learning Process
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS: THE NEW PARADIGM
      4. THE WEB 2.0 TECHNOLOGY: THE MAIN TOOLS
      5. TEACHING AND LEARNING THROUGH THE USE OF WEB 2.0 TOOLS BY E-LEARNING PLATFORMS
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 72: The Evolving Value of eTourism for Suppliers and Visitors
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CHALLENGES AND ADVANTAGES FOSTERED BY ETOURISM TO DIFFERENT TOURISM STAKEHOLDERS
      5. TRAVEL 2.0 AS A WEB-BASED TOOL EMPOWERING VISITORS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  11. Section 6: Managerial Impact
    1. Chapter 73: Web 2.0 and Its Implications on Globally Competitive Business Model
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. 3. BUSINESS MODEL TRANSFORMATION REQUIREMENTS
      5. 4. STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT OF WEB-BASED BUSINESS MODEL AND IMPLICATIONS OF WEB 2.0
      6. 5. HIGH VELOCITY BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT AND WEB 2.0 AS STRATEGY
      7. 6. INTEGRATING WEB 2.0 INTO THE BUSINESS MODEL
      8. 7. BLENDING BUSINESS MODEL ALONG WEB 2.0
      9. DISCUSSION
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 74: Application of CRM 2.0 in Spanish Public Administration
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: CRM, WEB 2.0 AND CRM 2.0
      4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      7. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 75: Web 2.0 in Governance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: COMBINING WEB 2.0 AND PARTICIPATIVE POLICY MAKING
      4. THE PROPOSED FRAMEWORK
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 76: Adoption of Social Media Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
      5. FINDINGS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONTRIBUTION AND IMPLICATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 77: Analyzing Online Reviews to Measure Augmented Reality Acceptance at the Point of Sale
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TAM FOR MOBILE APPS WITH AR: DATA COLLECTION VIA ONLINE REVIEWS
      4. TAM FOR MOBILE APPS WITH AR: IKEA’S MOBILE APP WITH AR EXTENSIONS
      5. DATA ANALYSIS
      6. RESULTS
      7. RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. APPENDIX
  12. Section 7: Critical Issues
    1. Chapter 78: Higher Education and Web 2.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WEB 2.0 IN EDUCATION
      4. THE PRACTICE AND THE BEST PRACTICES OF EDUCATIONAL WEB 2.0: YOUTUBE, WIKIS AND TWITTER
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 79: A Survey of MAC Layer Protocols to Avoid Deafness in Wireless Networks Using Directional Antenna
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTRODUCTION TO DIRECTIONAL ANTENNAS
      4. CARRIER SENSE MULTIPLE ACCESS/COLLISION AVOIDANCE (CSMA/CA)
      5. DEAFNESS
      6. BENEFITS OF USING DIRECTIONAL ANTENNAS IN WIRELESS NETWORKS
      7. CHALLENGES INTRODUCED DUE TO USE OF DIRECTIONAL ANTENNAS IN WIRELESS NETWORKS
      8. WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORKS
      9. WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
      10. WIRELESS MESH NETWORKS
      11. CLASSIFICATION OF METHODS ADOPTED TO DEAL WITH DEAFNESS
      12. SURVEY OF PROTOCOLS PROPOSED TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF DEAFNESS
      13. DISCUSSION ON DIFFERENT METHODS PROPOSED TO AVOID DEAFNESS
      14. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      15. CONCLUSION
      16. REFERENCES
      17. ADDITIONAL READING
      18. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 80: Privacy and Security of Wireless Communication Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. WIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKING AND TECHNOLOGIES
      3. SECURITY AND PRIVACY METHODS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
      4. WIRELESS NETWORKS ATTACKING METHODS
      5. SECURITY CHALLENGES OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 81: A Study of Research Trends and Issues in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PROPERTIES OF AD HOC NETWORK
      4. RESEARCH ISSUES IN AD HOC NETWORK
      5. EMERGING MODELS OF AD HOC NETWORKS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 82: eLearning X.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. EVOLUTION OF WEB
      4. 3. EVOLUTION OF eLEARNING
      5. 4. METHODOLOGY
      6. 5. RESULTS
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 83: Security Challenges in Wireless Sensor Network
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. APPLICATIONS OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
      4. CHALLENGES OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
      5. NECESSARY CONDITIONS FOR A SECURE WSN
      6. THREAT MODELS IN WSN
      7. SECURITY THREATS BASED ON PROTOCOL STACK
      8. PHYSICAL LAYER
      9. DATA LINK LAYER
      10. NETWORK LAYER
      11. TRANSPORT LAYER
      12. APPLICATION LAYER
      13. OPEN RESEARCH ISSUES
      14. CONCLUSION
      15. REFERENCES
      16. ADDITIONAL READING
      17. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 84: From User's Goal to Semantic Web Services Discovery
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. RELATED WORKS
      5. 4. THE PROPOSED FRAMEWORK
      6. 5. EMPIRICAL EXPERIMENT
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    8. Chapter 85: Security in Mobile Computing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOBILE COMPUTING
      4. MOBILE OPERATING SYSTEMS
      5. ANDROID OPERATING SYSTEM
      6. iOS OPERATING SYSTEM
      7. SECURITY ISSUES IN MOBILE COMPUTING
      8. SECURITY IN ANDROID
      9. SECURITY IN iOS
      10. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      11. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 86: Security Issues in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SECURITY CHALLENGES IN MANETS
      4. CLASSIFICATION OF THE SECURITY ATTACKS
      5. ATTACKS ON DIFFERENT LAYERS OF THE INTERNET MODEL FOR MANETS
      6. SECURITY MECHANISM
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. APPENDIX: REVIEW QUESTIONS
    10. Chapter 87: Data Processing and Exchange Challenges in Video-Based Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VIDEO-BASED WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
      4. CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS IN VWSN VIDEO DATA PROCESSING
      5. CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS IN WSN MULTIMEDIA DATA EXCHANGE
      6. CONCLUSION AND OPEN RESEARCH TOPICS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 88: A Viable Option?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SVEs TO TEACH SOCIAL SKILLS TO CHILDREN WITH ASD
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 89: Theoretical Foundations of a CSCL Script in Persistent Virtual Worlds According to the Contemporary Learning Theories and Models
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOCIO-CULTURAL COLLABORATIVE PRINCIPLES WITH MEDIA SOURCES
      5. TEACHING MODELS
      6. VIRTUAL WORLDS (VWs): VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS (VEs)
      7. CATEGORIES OF VIRTUAL WORLDS AND E-EDUCATION
      8. A RATIONALE TO “TRANSFER THE KNOWLEDGE” IN VIRTUAL WORLDS
      9. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      10. THE DESCRIPTION OF A CASE STUDY
      11. DECISIONS FOR THE FORMATION AND CONSOLIDATION OF ACTION GROUPS
      12. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS AND DECISIONS PROCESSES OF THE PROPOSED CSCL MODEL IN VIRTUAL WORLDS
      13. DISCUSSION POINTS
      14. CONCLUSION
      15. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      16. REFERENCES
      17. ADDITIONAL READING
      18. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 90: Game Theory for Collaboration in Future Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. DISCUSSING GAME THEORY
      4. 3. BACKGROUND AND TRENDS IN FUTURE NETWORKS
      5. 4. GAME THEORY CONTRIBUTIONS FOR ENHANCING NETWORK COOPERATION
      6. 5. GAME THEORY FOR WIRELESS NETWORKING
      7. 6. GUIDELINES TO APPLY GAME THEORY ON FUTURE NETWORKS
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
  13. Section 8: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 91: The Ubiquitous Semantic Web
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. MOBILE SERVICE DISCOVERY: A MOTIVATING SCENARIO
      4. 3. A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THE SEMANTIC WEB LANGUAGES
      5. 4. THE UBIQUITOUS SEMANTIC WEB: STATE-OF-THE-ART DEVELOPMENT
      6. 5. CHALLENGES AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 92: The State of the Art Forensic Techniques in Mobile Cloud Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION TO MOBILE CLOUD COMPUTING
      3. 2. DIGITAL FORENSICS IN MOBILE CLOUD COMPUTING
      4. 3. FORENSIC CHALLENGES IN THE MOBILE CLOUD COMPUTING
      5. 4. FORENSIC CYCLE OF MOBILE CLOUD ENVIRONMENT
      6. 5. MOBILE DEVICE FORENSICS
      7. 6. CLOUD COMPUTING FORENSICS
      8. 7. FORENSIC INVESTIGATIONS IN MOBILE CLOUD STORAGE SERVICES
      9. 8. OPPORTUNITIES IN MOBILE CLOUD FORENSICS
      10. 9. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 93: Marketing Strategies in the Age of Web 3.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INNOVATIONS IN ICTs AND MARKETING: THE NEW DIMENSIONS OF COMMUNICATION
      4. THE EVOLUTION OF THE WEB AND THE BIRTH OF WEB MARKETING FROM THE WEB 1.0 TO THE WEB 3.0
      5. THE IMPORTANCE OF VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES IN THE ERA OF MARKETING 3.0
      6. WEB 3.0 IMPLICATIONS FOR BUSINESSES
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 94: E-Learning and Web 2.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LEARNING THEORIES
      4. E-LEARNING
      5. APPROACHES OF E-LEARNING
      6. WEB TECHNOLOGY AND E-LEARNING
      7. WEB 2.0
      8. WEB 2.0 TOOLS IN HIGHER EDUCATION
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 95: Volunteer Computing on Mobile Devices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CLASSIFICATION OF PARALLEL COMPUTING
      4. MOTIVATIONS AND CHALLENGES
      5. MOBILE DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING ARCHITECTURES
      6. OPEN ISSUES AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTE
    6. Chapter 96: Accelerating Biomedical Research through Semantic Web Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEVELOPMENT OF A BIOMEDICAL SEMANTIC WEB
      4. SEMANTIC WEB LANGUAGES
      5. CONVERT OPEN DATA INTO RDF AND OWL-THE LINKED DATA CASE
      6. SEMANTIC WEB APPLICATIONS
      7. PUBMED: THE STOCKPILE OF BIOMEDICAL LITERATURE
      8. SEMANTIC PUBMED CLONES
      9. SEMANTIC WEB APPLICATIONS IN BIOMEDICINE
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 97: Implementing Advanced Characteristics of X3D Collaborative Virtual Environments for Supporting e-Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SUPPORTING COLLABORATIVE LEARNING WITH EVE PLATFORM: AFFORDANCES, LIMITATIONS, FUNCTIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL EXTENSIONS
      4. RELATED WORK ON TECHNOLOGICAL ISSUES
      5. X3D SUPPORT AND EVENT SHARING
      6. EVE’S SIP SPATIAL AUDIO CONFERENCING SERVER
      7. GENERIC EVENT’S MANAGEMENT: EVE’S 2D APPLICATION SERVER
      8. FUTURE WORK
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 98: Ideas on the Future of Intelligent Web-Based E-Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FOUNDATIONS
      4. IDEAS ON THE FUTURE OF INTELLIGENT WEB-BASED E-LEARNING
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 99: State of the Art on Ontology Alignment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. IMPORTANCE OF THE PROBLEM
      4. DATA INTEGRATION
      5. GLOBAL SCHEMA DATABASE
      6. GLOBAL SCHEMA AND LOCAL DATABASES
      7. SEMANTIC DATA INTEGRATION
      8. ONTOLOGY MERGING
      9. ONTOLOGY MAPPING: EARLY APPROACHES
      10. ONTOLOGY MAPPING: APPROACHES PARTICIPATING IN OAEI
      11. COMPARISON OVERVIEW
      12. CONCLUSION AND GAP ANALYSIS
      13. DOMAIN INDEPENDENCE
      14. REASONING
      15. MANAGING CONFLICTING MAPPINGS
      16. MAPPING OPTIMISATION FOR LARGE SCALE ONTOLOGIES
      17. SUMMARY
      18. REFERENCES
      19. ENDNOTES
    10. Chapter 100: Using Advanced Approaches in Urban Design Researches
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FROM 3D PHYSICAL MODELS TO COMPUTER 3D DIGITAL MODELS
      4. USING 3D DIGITAL MODELS IN URBAN DESIGN
      5. VIRTUAL REALITY: AN ADVANCED FORM OF COMPUTER 3D MODELING
      6. AUGMENTED REALITY VS. VIRTUAL REALITY; TWO DIFFERENT BUT CLOSE CONCEPTS
      7. CREATING AN ACCEPTABLE STRUCTURE FOR STARTING A VIRTUAL REALITY PROJECT
      8. USING VIRTUAL REALITY MODELING IN URBAN DESIGN PROCESS
      9. EQUIPPING A VIRTUAL LAB: MOST COMMON DEVICES NEEDED FOR EXPERIENCING THE SENSE OF PRESENCE IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. ENDNOTES