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Mining the Social Web

Cover of Mining the Social Web by Matthew A. Russell Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  1. Mining the Social Web
  2. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
  3. Preface
    1. Content Updates
      1. February 22, 2012
    2. To Read This Book?
    3. Or Not to Read This Book?
    4. Tools and Prerequisites
    5. Conventions Used in This Book
    6. Using Code Examples
    7. Safari® Books Online
    8. How to Contact Us
    9. Acknowledgments
  4. 1. Introduction: Hacking on Twitter Data
    1. Installing Python Development Tools
    2. Collecting and Manipulating Twitter Data
      1. Tinkering with Twitter’s API
      2. Frequency Analysis and Lexical Diversity
      3. Visualizing Tweet Graphs
      4. Synthesis: Visualizing Retweets with Protovis
    3. Closing Remarks
  5. 2. Microformats: Semantic Markup and Common Sense Collide
    1. XFN and Friends
    2. Exploring Social Connections with XFN
      1. A Breadth-First Crawl of XFN Data
    3. Geocoordinates: A Common Thread for Just About Anything
      1. Wikipedia Articles + Google Maps = Road Trip?
    4. Slicing and Dicing Recipes (for the Health of It)
    5. Collecting Restaurant Reviews
    6. Summary
  6. 3. Mailboxes: Oldies but Goodies
    1. mbox: The Quick and Dirty on Unix Mailboxes
    2. mbox + CouchDB = Relaxed Email Analysis
      1. Bulk Loading Documents into CouchDB
      2. Sensible Sorting
      3. Map/Reduce-Inspired Frequency Analysis
      4. Sorting Documents by Value
      5. couchdb-lucene: Full-Text Indexing and More
    3. Threading Together Conversations
      1. Look Who’s Talking
    4. Visualizing Mail “Events” with SIMILE Timeline
    5. Analyzing Your Own Mail Data
      1. The Graph Your (Gmail) Inbox Chrome Extension
    6. Closing Remarks
  7. 4. Twitter: Friends, Followers, and Setwise Operations
    1. RESTful and OAuth-Cladded APIs
      1. No, You Can’t Have My Password
    2. A Lean, Mean Data-Collecting Machine
      1. A Very Brief Refactor Interlude
      2. Redis: A Data Structures Server
      3. Elementary Set Operations
      4. Souping Up the Machine with Basic Friend/Follower Metrics
      5. Calculating Similarity by Computing Common Friends and Followers
      6. Measuring Influence
    3. Constructing Friendship Graphs
      1. Clique Detection and Analysis
      2. The Infochimps “Strong Links” API
      3. Interactive 3D Graph Visualization
    4. Summary
  8. 5. Twitter: The Tweet, the Whole Tweet, and Nothing but the Tweet
    1. Pen : Sword :: Tweet : Machine Gun (?!?)
    2. Analyzing Tweets (One Entity at a Time)
      1. Tapping (Tim’s) Tweets
      2. Who Does Tim Retweet Most Often?
      3. What’s Tim’s Influence?
      4. How Many of Tim’s Tweets Contain Hashtags?
    3. Juxtaposing Latent Social Networks (or #JustinBieber Versus #TeaParty)
      1. What Entities Co-Occur Most Often with #JustinBieber and #TeaParty Tweets?
      2. On Average, Do #JustinBieber or #TeaParty Tweets Have More Hashtags?
      3. Which Gets Retweeted More Often: #JustinBieber or #TeaParty?
      4. How Much Overlap Exists Between the Entities of #TeaParty and #JustinBieber Tweets?
    4. Visualizing Tons of Tweets
      1. Visualizing Tweets with Tricked-Out Tag Clouds
      2. Visualizing Community Structures in Twitter Search Results
    5. Closing Remarks
  9. 6. LinkedIn: Clustering Your Professional Network for Fun (and Profit?)
    1. Motivation for Clustering
    2. Clustering Contacts by Job Title
      1. Standardizing and Counting Job Titles
      2. Common Similarity Metrics for Clustering
      3. A Greedy Approach to Clustering
      4. Hierarchical and k-Means Clustering
    3. Fetching Extended Profile Information
    4. Geographically Clustering Your Network
      1. Mapping Your Professional Network with Google Earth
      2. Mapping Your Professional Network with Dorling Cartograms
    5. Closing Remarks
  10. 7. Google+: TF-IDF, Cosine Similarity, and Collocations
    1. Harvesting Google+ Data
    2. Data Hacking with NLTK
    3. Text Mining Fundamentals
      1. A Whiz-Bang Introduction to TF-IDF
      2. Querying Google+ Data with TF-IDF
    4. Finding Similar Documents
      1. The Theory Behind Vector Space Models and Cosine Similarity
      2. Clustering Posts with Cosine Similarity
      3. Visualizing Similarity with Graph Visualizations
    5. Bigram Analysis
      1. How the Collocation Sausage Is Made: Contingency Tables and Scoring Functions
    6. Tapping into Your Gmail
      1. Accessing Gmail with OAuth
      2. Fetching and Parsing Email Messages
    7. Before You Go Off and Try to Build a Search Engine…
    8. Closing Remarks
  11. 8. Blogs et al.: Natural Language Processing (and Beyond)
    1. NLP: A Pareto-Like Introduction
      1. Syntax and Semantics
      2. A Brief Thought Exercise
    2. A Typical NLP Pipeline with NLTK
    3. Sentence Detection in Blogs with NLTK
    4. Summarizing Documents
      1. Analysis of Luhn’s Summarization Algorithm
    5. Entity-Centric Analysis: A Deeper Understanding of the Data
      1. Quality of Analytics
    6. Closing Remarks
  12. 9. Facebook: The All-in-One Wonder
    1. Tapping into Your Social Network Data
      1. From Zero to Access Token in Under 10 Minutes
      2. Facebook’s Query APIs
    2. Visualizing Facebook Data
      1. Visualizing Your Entire Social Network
      2. Visualizing Mutual Friendships Within Groups
      3. Where Have My Friends All Gone? (A Data-Driven Game)
      4. Visualizing Wall Data As a (Rotating) Tag Cloud
    3. Closing Remarks
  13. 10. The Semantic Web: A Cocktail Discussion
    1. An Evolutionary Revolution?
    2. Man Cannot Live on Facts Alone
      1. Open-World Versus Closed-World Assumptions
      2. Inferencing About an Open World with FuXi
    3. Hope
  14. Index
  15. About the Author
  16. Colophon
  17. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
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Chapter 10. The Semantic Web: A Cocktail Discussion

While the previous chapters attempted to provide an overview of the social web and motivate you to get busy hacking on data, it seems appropriate to wrap up with a brief postscript on the semantic web. This short discussion makes no attempt to regurgitate the reams of interesting mailing list discussions, blog posts, and other sources of information that document the origin of the Web, how it has revolutionized just about everything in our lives in under two decades, and how the semantic web has always been a part of that vision. It does, however, aim to engage you in something akin to a cocktail discussion that, while glossing over a lot of the breadth and depth of these issues, hopefully excites you about the possibilities that lie ahead.

An Evolutionary Revolution?

Let’s start out by dissecting the term “semantic web.” Given that the Web is all about sharing information and that a working definition of semantics is “enough meaning to result in an action,”[62] it’s not a very big leap to deduce that the semantic web is mostly about representing knowledge in a very meaningful way. But let’s take that one step further and not assume that it’s a human who is consuming the information that’s represented. Let’s consider the possibilities that could be realized if information were shared in a fully machine-understandable way—a way that is unambiguous enough that a reasonably sophisticated user agent like a web robot could extract, interpret, ...

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