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Millimeter Wave Wireless Communications

Book Description

The Definitive, Comprehensive Guide to Cutting-Edge Millimeter Wave Wireless Design

“This is a great book on mmWave systems that covers many aspects of the technology targeted for beginners all the way to the advanced users. The authors are some of the most credible scholars I know of who are well respected by the industry. I highly recommend studying this book in detail.”
—Ali Sadri, Ph.D., Sr. Director, Intel Corporation, MCG mmWave Standards and Advanced Technologies

Millimeter wave (mmWave) is today’s breakthrough frontier for emerging wireless mobile cellular networks, wireless local area networks, personal area networks, and vehicular communications. In the near future, mmWave applications, devices, and networks will change our world.

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In Millimeter Wave Wireless Communications, four of the field’s pioneers, including Theodore S. Rappaport, Robert W. Heath, Robert C. Daniels, and James N. Murdock, draw on their vast experience to empower engineers at all levels to succeed with mmWave. They deliver fundamental, end-to-end coverage of all aspects of future mmWave wireless communications systems.

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The authors explain new multi-Gigabit per second products and applications, mmWave signal propagation, analog and digital circuit design, mmWave antenna designs, and current and emerging wireless standards. They cover comprehensive mmWave wireless design issues for 60 GHz and other mmWave bands, from channel to antenna to receiver, introducing emerging design techniques that will be invaluable for research engineers in both industry and academia.

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Topics include

  • Digital communication: baseband signal/channel models, modulation, equalization, error control coding, multiple input multiple output (MIMO) principles, and hardware architectures

  • Radio wave propagation characteristics: indoor and outdoor channel models and beam combining

  • Antennas/antenna arrays, including on-chip and in-package antennas, fabrication, and packaging

  • Analog circuit design: mmWave transistors, fabrication, and transceiver design approaches

  • Baseband circuit design: multi–gigabit-per-second, high-fidelity DAC and ADC converters

  • Physical layer: algorithmic choices, design considerations, and impairment solutions; and how to overcome clipping, quantization, and nonlinearity

  • Higher-layer design: beam adaptation protocols, relaying, multimedia transmission, and multiband considerations

  • 60 GHz standardization: IEEE 802.15.3c for WPAN, Wireless HD, ECMA-387, IEEE 802.11ad, Wireless Gigabit Alliance (WiGig)

  • Table of Contents

    1. About This eBook
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright Page
    4. Praise for MillimeterWave Wireless Communications
    5. Dedication Page
    6. Contents
    7. Preface
    8. Acknowledgments
    9. About the Authors
    10. Part I: Prerequisites
      1. Chapter 1. Introduction
        1. 1.1 The Frontier: Millimeter Wave Wireless
        2. 1.2 A Preview of MmWave Implementation Challenges
        3. 1.3 Emerging Applications of MmWave Communications
          1. 1.3.1 Data Centers
          2. 1.3.2 Replacing Wired Interconnects on Chips
          3. 1.3.3 Information Showers
          4. 1.3.4 The Home and Office of the Future
          5. 1.3.5 Vehicular Applications
          6. 1.3.6 Cellular and Personal Mobile Communications
          7. 1.3.7 Aerospace Applications
        4. 1.4 Contributions of This Textbook
        5. 1.5 Outline of This Textbook
          1. 1.5.1 Illustrations for this Textbook
        6. 1.6 Symbols and Common Definitions
        7. 1.7 Chapter Summary
      2. Chapter 2. Wireless Communication Background
        1. 2.1 Introduction
        2. 2.2 Complex Baseband Representation
        3. 2.3 Digital Modulation
          1. 2.3.1 Symbols
          2. 2.3.2 Symbol Detection
          3. 2.3.3 Binary Phase Shift Keying and Variants
          4. 2.3.4 Amplitude Shift Keying and Variants
          5. 2.3.5 Quadrature Phase Shift Keying and Variants
          6. 2.3.6 Phase Shift Keying
          7. 2.3.7 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
        4. 2.4 Equalization in the Time Domain
          1. 2.4.1 Linear Equalization
          2. 2.4.2 Decision Feedback Equalization
          3. 2.4.3 Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation
        5. 2.5 Equalization in the Frequency Domain
          1. 2.5.1 Single Carrier Frequency Domain Equalization
          2. 2.5.2 OFDM Modulation
        6. 2.6 Error Control Coding
          1. 2.6.1 Block Codes for Error Detection
          2. 2.6.2 Reed-Solomon Code
          3. 2.6.3 Low Density Parity Check Codes
          4. 2.6.4 Convolutional Codes
          5. 2.6.5 Trellis Coded Modulation
          6. 2.6.6 Time Domain Spreading
          7. 2.6.7 Unequal Error Protection
        7. 2.7 Estimation and Synchronization
          1. 2.7.1 Structure to Facilitate Communication
          2. 2.7.2 Frequency Offset Synchronization
          3. 2.7.3 Frame Synchronization
          4. 2.7.4 Channel Estimation
        8. 2.8 Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Communication
          1. 2.8.1 Spatial Multiplexing
          2. 2.8.2 Spatial Diversity
          3. 2.8.3 Beamforming in MIMO Systems
          4. 2.8.4 Hybrid Precoding
        9. 2.9 Hardware Architectures
        10. 2.10 System Architecture
        11. 2.11 Chapter Summary
    11. Part II: Fundamentals
      1. Chapter 3. Radio Wave Propagation for MmWave
        1. 3.1 Introduction
        2. 3.2 Large-Scale Propagation Channel Effects
          1. 3.2.1 Log-Distance Path Loss Models
          2. 3.2.2 Atmospheric Effects
          3. 3.2.3 Weather Effects on MmWave Propagation
          4. 3.2.4 Diffraction
          5. 3.2.5 Reflection and Penetration
          6. 3.2.6 Scattering and Radar Cross Section Modeling
          7. 3.2.7 Influence of Surrounding Objects, Humans, and Foliage
          8. 3.2.8 Ray Tracing and Site-Specific Propagation Prediction
        3. 3.3 Small-Scale Channel Effects
          1. 3.3.1 Delay Spread Characteristics
          2. 3.3.2 Doppler Effects
        4. 3.4 Spatial Characterization of Multipath and Beam Combining
          1. 3.4.1 Beam-Combining Procedure
          2. 3.4.2 Beam-Combining Results
        5. 3.5 Angle Spread and Multipath Angle of Arrival
        6. 3.6 Antenna Polarization
        7. 3.7 Outdoor Channel Models
          1. 3.7.1 3GPP-Style Outdoor Propagation Models
          2. 3.7.2 Vehicle-to-Vehicle Models
        8. 3.8 Indoor Channel Models
          1. 3.8.1 Ray-Tracing Models for Indoor Channels
          2. 3.8.2 Rayleigh, Rician, and Multiwave Fading Models
          3. 3.8.3 IEEE 802.15.3c and IEEE 802.11ad Channel Models
          4. 3.8.4 IEEE 802.15.3c
          5. 3.8.5 IEEE 802.11ad
        9. 3.9 Chapter Summary
      2. Chapter 4. Antennas and Arrays for MmWave Applications
        1. 4.1 Introduction
        2. 4.2 Fundamentals of On-Chip and In-Package MmWave Antennas
          1. 4.2.1 Antenna Fundamentals
          2. 4.2.2 Fundamentals of Antenna Arrays
        3. 4.3 The On-Chip Antenna Environment
          1. 4.3.1 Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Technology (CMOS)
        4. 4.4 In-Package Antennas
        5. 4.5 Antenna Topologies for MmWave Communications
        6. 4.6 Techniques to Improve Gain of On-Chip Antennas
          1. 4.6.1 Integrated Lens Antennas
        7. 4.7 Adaptive Antenna Arrays — Implementations for MmWave Communications
          1. 4.7.1 Beam Steering for MmWave Adaptive Antenna Arrays
          2. 4.7.2 Antenna Array Beamforming Algorithms
          3. 4.7.3 Specific Beamforming Algorithms — ESPRIT and MUSIC
          4. 4.7.4 Case Studies of Adaptive Arrays for MmWave Communications
        8. 4.8 Characterization of On-Chip Antenna Performance
          1. 4.8.1 Case Studies of MmWave On-Chip Antenna Characterization
          2. 4.8.2 Improving Probe Station Characterizations of On-Chip or In-Package Antennas
        9. 4.9 Chapter Summary
      3. Chapter 5. MmWave RF and Analog Devices and Circuits
        1. 5.1 Introduction
        2. 5.2 Basic Concepts for MmWave Transistors and Devices
        3. 5.3 S-Parameters, Z-Parameters, Y-Parameters, and ABCD-Parameters
        4. 5.4 Simulation, Layout, and CMOS Production of MmWave Circuits
        5. 5.5 Transistors and Transistor Models
        6. 5.6 More Advanced Models for MmWave Transistors
          1. 5.6.1 BSIM Model
          2. 5.6.2 MmWave Transistor Model Evolution — EKV Model
        7. 5.7 Introduction to Transmission Lines and Passives
          1. 5.7.1 Transmission Lines
          2. 5.7.2 Differential versus Single-Ended Transmission Lines
          3. 5.7.3 Inductors
          4. 5.7.4 Parasitic Inductances from Bond Wire Packaging
          5. 5.7.5 Transformers
          6. 5.7.6 Interconnects
        8. 5.8 Basic Transistor Configurations
          1. 5.8.1 Conjugate Matching
          2. 5.8.2 Miller Capacitance
          3. 5.8.3 Poles and Feedback
          4. 5.8.4 Frequency Tuning
        9. 5.9 Sensitivity and Link Budget Analysis for MmWave Radios
        10. 5.10 Important Metrics for Analog MmWave Devices
          1. 5.10.1 Non-Linear Intercept Points
          2. 5.10.2 Noise Figure and Noise Factor
        11. 5.11 Analog MmWave Components
          1. 5.11.1 Power Amplifiers
          2. 5.11.2 Low Noise Amplifiers
          3. 5.11.3 Mixers
          4. 5.11.4 Voltage-Controlled Oscillators (VCOs)
          5. 5.11.5 Phase-Locked Loops
        12. 5.12 Consumption Factor Theory
          1. 5.12.1 Numerical Example of Power-Efficiency Factor
          2. 5.12.2 Consumption Factor Definition
        13. 5.13 Chapter Summary
      4. Chapter 6. Multi-Gbps Digital Baseband Circuits
        1. 6.1 Introduction
        2. 6.2 Review of Sampling and Conversion for ADCs and DACs
        3. 6.3 Device Mismatches: An Inhibitor to ADCs and DACs
        4. 6.4 Basic Analog-to-Digital Conversion Circuitry: Comparators
          1. 6.4.1 Basic ADC Components: Track-and-Hold Amplifiers
        5. 6.5 Goals and Challenges in ADC Design
          1. 6.5.1 Integral and Differential Non-Linearity
        6. 6.6 Encoders
        7. 6.7 Trends and Architectures for MmWave Wireless ADCs
          1. 6.7.1 Pipeline ADC
          2. 6.7.2 Successive Approximation ADCs
          3. 6.7.3 Time-Interleaved ADC
          4. 6.7.4 Flash and Folding-Flash ADC
          5. 6.7.5 ADC Case Studies
        8. 6.8 Digital-to-Analog Converters (DACs)
          1. 6.8.1 Basic Digital-to-Analog Converter Circuitry: The Current DAC
          2. 6.8.2 Case Studies of DAC Circuit Designs
        9. 6.9 Chapter Summary
    12. Part III: MmWave Design and Applications
      1. Chapter 7. MmWave Physical Layer Design and Algorithms
        1. 7.1 Introduction
        2. 7.2 Practical Transceivers
          1. 7.2.1 Signal Clipping and Quantization
          2. 7.2.2 Power Amplifier Non-linearity
          3. 7.2.3 Phase Noise
        3. 7.3 High-Throughput PHYs
          1. 7.3.1 Modulation, Coding, and Equalization
          2. 7.3.2 A Practical Comparison of OFDM and SC-FDE
          3. 7.3.3 Synchronization and Channel Estimation
        4. 7.4 PHYs for Low Complexity, High Efficiency
          1. 7.4.1 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)
          2. 7.4.2 On-Off, Amplitude Shift Keying (OOK, ASK)
          3. 7.4.3 Continuous Phase Modulation
        5. 7.5 Future PHY Considerations
          1. 7.5.1 Ultra-Low ADC Resolution
          2. 7.5.2 Spatial Multiplexing
        6. 7.6 Chapter Summary
      2. Chapter 8. Higher Layer Design Considerations for MmWave
        1. 8.1 Introduction
        2. 8.2 Challenges when Networking MmWave Devices
          1. 8.2.1 Directional Antennas at the PHY
          2. 8.2.2 Device Discovery
          3. 8.2.3 Collision Detection and Collision Avoidance
          4. 8.2.4 Channel Reliability Due to Human Blockage
          5. 8.2.5 Channel Utilization and Spatial Reuse
        3. 8.3 Beam Adaptation Protocols
          1. 8.3.1 Beam Adaptation in IEEE 802.15.3c
          2. 8.3.2 Beam Adaptation in IEEE 802.11ad
          3. 8.3.3 Beam Adaptation for Backhaul
          4. 8.3.4 Beam Adaptation through Channel Estimation
        4. 8.4 Relaying for Coverage Extension
        5. 8.5 Support for Multimedia Transmission
        6. 8.6 Multiband Considerations
        7. 8.7 Performance of Cellular Networks
        8. 8.8 Chapter Summary
      3. Chapter 9. MmWave Standardization
        1. 9.1 Introduction
        2. 9.2 60 GHz Spectrum Regulation
          1. 9.2.1 International Recommendations
          2. 9.2.2 Regulations in North America
          3. 9.2.3 Regulations in Europe
          4. 9.2.4 Regulations in Japan
          5. 9.2.5 Regulations in Korea
          6. 9.2.6 Regulations in Australia
          7. 9.2.7 Regulations in China
          8. 9.2.8 Comments
        3. 9.3 IEEE 802.15.3c
          1. 9.3.1 IEEE 802.15.3 MAC
          2. 9.3.2 IEEE 802.15.3c MmWave PHY
        4. 9.4 WirelessHD
          1. 9.4.1 Application Focus
          2. 9.4.2 WirelessHD Technical Specification
          3. 9.4.3 The Next Generation of WirelessHD
        5. 9.5 ECMA-387
          1. 9.5.1 Device Classes in ECMA-387
          2. 9.5.2 Channelization in ECMA-387
          3. 9.5.3 MAC and PHY Overview for ECMA-387
          4. 9.5.4 Type A PHY in ECMA-387
          5. 9.5.5 Type B PHY in ECMA-387
          6. 9.5.6 Type C PHY in ECMA-387
          7. 9.5.7 The Second Edition of ECMA-387
        6. 9.6 IEEE 802.11ad
          1. 9.6.1 IEEE 802.11 Background
          2. 9.6.2 Important IEEE 802.11ad MAC Features
          3. 9.6.3 Directional Multi-Gigabit PHY Overview for IEEE 802.11ad
        7. 9.7 WiGig
        8. 9.8 Chapter Summary
    13. Bibliography
    14. List of Abbreviations
    15. Index