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Midi Power!

Book Description

From how MIDI works, to how to connect devices through it, to how it integrates into a computer environment, "MIDI Power!, Second Edition" is a comprehensive reference guide to MIDI. The book provides an in-depth look at MIDI, its messages, and protocols, and the information necessary to navigate it with ease. Learn when to use MIDI, how to edit MIDI, what technology uses MIDI, what software uses MIDI, and how MIDI is integrated into computers and what that implies for musicians, sound designers, and audio enthusiasts. "MIDI Power!, Second Edition" provides complete coverage of MIDI hardware and software, is suitable for both Mac and Windows platforms.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Acknowledgments
  3. About the Author
  4. Introduction
  5. Is This Book for You?
    1. How This Book Is Organized
  6. 1. The Basics
    1. A Bit of History
    2. What Is MIDI?
    3. How MIDI Is Transmitted
    4. The Hardware and Connectors
      1. MIDI Connector
      2. MIDI Jacks
        1. MIDI Out
        2. MIDI In
        3. MIDI Thru
    5. Daisy-Chaining Devices
    6. The File Formats
    7. The MIDI Hierarchy
      1. MIDI Channels
      2. MIDI Ports and MIDI Busses
      3. One Channel, One Sound
      4. Multi-Timbral Instruments
      5. About MIDI Patch Bays
    8. Review Questions
  7. 2. Basic MIDI Messages
    1. Status and Data Messages
    2. Channel Voice Messages
      1. Note On
      2. Note Off
      3. Channel Pressure or Channel Aftertouch
      4. Polyphonic Key Pressure or Polyphonic Aftertouch
      5. Program Change
      6. Pitch Bend Change
      7. Control Change
    3. Channel Mode Messages
      1. About Local Control
    4. System Common Messages
      1. MIDI Time Code (MTC) Quarter Frame
      2. Song Position Pointer (SPP)
      3. Song Select
      4. Tune Request
      5. End Of Exclusive Message
    5. System Real Time Messages
      1. Timing Clock
      2. Start, Stop, and Continue
      3. Active Sensing
      4. System Reset
    6. System Exclusive Messages
    7. Note Names and Numbers
    8. Review Questions
  8. 3. Control Change Messages
    1. What Are Control Change Messages?
    2. Control Change Message Structure
    3. Understanding Controller Numbers
    4. High-Resolution Continuous Controller Messages
      1. Bank Select
      2. Modulation Wheel
      3. Breath Control
      4. Foot Controller
      5. Portamento Time
      6. Data Entry
      7. Channel Volume
      8. Balance
      9. Pan
      10. Expression Controller
      11. Effect Control 1 and 2
      12. General Purpose Controllers 1 to 4
    5. Low-Resolution Continuous Controller Messages
      1. Sound Controller 1 (Sound Variation)
      2. Sound Controller 2 (Timbre)
      3. Sound Controller 3 (Release Time)
      4. Sound Controller 4 (Attack Time)
      5. Sound Controller 5 (Brightness)
      6. Sound Controllers 6 to 10 (No Default Parameter)
      7. Portamento Control
      8. Reverb Send Level
      9. Tremolo Level
      10. Chorus Send Level
      11. Celeste (Detune) Level
      12. Phaser Level
      13. Data Increment Button
      14. Data Decrement Button
      15. Non-Registered Parameter Number (NRPN)
      16. Registered Parameter Number (RPN)
    6. Switches
      1. Damper Pedal (Sustain)
      2. Portamento On/Off
      3. Sostenuto
      4. Soft Pedal
      5. Legato Footswitch
      6. Hold 2
      7. General Purpose Controllers 5 to 8
    7. Channel Mode Messages
      1. All Sound Off
      2. Reset All Controllers
      3. Local Keyboard (or Control) On/Off
      4. All Notes Off
      5. Omni Mode Off
      6. Omni Mode On
      7. Monophonic Operation
      8. Polyphonic Operation
    8. Review Questions
  9. 4. General MIDI and Standard MIDI Files
    1. What Is General MIDI?
      1. General MIDI Patches
      2. Multi-Timbral Capability
      3. GM Note Numbers
      4. GM Polyphony
      5. Other Supported MIDI Messages
    2. Standard MIDI Files (SMF)
      1. What Is an SMF?
      2. Differences with Audio Files
    3. Extending the General MIDI Standard
      1. Roland GS Standard
      2. Yamaha XG Standard
    4. Review Questions
  10. 5. MIDI Hardware Devices
    1. MIDI Devices
      1. Sound Generators
        1. Synthesizers & Sound Modules
        2. Samplers
        3. Drum Machines
        4. Workstations
      2. MIDI-Enabled Devices
        1. Keyboard Controllers
        2. Other Types of MIDI Controllers
        3. Control Surfaces
        4. MIDI-Enabled Mixers
        5. MIDI-Enabled Digital Effects
        6. Digital Audio Workstations (DAW)
      3. MIDI Patch Bays
    2. The Computerless MIDI Setup
      1. Basic Setup
      2. Using a Hardware Sequencer
      3. Using a MIDI Patch Bay
    3. Review Questions
  11. 6. MIDI and the Computer
    1. MIDI Interfaces
      1. Using a Game Port
      2. Using a Serial or Parallel Port
      3. Using a USB Port
      4. Multi-Port MIDI Interfaces
    2. Audio Hardware and MIDI Integration
      1. Overall Sound Quality
      2. Audio Hardware’s OS Support
      3. Compatibility
      4. Inputs Formats and Connectors
      5. Outputs Formats and Connectors
      6. Supported Sample Rates
      7. Supported Drivers and Stability
      8. Multi-Client Capability
    3. MIDI Integration on Audio Hardware
    4. MIDI for Gamers
    5. MIDI on Macintosh
    6. MIDI for Networks
    7. Computer-Based MIDI Studio
      1. Using a Single MIDI Port Without a Patch Bay
      2. Using a Single MIDI Port with a Patch Bay
      3. Using Multiple MIDI Ports
    8. Review Questions
  12. 7. MIDI Inside Your Computer
    1. Installing Peripherals
      1. Installing a PCI Card
      2. Preparing the Connection
      3. Getting the Right Driver
        1. About OMS and FreeMIDI
      4. Installing Your Driver Software
        1. Installing USB Port Drivers on Windows
        2. Installing USB Port Drivers on Macintosh
        3. Installing Serial Port Drivers on Windows
        4. Installing Serial Port Drivers on Macintosh
    2. Optimizing Your Computer for MIDI and Audio
      1. Optimizing Your PC
        1. Reduce Graphics Acceleration
        2. Adjust for Best Performance
        3. Disable Unused Ports
        4. Disable Superfluous Startup Items
        5. Screen Savers and Power Management
      2. Optimizing a Pre-OS X Mac
        1. Create a Minimal Extension Set
        2. Disable Virtual Memory
        3. Set Disk Cache to Minimum
        4. Disable Deep Sleep
        5. PCI Card Interaction
        6. Use Separate PCI Busses on Six-Slot CPUs
    3. Review Questions
  13. 8. Sequencing with MIDI
    1. What Is a Sequencer?
    2. Recording MIDI
    3. Setting Up Your Track
      1. Recording from Multiple MIDI Sources
      2. Punching In and Out
    4. MIDI Playback Configuration
    5. Editing MIDI: Typical Editing Windows
      1. The Main Project Window
        1. Menus and Toolbars Area
        2. Track List and Track Details Area
        3. Time Display or Ruler Area
        4. Track View Area.
        5. Zoom and Scroll Areas
      2. The Piano Roll Editor
      3. The Drum Editor
      4. The List Editor
      5. Other Editing Windows
        1. The Score Editor
        2. The Tempo and Meter Editor
        3. The Audio Editor
        4. The Pattern Editor
        5. The Controller Editor
      6. Saving MIDI Files
      7. Other MIDI Programming Options
    6. Notation: From MIDI to Paper
      1. Limitations: MIDI to Notation Conversion
      2. About Musical Notation
        1. Musical Elements Automatically Imported from MIDI Files
        2. Musical Elements Added Manually
      3. Scanning Musical Scores
      4. Score Sequence and Performance Sequence
    7. Review Questions
  14. 9. MIDI Software: A Sound Creation Environment
    1. Software Instruments
      1. What Is a Software Instrument?
        1. Audio Hardware Drivers and Software Instruments
      2. Additional MIDI Ports
      3. Stand-Alone Software Instruments
      4. Plug-In Software Instruments
      5. Mix Automation with MIDI
      6. Software Instrument Automation with MIDI
    2. Editors and Librarians
      1. Converting MIDI to Audio
    3. Review Questions
  15. 10. MIDI Software Applications
    1. MIDI Players
    2. Utilities
      1. MIDI to Guitar Chords Utility
      2. MIDI Message Monitoring
      3. From Digital Audio to MIDI
      4. Format Conversion Tools
      5. Samples to SoundFonts
    3. Sharing Resources Inside Your Computer
    4. MIDI Web Solutions
      1. Downloadable Sounds (DLS)
      2. eXtensible Music Format (XMF)
      3. Integrating MIDI Files in Web Pages
    5. Review Questions
  16. 11. Deeper into MIDI: System Exclusive and Synchronization
    1. What Is SysEx?
    2. Anatomy of a SysEx Message
    3. Universal SysEx
    4. Sending SysEx
    5. Recording SysEx
    6. Transmitting SysEx
    7. Editing SysEx!?
    8. MIDI Synchronizing Options
      1. Time Code
      2. MIDI Clock
      3. MIDI Time Code (MTC)
      4. ASIO 2
      5. MIDI Machine Control (MMC)
      6. MIDI Show Control (MSC)
    9. Review Questions
  17. 12. The Standard MIDI File Format
    1. MIDI Chunks
    2. MThd Chunk
      1. Format
      2. Division
    3. MTrk Chunk
      1. MIDI Events
      2. SysEx Events
      3. Meta Events
    4. Review Questions
  18. A. Understanding Binary, Decimal, and Hexadecimal
    1. Decimal Numbering System
    2. Binary Numbering System
    3. Hexadecimal Numbering System
    4. Converting Values
  19. B. MIDI 1.0 Specification
    1. Expanded Status Bytes List
    2. MIDI Note Numbers
    3. Controller Messages (Data Bytes)
    4. MIDI Messages
    5. System Exclusive Messages
  20. C. Understanding Timing Concepts
    1. Beats Per Minute (BPM)
    2. Pulses Per Quarter Note (PPQN)
    3. MIDI Clock
    4. SMPTE
    5. Formulas
  21. D. The MIDI Troubleshooting Checklist
    1. I Can’t Hear Any Sound
    2. I Have a MIDI Feedback Loop
    3. I’m Having MIDI Sync Problems
  22. E. MIDI Arrangements: Tips & Tricks
    1. Getting a Thicker Sound
      1. Doubling Parts
      2. Adding Delay
      3. Detuning
      4. Orchestrate
      5. Large Voicing
      6. Quantizing De-Humanizes
    2. MIDI Effects
      1. MIDI Echoes
      2. Rotating Pan
  23. F. Review Questions: Answers