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Microwave Filters for Communication Systems: Fundamentals, Design and Applications

Book Description

There have been significant advances in the synthesis and physical realization of microwave filter networks over the last three decades. This book provides a coherent and readable description of system requirements and constraints for microwave filters, fundamental considerations in the theory and design of microwave filters, up-to-date modern synthesis techniques with examples and technology considerations in the choice of hardware.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. Foreword
  7. PREFACE
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. CHAPTER 1: RADIO FREQUENCY (RF) FILTER NETWORKS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS—THE SYSTEM PERSPECTIVE
    1. PART I INTRODUCTION TO A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM, RADIO SPECTRUM, AND INFORMATION
    2. 1.1 MODEL OF A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
    3. 1.2 RADIO SPECTRUM AND ITS UTILIZATION
    4. 1.3 CONCEPT OF INFORMATION
    5. 1.4 COMMUNICATION CHANNEL AND LINK BUDGETS
    6. PART II NOISE IN A COMMUNICATION CHANNEL
    7. 1.5 NOISE IN COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
    8. 1.6 MODULATION–DEMODULATION SCHEMES IN A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
    9. 1.7 DIGITAL TRANSMISSION
    10. PART III IMPACT OF SYSTEM DESIGN ON THE REQUIREMENTS OF FILTER NETWORKS
    11. 1.8 COMMUNICATION CHANNELS IN A SATELLITE SYSTEM
    12. 1.9 RF FILTERS IN CELLULAR SYSTEMS
    13. 1.10 IMPACT OF SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS ON RF FILTER SPECIFICATIONS
    14. 1.11 IMPACT OF SATELLITE AND CELLULAR COMMUNICATIONS ON FILTER TECHNOLOGY
    15. SUMMARY
    16. REFERENCES
    17. APPENDIX 1A INTERMODULATION DISTORTION SUMMARY
  10. CHAPTER 2: FUNDAMENTALS OF CIRCUIT THEORY APPROXIMATION
    1. 2.1 LINEAR SYSTEMS
    2. 2.2 CLASSIFICATION OF SYSTEMS
    3. 2.3 EVOLUTION OF ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS—A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
    4. 2.4 NETWORK EQUATION OF LINEAR SYSTEMS IN THE TIME DOMAIN
    5. 2.5 NETWORK EQUATION OF LINEAR SYSTEMS IN THE FREQUENCY-DOMAIN EXPONENTIAL DRIVING FUNCTION
    6. 2.6 STEADY-STATE RESPONSE OF LINEAR SYSTEMS TO SINUSOIDAL EXCITATIONS
    7. 2.7 CIRCUIT THEORY APPROXIMATION
    8. SUMMARY
    9. REFERENCES
  11. CHAPTER 3: CHARACTERIZATION OF LOSSLESS LOWPASS PROTOTYPE FILTER FUNCTIONS
    1. 3.1 THE IDEAL FILTER
    2. 3.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS FOR DOUBLY TERMINATED LOSSLESS LOWPASS PROTOTYPE FILTER NETWORKS
    3. 3.3 CHARACTERISTIC POLYNOMIALS FOR IDEALIZED LOWPASS PROTOTYPE NETWORKS
    4. 3.4 LOWPASS PROTOTYPE CHARACTERISTICS
    5. 3.5 CHARACTERISTIC POLYNOMIALS VERSUS RESPONSE SHAPES
    6. 3.6 CLASSICAL PROTOTYPE FILTERS
    7. 3.7 UNIFIED DESIGN CHART (UDC) RELATIONSHIPS
    8. 3.8 LOWPASS PROTOTYPE CIRCUIT CONFIGURATIONS
    9. 3.9 EFFECT OF DISSIPATION
    10. 3.10 ASYMMETRIC RESPONSE FILTERS
    11. SUMMARY
    12. REFERENCES
    13. APPENDIX 3A UNIFIED DESIGN CHARTS
  12. CHAPTER 4: COMPUTER-AIDED SYNTHESIS OF CHARACTERISTIC POLYNOMIALS
    1. 4.1 OBJECTIVE FUNCTION AND CONSTRAINTS FOR SYMMETRIC LOWPASS PROTOTYPE FILTER NETWORKS
    2. 4.2 ANALYTIC GRADIENTS OF THE OBJECTIVE FUNCTION
    3. 4.3 OPTIMIZATION CRITERIA FOR CLASSICAL FILTERS
    4. 4.4 GENERATION OF NOVEL CLASSES OF FILTER FUNCTIONS
    5. 4.5 ASYMMETRIC CLASS OF FILTERS
    6. 4.6 LINEAR PHASE FILTERS
    7. 4.7 CRITICAL FREQUENCIES FOR SELECTED FILTER FUNCTIONS
    8. SUMMARY
    9. REFERENCES
    10. APPENDIX 4A CRITICAL FREQUENCIES FOR AN UNCONVENTIONAL 8-POLE FILTER
  13. CHAPTER 5: ANALYSIS OF MULTIPORT MICROWAVE NETWORKS
    1. 5.1 MATRIX REPRESENTATION OF TWO-PORT NETWORKS
    2. 5.2 CASCADE OF TWO NETWORKS
    3. 5.3 MULTIPORT NETWORKS
    4. 5.4 ANALYSIS OF MULTIPORT NETWORKS
    5. SUMMARY
    6. REFERENCES
  14. CHAPTER 6: SYNTHESIS OF A GENERAL CLASS OF THE CHEBYSHEV FILTER FUNCTION
    1. 6.1 POLYNOMIAL FORMS OF THE TRANSFER AND REFLECTION PARAMETERS S 21 ( s ) AND S 11 ( s ) FOR A TWO-PORT NETWORK
    2. 6.2 ALTERNATING POLE METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF THE DENOMINATOR POLYNOMIAL E ( s )
    3. 6.3 GENERAL POLYNOMIAL SYNTHESIS METHODS FOR CHEBYSHEV FILTER FUNCTIONS
    4. 6.4 PREDISTORTED FILTER CHARACTERISTICS
    5. 6.5 TRANSFORMATION FOR DUAL-BAND BANDPASS FILTERS
    6. SUMMARY
    7. REFERENCES
  15. CHAPTER 7: SYNTHESIS OF NETWORK–CIRCUIT APPROACH
    1. 7.1 CIRCUIT SYNTHESIS APPROACH
    2. 7.2 LOWPASS PROTOTYPE CIRCUITS FOR COUPLED-RESONATOR MICROWAVE BANDPASS FILTERS
    3. 7.3 LADDER NETWORK SYNTHESIS
    4. 7.4 SYNTHESIS EXAMPLE OF AN ASYMMETRIC (4–2) FILTER NETWORK
    5. SUMMARY
    6. REFERENCES
  16. CHAPTER 8: COUPLING MATRIX SYNTHESIS OF FILTER NETWORKS
    1. 8.1 COUPLING MATRIX
    2. 8.2 DIRECT SYNTHESIS OF THE COUPLING MATRIX
    3. 8.3 COUPLING MATRIX REDUCTION
    4. 8.4 SYNTHESIS OF THE N + 2 COUPLING MATRIX
    5. SUMMARY
    6. REFERENCES
  17. CHAPTER 9: RECONFIGURATION OF THE FOLDED COUPLING MATRIX
    1. 9.1 SYMMETRIC REALIZATIONS FOR DUAL-MODE FILTERS
    2. 9.2 ASYMMETRIC REALIZATIONS FOR SYMMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS
    3. 9.3 “PFITZENMAIER” CONFIGURATIONS
    4. 9.4 CASCADED QUARTETS (CQs)—TWO QUARTETS IN CASCADE FOR DEGREES 8 AND ABOVE
    5. 9.5 PARALLEL-CONNECTED TWO-PORT NETWORKS
    6. 9.6 CUL-DE-SAC CONFIGURATION
    7. SUMMARY
    8. REFERENCES
  18. CHAPTER 10: SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATION OF EXTRACTED POLE AND TRISECTION ELEMENTS
    1. 10.1 EXTRACTED POLE FILTER SYNTHESIS
    2. 10.2 SYNTHESIS OF BANDSTOP FILTERS USING THE EXTRACTED POLE TECHNIQUE
    3. 10.3 TRISECTIONS
    4. 10.4 BOX SECTION AND EXTENDED BOX CONFIGURATIONS
    5. SUMMARY
    6. REFERENCES
  19. CHAPTER 11: MICROWAVE RESONATORS
    1. 11.1 MICROWAVE RESONATOR CONFIGURATIONS
    2. 11.2 CALCULATION OF RESONANT FREQUENCY
    3. 11.3 RESONATOR UNLOADED Q FACTOR
    4. 11.4 MEASUREMENT OF LOADED AND UNLOADED Q FACTOR
    5. SUMMARY
    6. REFERENCES
  20. CHAPTER 12: WAVEGUIDE AND COAXIAL LOWPASS FILTERS
    1. 12.1 COMMENSURATE-LINE BUILDING ELEMENTS
    2. 12.2 LOWPASS PROTOTYPE TRANSFER POLYNOMIALS
    3. 12.3 SYNTHESIS AND REALIZATION OF THE DISTRIBUTED STEPPED IMPEDANCE LOWPASS FILTER
    4. 12.4 SHORT-STEP TRANSFORMERS
    5. 12.5 SYNTHESIS AND REALIZATION OF MIXED LUMPED/DISTRIBUTED LOWPASS FILTER
    6. SUMMARY
    7. REFERENCES
  21. CHAPTER 13: WAVEGUIDE REALIZATION OF SINGLE- AND DUAL-MODE RESONATOR FILTERS
    1. 13.1 SYNTHESIS PROCESS
    2. 13.2 DESIGN OF THE FILTER FUNCTION
    3. 13.3 REALIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE MICROWAVE FILTER NETWORK
    4. 13.4 DUAL-MODE FILTERS
    5. 13.5 COUPLING SIGN CORRECTION
    6. 13.6 DUAL-MODE REALIZATIONS FOR SOME TYPICAL COUPLING MATRIX CONFIGURATIONS
    7. 13.7 PHASE- AND DIRECT-COUPLED EXTRACTED POLE FILTERS
    8. 13.8 THE “FULL INDUCTIVE” DUAL-MODE FILTER
    9. SUMMARY
    10. REFERENCES
  22. CHAPTER 14: DESIGN AND PHYSICAL REALIZATION OF COUPLED RESONATOR FILTERS
    1. 14.1 CIRCUIT MODELS FOR CHEBYSHEV BANDPASS FILTERS
    2. 14.2 CALCULATION OF INTERRESONATOR COUPLING
    3. 14.3 CALCULATION OF INPUT/OUTPUT COUPLING
    4. 14.4 DESIGN EXAMPLE OF DIELECTRIC RESONATOR FILTERS USING THE COUPLING MATRIX MODEL
    5. 14.5 DESIGN EXAMPLE OF A WAVEGUIDE IRIS FILTER USING THE IMPEDANCE INVERTER MODEL
    6. 14.6 DESIGN EXAMPLE OF A MICROSTRIP FILTER USING THE J -ADMITTANCE INVERTER MODEL
    7. SUMMARY
    8. REFERENCES
  23. CHAPTER 15: ADVANCED EM-BASED DESIGN TECHNIQUES FOR MICROWAVE FILTERS
    1. 15.1 EM-BASED SYNTHESIS TECHNIQUES
    2. 15.2 EM-BASED OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES
    3. 15.3 EM-BASED ADVANCED DESIGN TECHNIQUES
    4. SUMMARY
    5. REFERENCES
  24. CHAPTER 16: DIELECTRIC RESONATOR FILTERS
    1. 16.1 RESONANT FREQUENCY CALCULATION IN DIELECTRIC RESONATORS
    2. 16.2 RIGOROUS ANALYSES OF DIELECTRIC RESONATORS
    3. 16.3 DIELECTRIC RESONATOR FILTER CONFIGURATIONS
    4. 16.4 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR DIELECTRIC RESONATOR FILTERS
    5. 16.5 OTHER DIELECTRIC RESONATOR CONFIGURATIONS
    6. 16.6 CRYOGENIC DIELECTRIC RESONATOR FILTERS
    7. 16.7 HYBRID DIELECTRIC/SUPERCONDUCTOR FILTERS
    8. SUMMARY
    9. REFERENCES
  25. CHAPTER 17: ALLPASS PHASE AND GROUP DELAY EQUALIZER NETWORKS
    1. 17.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF ALLPASS NETWORKS
    2. 17.2 LUMPED-ELEMENT ALLPASS NETWORKS
    3. 17.3 MICROWAVE ALLPASS NETWORKS
    4. 17.4 PHYSICAL REALIZATION OF ALLPASS NETWORKS
    5. 17.5 SYNTHESIS OF REFLECTION-TYPE ALLPASS NETWORKS
    6. 17.6 PRACTICAL NARROWBAND REFLECTION-TYPE ALLPASS NETWORKS
    7. 17.7 OPTIMIZATION CRITERIA FOR ALLPASS NETWORKS
    8. 17.8 EFFECT OF DISSIPATION
    9. 17.9 EQUALIZATION TRADEOFFS
    10. SUMMARY
    11. REFERENCES
  26. CHAPTER 18: MULTIPLEXER THEORY AND DESIGN
    1. 18.1 BACKGROUND
    2. 18.2 MULTIPLEXER CONFIGURATIONS
    3. 18.3 RF CHANNELIZERS (DEMULTIPLEXERS)
    4. 18.4 RF COMBINERS
    5. 18.5 TRANSMIT–RECEIVE DIPLEXERS
    6. SUMMARY
    7. REFERENCES
  27. CHAPTER 19: COMPUTER-AIDED DIAGNOSIS AND TUNING OF MICROWAVE FILTERS
    1. 19.1 SEQUENTIAL TUNING OF COUPLED RESONATOR FILTERS
    2. 19.2 COMPUTER-AIDED TUNING BASED ON CIRCUIT MODEL PARAMETER EXTRACTION
    3. 19.3 COMPUTER-AIDED TUNING BASED ON POLES AND ZEROS OF THE INPUT REFLECTION COEFFICIENT
    4. 19.4 TIME-DOMAIN TUNING
    5. 19.5 FILTER TUNING BASED ON FUZZY LOGIC TECHNIQUES
    6. 19.6 AUTOMATED SETUPS FOR FILTER TUNING
    7. SUMMARY
    8. REFERENCES
  28. CHAPTER 20: HIGH-POWER CONSIDERATIONS IN MICROWAVE FILTER NETWORKS
    1. 20.1 BACKGROUND
    2. 20.2 HIGH-POWER REQUIREMENTS IN WIRELESS SYSTEMS
    3. 20.3 HIGH-POWER AMPLIFIERS (HPAs)
    4. 20.4 HIGH-POWER BREAKDOWN PHENOMENA
    5. 20.5 HIGH-POWER BANDPASS FILTERS
    6. 20.6 MULTIPACTION BREAKDOWN
    7. 20.7 PASSIVE INTERMODULATION (PIM) CONSIDERATION FOR HIGH-POWER EQUIPMENT
    8. SUMMARY
    9. REFERENCES
  29. APPENDIX A
  30. APPENDIX B
  31. APPENDIX C
  32. APPENDIX D
  33. INDEX