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Microwave and Wireless Measurement Techniques

Book Description

From typical metrology parameters for common wireless and microwave components to the implementation of measurement benches, this introduction to metrology contains all the key information on the subject. Using it, readers will be able to: ¥ Interpret and measure most of the parameters described in a microwave component's datasheet ¥ Understand the practical limitations and theoretical principles of instrument operation ¥ Combine several instruments into measurement benches for measuring microwave and wireless quantities. Several practical examples are included, demonstrating how to measure intermodulation distortion, error vector magnitude, S-parameters and large signal waveforms. Each chapter then ends with a set of exercises, allowing readers to test their understanding of the material covered and making the book equally suited for course use and for self-study.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Series Title
  4. Title
  5. Copyright
  6. Contents
  7. Endorsements
  8. Preface
  9. Notation
  10. Abbreviations
  11. 1 Measurement of wireless transceivers
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Linear two-port networks
      1. 1.2.1 Microwave description
      2. 1.2.2 Noise
    3. 1.3 Linear FOMs
      1. 1.3.1 Linear network FOMs
      2. 1.3.2 Noise FOMs
    4. 1.4 Nonlinear two-port networks
      1. 1.4.1 Nonlinear generation
      2. 1.4.2 Nonlinear impact in wireless systems
    5. 1.5 Nonlinear FOMs
      1. 1.5.1 Nonlinear single-tone FOMs
      2. 1.5.2 Nonlinear two-tone FOMs
      3. 1.5.3 FOMs for nonlinear continuous spectra
    6. 1.6 System-level FOMs
      1. 1.6.1 The constellation diagram
      2. 1.6.2 The error-vector magnitude
      3. 1.6.3 The peak-to-average power ratio
    7. 1.7 Filters
    8. 1.8 Amplifiers
      1. 1.8.1 Linear and noise FOMs
      2. 1.8.2 Nonlinear FOMs
      3. 1.8.3 Transient FOMs
    9. 1.9 Mixers
      1. 1.9.1 Two-port FOMs
      2. 1.9.2 Three-port FOMs
    10. 1.10 Oscillators
      1. 1.10.1 Oscillator FOMs
    11. 1.11 Frequency-multiplier FOMs
    12. 1.12 Digital converters
      1. 1.12.1 Figures of merit
    13. Problems
    14. References
  12. 2 Instrumentation for wireless systems
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Power meters
      1. 2.2.1 How to measure power
      2. 2.2.2 The thermocouple principle
      3. 2.2.3 The diode probe principle
      4. 2.2.4 Power-meter architecture
      5. 2.2.5 Power-meter sources of error
      6. 2.2.6 Calibration of the power meter
    3. 2.3 Spectrum analyzers
      1. 2.3.1 The spectrum
      2. 2.3.2 Spectrum-analyzer architectures
      3. 2.3.3 Basic operation of a spectrum analyzer
      4. 2.3.4 Specifications of a spectrum analyzer
      5. 2.3.5 The accuracy of a spectrum analyzer
    4. 2.4 Vector signal analyzers
      1. 2.4.1 Basic operation of a vector signal analyzer
    5. 2.5 Real-time signal analyzers
      1. 2.5.1 The RTSA block diagram
      2. 2.5.2 The RTSA spectrogram
      3. 2.5.3 RTSA persistence
      4. 2.5.4 The RTSA spectrum trigger
    6. 2.6 Vector network analyzers
      1. 2.6.1 Architecture
      2. 2.6.2 Calibration
      3. 2.6.3 VNA measurement uncertainty
    7. 2.7 Nonlinear vector network analyzers
      1. 2.7.1 Architecture
      2. 2.7.2 Calibration
    8. 2.8 Oscilloscopes
    9. 2.9 Logic analyzers
      1. 2.9.1 Logic-analyzer probes
      2. 2.9.2 Sampling the logic data
      3. 2.9.3 Triggering
      4. 2.9.4 Real-time memory
      5. 2.9.5 Analyzing the acquired signal
    10. 2.10 Noise-figure measurement
      1. 2.10.1 Noise-figure measurement using a noise source
      2. 2.10.2 Noise-figure measurement without a noise source
      3. 2.10.3 Accuracy and uncertainty of noise-figure measurement
    11. Problems
    12. References
  13. 3 Signal excitation
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 One-tone excitation
      1. 3.2.1 One-tone generation mechanisms
      2. 3.2.2 One-tone instrumentation
    3. 3.3 Two-tone excitation
      1. 3.3.1 Two-tone generation mechanisms
    4. 3.4 Digitally modulated signals
      1. 3.4.1 The multi-sine
      2. 3.4.2 Complex modulated signals
    5. 3.5 Chirp signals
    6. 3.6 Comb generators
    7. 3.7 Pulse generators
    8. Problems
    9. References
  14. 4 Test benches for wireless system characterization and modeling
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Test benches for characterization
      1. 4.2.1 Power-meter measurements
      2. 4.2.2 Noise-figure measurements
      3. 4.2.3 Two-tone measurements
      4. 4.2.4 VNA measurements
      5. 4.2.5 NVNA measurements
      6. 4.2.6 Modulated signal measurements
      7. 4.2.7 Mixed-signal (analog and digital) measurements
      8. 4.2.8 Temperature-dependent measurements
    3. 4.3 Test benches for behavioral modeling
      1. 4.3.1 Introduction
      2. 4.3.2 Volterra-series modeling
      3. 4.3.3 State-space modeling
      4. 4.3.4 Beyond S-parameters
    4. Problems
    5. References
  15. Index