You are previewing Microsoft Hyper-V Cluster Design.
O'Reilly logo
Microsoft Hyper-V Cluster Design

Book Description

A practical guide to planning, designing, building, and maintaining Microsoft HyperV Clusters

  • Successfully deploy a Microsoft Hyper-V Server cluster

  • use the right tools for building and maintaining a Hyper-V cluster

  • Master the intricacies of Hyper-V Server in a clustered environment.

In Detail

Hyper-V Server offers an inexpensive and simple way to consolidate your existing server applications. Failover Clustering adds convenience and protections to keep those systems running. A well-designed cluster requires understanding many topics, but the time invested in learning pays off with a system that all but takes care of itself.

Microsoft Hyper-V Cluster Design is a comprehensive look at the technologies that comprise a cluster of Microsoft Hyper-V Servers. This book will take you through planning your deployment, selecting the appropriate components, building and testing your cluster, and maintaining it for optimal performance.

If you want to Master Hyper-V cluster design and create scalable, fault-tolerant Hyper-V Servers, then this book is for you!

Microsoft Hyper-V Cluster Design tackles the common stumbling blocks in cluster design and deployment. You’ll learn the intricacies of shared storage design as well as how to exploit networking hardware for optimal Hyper-V cluster performance.

You’ll learn how to design systems that match your actual workload instead of the theoretical environment of a test lab. By the end of this book you will know how to plan, deploy and maintain a high available, high performance Hyper-V cluster.

Table of Contents

  1. Microsoft Hyper-V Cluster Design
    1. Table of Contents
    2. Microsoft Hyper-V Cluster Design
    3. Credits
    4. About the Author
    5. About the Reviewers
    6. www.PacktPub.com
      1. Support files, eBooks, discount offers and more
        1. Why Subscribe?
        2. Free Access for Packt account holders
        3. Instant Updates on New Packt Books
    7. Preface
      1. What this book covers
      2. What you need for this book
      3. Who this book is for
      4. Conventions
      5. Reader feedback
      6. Customer support
        1. Downloading the example code
        2. Errata
        3. Piracy
        4. Questions
    8. 1. Hyper-V Cluster Orientation
      1. Terminology
      2. Clustering in a Microsoft environment
      3. Create a project document
      4. Purposes for a Hyper-V Server cluster
        1. High availability
        2. High Availability Printing
        3. Balancing resources
        4. Geographic dispersion
        5. Natural replacement for aging infrastructure
        6. Test, development, and training systems
        7. Cloud hosting
        8. Resource metering
        9. VDI and RemoteFX
        10. Be open to other purposes
      5. Goals for a Hyper-V Server cluster
        1. Identify the resources that cannot be virtualized
        2. Consult with application vendors
        3. Involve internal stakeholders
        4. Define phases and timelines
        5. Perform further research
        6. Define success metrics
        7. Measure and predict your workload
        8. Only allow changes during the planning phase
      6. Looking forward to the Design phase
        1. Host computers
        2. Storage
        3. Cluster Shared Volumes
        4. SMB shares
        5. Mixing SMB 3.0 and CSV
        6. Networking
          1. Management
          2. Cluster and Cluster Shared Volumes
          3. Live Migration
          4. Subnetting
          5. Virtual machine traffic
          6. Storage traffic
          7. Physical adapter considerations
          8. Adapter teaming
        7. Active Directory
        8. Virtualized domain controllers
        9. Supporting software
          1. Management tools
          2. Backup
        10. Training
      7. A sample Hyper-V Cluster planning document
        1. Sample project title – Techstra Hyper-V Cluster Project
          1. Sample project – purposes
          2. Sample project – goals
            1. Sample project – success metrics (subsection of goals)
      8. Review the sample project
      9. Summary
    9. 2. Cluster Design and Planning
      1. Starting the design phase
      2. Planning for existing systems
        1. Deciding how you will virtualize physical systems
        2. Determining requirements for existing systems
          1. Microsoft Assessment and Planning Toolkit
          2. Performance Monitor
          3. General approaches to reading the metrics
          4. Memory measurements
          5. Network measurements
          6. Disk measurements
          7. Processor measurements
      3. Host computer components
        1. Hyper-V Server requirements
        2. CPU
        3. Memory
        4. Host networking
        5. Host storage
        6. Management operating system
          1. Hyper-V Server
          2. Windows Server
          3. Deciding on a management operating system
          4. Deciding between Hyper-V Server 2012 and 2012 R2
      4. Networking
        1. Advanced networking hardware
      5. Shared storage
        1. Storage area network devices
        2. Network-attached storage devices
        3. General purpose computers
        4. Shared storage performance characteristics
        5. Designing shared storage
      6. Software licensing
        1. Windows Server and guest virtualization rights
          1. Software Assurance
          2. Client access licenses
        2. Other software licenses
      7. Hyper-V and cluster-related software planning
        1. Remote software applications
        2. Local software applications
      8. Blade hardware
      9. Physical placement
      10. Security
        1. Domain separation
        2. Hyper-V isolation
        3. Network isolation
      11. Complete the planning phase
        1. Sample project – planning and design
        2. Sample project – hardware
      12. Summary
    10. 3. Constructing a Hyper-V Server Cluster
      1. Documenting the initial setup phase
      2. Build steps not covered in this book
      3. Auxiliary built-in tools
      4. Acquiring and enabling the GUI tools
        1. Enabling the tools on Windows 8/8.1 from the GUI
        2. Enabling the tools on Windows Server 2012/R2 in the GUI
        3. Enabling the tools using PowerShell
      5. Configuring nodes
        1. Initial node configuration using GUI tools
          1. Using the GUI to configure networking
            1. Renaming network adapters
            2. Creating network teams
            3. Enable roles and features
            4. Creating or modifying a virtual switch
            5. Creating virtual adapters for converged fabric
            6. Setting IP addresses for management operating system adapters
            7. Joining the computer to the domain
        2. Initial node configuration using PowerShell
          1. Basic configuration
            1. Enable roles and features
          2. Using PowerShell to configure networking
            1. Rename network adapters
            2. Converged fabric
            3. Creating network teams
            4. Create a virtual switch
            5. Create virtual adapters
            6. Assigning virtual adapters to VLANs
            7. Setting IP addresses for management operating system adapters
            8. Join the computer to the domain
        3. Optional node configuration steps
      6. Prepare other nodes
      7. Building the cluster
        1. Cluster validation
          1. Running cluster validation in the GUI
          2. Using PowerShell for cluster validation
        2. Cluster creation
          1. Creating a cluster using the GUI
          2. Creating a cluster using PowerShell
        3. Handling cluster creation errors
      8. Cluster post-creation steps
        1. Prepare storage
        2. Add prepared storage
        3. Configure quorum
        4. Configure networks
          1. Set Live Migration network preferences
      9. Summary
    11. 4. Storage Design
      1. Early storage planning
        1. Physical storage characteristics
          1. Physical disks
          2. Drive bus
          3. Traditional RAID
          4. Storage Spaces
          5. Shared storage connectivity
      2. Hyper-V Server storage space utilization
        1. Management operating system
        2. BIN files
        3. VSV files
        4. XML files
        5. SLP files
        6. VFD files
        7. VHD and VHDX files
          1. IDE and SCSI virtual controllers
          2. VHD versus VHDX
          3. VHD and VHDX types
          4. Fixed
          5. Dynamic
          6. Differencing
        8. Fixed versus dynamic disks
        9. Pass-through disks
        10. Other storage usage considerations
      3. Hyper-V Server storage performance
        1. Pass-through disks
        2. Expansion
        3. Fragmentation
          1. Fragmentation and dynamic VHDX performance
      4. Working with storage
        1. Connecting to iSCSI storage
        2. Connecting to Fibre Channel storage
        3. Connecting to SMB 3.0 shares
        4. Enabling and using Multipath IO
        5. Managing disks
        6. Cluster Shared Volumes
          1. Finding and renaming Cluster Shared Volumes
          2. CSV cache
      5. Placing virtual machines on storage
        1. Storage deduplication
      6. Storage QoS (2012 R2 Only)
      7. Enhanced features
      8. Summary
    12. 5. Network Design
      1. The Hyper-V virtual switch
        1. Network virtualization
        2. Redundancy and load balancing for the virtual switch
        3. Assign virtual adapters to VLANs
      2. Hyper-V Server networking in a cluster
        1. Management
          1. Redundancy and load balancing for management traffic
        2. Cluster communications
          1. Redundancy and load balancing for cluster communications
          2. SMB multichannel configuration
        3. Live Migration
          1. Redundancy and load balancing for Live Migration traffic
          2. Setting the Live Migration mode in 2012 R2
      3. Storage connectivity
      4. The virtual switch in a cluster
      5. Adapter teaming
        1. Teaming fundamentals
        2. Teaming modes
          1. Switch Independent teaming
          2. Static teaming
          3. LACP teaming
        3. Load balancing algorithms
          1. Address Hash techniques
            1. Transport Ports hash
            2. IP Addresses hash
            3. MAC Addresses hash
          2. Hyper-V Port balancing
          3. Dynamic (R2 only)
        4. The effects of teaming selections
          1. Switch Independent with hash
          2. Switch Dependent (static or LACP) with hash
          3. Switch Independent with Hyper-V Ports
          4. Switch Dependent (static or LACP) with Hyper-V Ports
          5. Understanding the change brought by R2's Dynamic algorithm
          6. Effect of teaming on other technologies
          7. Practical teaming guidance
      6. Converged fabric
        1. Practical converged fabric guidance
      7. Planning the physical layout
      8. Firewall settings
        1. Remote desktop
        2. PowerShell
        3. Firewall rules
        4. Summary
    13. 6. Network Traffic Shaping and Performance Enhancements
      1. Windows Server Quality of Service
        1. Policy-based QoS
        2. Hyper-V QoS
        3. Data Center Bridging
          1. 802.1p tagging
          2. Assigning applications and traffic types to QoS classes
          3. Setting bandwidth on DCB QoS classes
          4. The default class
      2. Changing advanced settings on network adapters
        1. Advanced adapter settings in the GUI
        2. Advanced adapter settings in the registry
        3. Advanced adapter settings in PowerShell
        4. Jumbo frames
      3. VMQ
        1. VMQ and adapter teaming
        2. VMQ interrupt coalescing
      4. RSS
        1. vRSS (R2 only)
        2. RSS tuning
      5. RDMA
      6. SR-IOV
        1. SR-IOV tuning
      7. Other hardware-assisted offloading technologies
      8. Virtual adapter networking control
      9. Practical advice for network performance design
      10. Further possibilities
      11. Summary
    14. 7. Memory Planning and Management
      1. Understanding physical memory characteristics
        1. Memory types
          1. U-DIMM
          2. R-DIMM
          3. FB-DIMM
          4. LR-DIMM
        2. Memory speed
          1. Practical guidance on memory speeds
        3. Memory ranks
        4. Mirroring, sparing, ECC, and other options
          1. Practical memory protection
        5. Memory channels
          1. Practical multi-channel memory implementation
        6. NUMA
          1. Practical NUMA configuration
      2. Physical memory installation
      3. How Hyper-V Server uses memory
        1. Host memory
        2. Hypervisor memory usage
      4. Hyper-V Server and NUMA
      5. Virtual machine memory
        1. Practical virtual machine memory sizing
        2. Virtual machines and NUMA
          1. NUMA in a cluster
          2. Practical virtual machine NUMA configuration
        3. Dynamic Memory
          1. Dynamic Memory requirements and restrictions
          2. Startup RAM, Minimum RAM, and Smart Paging
      6. Practical virtual machine memory implementation
      7. Cluster memory shortages
      8. Summary
    15. 8. Performance Testing and Load Balancing
      1. Initial and on-going performance measurement
      2. General performance measurement
        1. Server Performance Advisor
        2. Performance Monitor
        3. Real-time monitoring with Performance Monitor
        4. Trend tracking with Performance Monitor
        5. Selecting counters practically
        6. Alternative ways to read performance logs
      3. Subsystem testing
        1. Disk I/O testing
          1. Practical IOMeter usage for disk analysis
        2. Network testing
          1. IOMeter for network testing
          2. Practical IOMeter usage for network analysis
          3. NTttcp for network testing
        3. Memory testing
      4. Baseline and comparative performance measures
      5. Cluster load balancing
        1. Preferred owners
          1. Setting preferred owners using Failover Cluster Manager
          2. Setting preferred owners using PowerShell
        2. Possible owners
          1. Setting possible owners using Failover Cluster Manager
          2. Setting possible owners using PowerShell
        3. Anti-affinity
      6. Summary
    16. 9. Special Cases
      1. Non-highly-available virtual machines in a cluster
        1. Local virtual machines
        2. Switching to or from high availability mode
          1. Converting a local virtual machine to high availability
        3. Restricted highly available virtual machines
      2. A cluster with only one virtual machine
        1. Single-VM cluster in a small environment
      3. A cluster with a single host
      4. Virtualized domain controllers in a Hyper-V Cluster
        1. Discomfort with virtualization of a vital infrastructure role
        2. Concern that Hyper-V Server will not start
        3. Concern that domain controllers will be unavailable
        4. Concern over clock drift in a virtual environment
        5. Concern over effects of snapshots on domain controllers
        6. Concerns over Saved States of domain controllers
        7. Security concerns for virtualized domain controllers
        8. Implementing virtualized domain controllers in a cluster
          1. Windows domain time synchronization
      5. Storing a single virtual machine's files in different locations
      6. Geographically distributed clusters
        1. Cluster networking with multiple subnets
          1. Cluster name object in a multiple subnet cluster
          2. Configuring subnet traffic handling
          3. Virtual machine networking in a multiple subnet cluster
      7. Using non-virtualized hardware in a cluster
      8. Pass-through disks in a cluster
      9. Summary
    17. 10. Maintaining and Monitoring a Hyper-V Server Cluster
      1. Cluster validation
        1. When to perform validation
        2. Running the validation wizard in Failover Cluster Manager
        3. Validating a cluster in PowerShell
        4. Reading the validation report
        5. Other cluster reports
      2. Best Practices Analyzer for Hyper-V
        1. Hyper-V Best Practices Analyzer in Server Manager
        2. Hyper-V Best Practices Analyzer in PowerShell
      3. Updating Hyper-V Server hosts
        1. Cluster-Aware Updating
          1. Configuring Cluster-Aware Updating
          2. Enabling CAU using the GUI
          3. Enabling CAU using PowerShell
        2. Windows Update and Windows Server Update Services
        3. Hotfixes
      4. Monitoring Hyper-V Server
        1. Event logs
        2. Services
        3. Metering
      5. Summary
    18. 11. High Availability
      1. What does high availability mean?
        1. Service level agreements
        2. Fault tolerance
      2. Creating a highly available virtual machine
        1. Using Failover Cluster Manager to create a highly available virtual machine
        2. Using Failover Cluster Manager to make an existing virtual machine highly available
        3. Using PowerShell to create and convert a highly available virtual machine
        4. Removing high availability from a virtual machine
      3. High availability beyond Hyper-V
        1. Cluster within a cluster
          1. Shared VHDX in R2
          2. Network adapter configurations for guest clusters
      4. Migrations
        1. Practical high availability migration guidance
      5. Cluster responses to failures
        1. Automatic Stop Action
        2. Automatic Start Action
        3. Failback
        4. Failover limits
        5. Network protection in R2
      6. Quorum
        1. Configuring quorum using Failover Cluster Manager
        2. Configuring quorum using PowerShell
          1. R2-only quorum PowerShell operations
      7. Practical quorum guidance
        1. Recovering from quorum loss
      8. Snapshots or checkpoints
        1. Practical snapshot guidance
      9. Summary
    19. 12. Backup and Disaster Recovery
      1. Knowing your risks
        1. Physical loss
        2. Data loss
        3. Data corruption
        4. Risk analysis
        5. Risk mitigation
      2. Planning for disaster recovery
      3. Backup
        1. Choosing a backup solution
        2. Architecting a backup solution
          1. Choosing what to back up
          2. Choosing when to back up
          3. Deciding how long to keep backup data
          4. Hybrid solutions
          5. Storage for backup
        3. Deploying a backup solution
          1. Windows Server Backup
      4. Hyper-V Replica
        1. Architecting a Hyper-V Replica solution
          1. Choosing where to send replicas
          2. Choosing what to replicate
          3. Deciding how many recovery points to keep
        2. Deploying Hyper-V Replica
          1. Practical Hyper-V Replica guidance
      5. Verifying your disaster recovery plan
      6. Summary
    20. Index