In Exchange 2010, internal Outlook clients do not use Outlook Anywhere. They connect to the RPC Client Access service which is hosted by the Client Access Server. By default, the Client Access Server's own hostname would be used as the endpoint where clients connect to.
Unless you were configuring a CAS Array, there was nothing specific you had to do to make it work.
In Exchange 2013 the way clients connect to Exchange has changed. Both internal and external clients now connect using Outlook Anywhere (RPC-over-HTTP). To reflect this change in behavior, Outlook Anywhere can now be configured with an internal and an external hostname. Before, only an external hostname could be configured through
Set-OutlookAnywhere or ...