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Microscale Combustion and Power Generation

Book Description

Recent advances in microfabrication technologies have enabled the development of entirely new classes of small-scale devices with applications in fields ranging from biomedicine, to wireless communication and computing, to reconnaissance, and to augmentation of human function. In many cases, however, what these devices can actually accomplish is limited by the low energy density of their energy storage and conversion systems. This breakthrough book brings together in one place the information necessary to develop the high energy density combustion-based power sources that will enable many of these devices to realize their full potential. Engineers and scientists working in energy-related fields will find: • An overview of the fundamental physics and phenomena of microscale combustion; • Presentations of the latest modeling and simulation techniques for gasphase and catalytic micro-reactors; • The latest results from experiments in small-scale liquid film, microtube, and porous combustors, micro-thrusters, and micro heat engines; • An assessment of the additional research necessary to develop compact and high energy density energy conversion systems that are truly practical.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Contents
  3. List of Figures
  4. List of Tables
  5. List of Contributors
  6. Preface
  7. Introduction
  8. 1 Meso- and Microscale Combustion and Flammability Limits
    1. 1.1 Premixed Flames in Meso- and Microscale Combustion
    2. 1.2 Flammability Limit and Quenching Diameter
    3. 1.3 Heat Recirculation
    4. 1.4 Flame and Wall Structure Coupling in Microscale Combustion
    5. 1.5 Weak Flame Regimes with Temperature Gradients
    6. 1.6 Coupling of Thermal and Kinetic Quenching in Microscale Combustion
    7. 1.7 Non-Equilibrium Combustion
    8. References
  9. 2 Boundary-Accelerated Flames in Microchannels
    1. 2.1 Physical and Numerical Models
    2. 2.2 The Boundary-Layer Accelerated Flame
    3. 2.3 Effects of Varying Channel Dimensions
    4. 2.4 Outflow Acceleration and Propulsion Characteristics
    5. 2.5 Effects of Wall Temperature
    6. 2.6 Laminar-Flame Transition to Detonation in Long Channels
    7. 2.7 Discussion
    8. References
  10. 3 Flame Instability in Microscale Combustion
    1. 3.1 Repetitive Extinction and Re-Ignition Instability
    2. 3.2 Spinning Instability
    3. 3.3 Spiral Flames and Pattern Formations
    4. References
  11. 4 Microscale Combustion Modeling
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Microreactor Thermal Management
    3. 4.3 Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Chemistry Modeling
    4. 4.4 Models Used in Microreactor Research
    5. 4.5 Zero-Dimensional Models
    6. 4.6 One-Dimensional Channel-Flow Models
    7. 4.7 Multidimensional Microreactor Models
    8. 4.8 Applications of Multidimensional Models
    9. 4.9 Turbulent Microreactor Combustion
    10. 4.10 Non-Continuum Flows in Microreactors
    11. 4.11 Conclusion and Future Work
    12. References
  12. 5 Non-Premixed Micro Combustion
    1. 5.1 Microjet Diffusion Flames
    2. 5.2 Basic Microflame Structure
    3. 5.3 Methodology
    4. 5.4 Characteristics of Microjet Methane Diffusion Flames
    5. 5.5 Flame Structure and Stabilization Mechanism
    6. 5.6 Conclusion and Future Work
    7. References
  13. 6 Diffusion Flame Instability and Cell Formation in Meso- and Mcroscale Combustion
    1. 6.1 Cell Flame Formation in a Microscale Diffusion Flame Reactor
    2. 6.2 Flame Streets and Unsteady Flame Propagation in Mesoscale Diffusion Flames
    3. 6.3 Conclusion and Future Work
    4. References
  14. 7 Mcro-Combustion in Non-Catalytic Narrow Ducts
    1. 7.1 Overview of the State of the Art
    2. 7.2 Structure of the Tubular Micro-Reactive Flow
    3. 7.3 Thermoacoustics
    4. 7.4 Outer Wall Temperature
    5. 7.5 Conclusion and Future Work
    6. References
  15. 8 Fundamentals of Microscale Catalytic Combustion
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Methodology
    3. 8.3 Characteristics of Microscale Catalytic Combustion
    4. 8.4 Enhancement of Microscale Combustion by Catalyst Segmentation
    5. 8.5 Conclusion and Future Work
    6. References
  16. 9 Miniature Liquid Fuel Combustion
    1. 9.1 Overview
    2. 9.2 Brief Review of Mesoscale Liquid Fuel Combustors
    3. 9.3 Liquid Film Combustor Fundamentals
    4. 9.4 Combustor Design Evaluation
    5. 9.5 Liquid Film Combustion-Driven TPV Power System
    6. 9.6 Conclusion and Future Work
    7. References
  17. 10 Heat-Recirculating Combustors
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Simplified Analysis
    3. 10.3 Scaling
    4. 10.4 Practical Perspectives
    5. 10.5 Conclusion and Future Work
    6. References
  18. 11 Catalytic Reactors: Power Generation and Fuel Processing
    1. 11.1 Introduction to Catalytic Combustion
    2. 11.2 Catalytic Microreactors
    3. 11.3 Basic Theory of Catalytic Combustion
    4. 11.4 Operation of Microreactors for Power Generation
    5. References
  19. 12 Microreactor with a Temperature Gradient
    1. 12.1 Weak Flame in a Temperature Gradient
    2. 12.2 Multistage Oxidation Study Using Weak Flame in a Temperature Gradient
    3. References
  20. 13 Chemical Micropropulsion
    1. 13.1 Micropropulsion and Scaling
    2. 13.2 Materials, Fabrication, and System Integration
    3. 13.3 Solid Propellant Thrusters
    4. 13.4 Liquid Propellant Thrusters
    5. 13.5 Gaseous Propellant Thrusters
    6. 13.6 Conclusion and Future Work
    7. References
  21. 14 Micro-Rotary Engine Power System
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Meso-Scale “Mini-Rotary” Engine
    3. 14.3 MEMS-Scale “Micro-Rotary” Engine
    4. 14.4 Conclusion and Future Work
    5. References
  22. 15 Small-Scale Reciprocating Engines
    1. 15.1 Survey of Miniature Research Engines
    2. 15.2 Miniature Commercial Engines
    3. 15.3 Quantifying Engine Performance
    4. 15.4 Performance Measurements
    5. 15.5 Fuels
    6. 15.6 Sample Performance Data from Three Miniature Engines
    7. 15.7 Scaling of Engine Performance
    8. 15.8 Small Two-Stroke Piston Engine Combustion
    9. 15.9 Conclusion and Future Work
    10. References
  23. 16 Combustors for Mlcrogas Turbine Engines
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Microgas Turbine Engines
    3. 16.3 Basic Combustion Concepts
    4. 16.4 Challenges of Microgas Turbine Combustors
    5. 16.5 Homogeneous Gas-Phase Microcombustors
    6. 16.6 Heterogeneous (Catalytic) Microcombustors
    7. 16.7 Conclusion and Future Work
    8. References
  24. Index
  25. Adpage
  26. Backcover