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Microprocessor Theory and Applications with 68000/68020 and Pentium by M. Rafiquzzaman

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5

MICROPROCESSOR PROGRAMMING CONCEPTS

In this chapter we provide the fundamental concepts of microprocessor programming. Typical programming characteristics such as programming languages, basics of assembly language programming, instruction formats, instruction set architecture (ISA), microprocessor instruction sets, and addressing modes are discussed.

5.1 Microcomputer Programming Languages

Microprocessors are typically programmed using semi-English-language statements (assembly language). In addition to assembly languages, microcomputers use a more understandable human-oriented language called high-level language. No matter what type of language is used to write programs, microcomputers understand only binary numbers. Therefore, all programs must eventually be translated into their appropriate binary forms. The principal ways to accomplish this are discussed later.

Microprocessor programming languages can typically be divided into three main types: machine language, assembly language, and high-level language. A machine language program consists of either binary or hexadecimal op-codes. Programming a microcomputer with either one is relatively difficult, because one must deal only with numbers. The architecture and microprograms of a microprocessor determine all its instructions. These instructions are called the microprocessor's instruction set. Programs in assembly and high-level languages are represented by instructions that use English-language-type statements. The programmer ...

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