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Metropolitan Sustainability

Book Description

Global populations have grown rapidly in recent decades, leading to ever increasing demands for shelter, resources, energy and utilities. Coupled with the worldwide need to achieve lower impact buildings and conservation of resources, the need to achieve sustainability in urban environments has never been more acute. This book critically reviews the fundamental issues and applied science, engineering and technology that will enable all cities to achieve a greater level of metropolitan sustainability, and assist nations in meeting the needs of their growing urban populations.

Part one introduces key issues related to metropolitan sustainability, including the use of both urban metabolism and benefit cost analysis. Part two focuses on urban land use and the environmental impact of the built environment. The urban heat island effect, redevelopment of brownfield sites and urban agriculture are discussed in depth, before part three goes on to explore urban air pollution and emissions control. Urban water resources, reuse and management are explored in part four, followed by a study of urban energy supply and management in part five. Solar, wind and bioenergy, the role of waste-to-energy systems in the urban infrastructure, and smart energy for cities are investigated. Finally, part six considers sustainable urban development, transport and planning.

With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Metropolitan sustainability is an essential resource for low-impact building engineers, sustainability consultants and architects, town and city planners, local/municipal authorities, and national and non-governmental bodies, and provides a thorough overview for academics of all levels in this field.

  • Critically reviews the fundamental issues and applied science, engineering and technology that will enable all cities to achieve a greater level of metropolitan sustainability
  • Will assist nations in meeting the needs of their growing urban populations
  • Chapters discuss urban land use, the environmental impact of the build environment, the urban heat island effect, urban air pollution and emissions control, among other topics

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributor contact details
  6. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy
  7. Introduction
  8. Part I: Metropolitan sustainability: an introduction
    1. Chapter 1: A living city: using urban metabolism analysis to view cities as life forms
      1. Abstract:
      2. 1.1 Introduction: urban metabolism (UM), or urban energy systems
      3. 1.2 Divergent measuring approaches in UM analysis
      4. 1.3 UM studies
      5. 1.4 Understanding cities through UM
      6. 1.5 Directions for planning and policy
      7. 1.6 Future trends
    2. Chapter 2: Benefit cost analysis for environmental decision making: using discounting to compare benefits and costs that occur at different points in time
      1. Abstract:
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 The rationale for discounting
      4. 2.3 A framework for intertemporal discounting
      5. 2.4 Discounting for climate change
      6. 2.5 Enhancing and improving net present value
      7. 2.6 Acknowledgement
    3. Chapter 3: Quantifying sustainability: industrial ecology, materials flow and life cycle analysis
      1. Abstract:
      2. 3.1 Introduction to industrial ecology
      3. 3.2 Materials flow analysis (MFA)
      4. 3.3 Life cycle analysis (LCA)
      5. 3.4 Sources of further information and advice
    4. Chapter 4: Separation of mixtures: fundamentals and technologies
      1. Abstract:
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Characterization of separation processes
      4. 4.3 Balance equations
      5. 4.4 Preliminary separation process calculations
      6. 4.5 Multi-stage separations
      7. 4.6 Filtration
      8. 4.7 Conclusions and sources of further information
      9. 4.8 Acknowledgement
      10. 4.10 Appendix: Algorithm for solving equations 4.4, 4.9 and 4.10
  9. Part II: Earth: urban land use and the environmental impact of the built environment
    1. Chapter 5: The urban heat island effect: causes and potential solutions
      1. Abstract:
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Basic causes and remedies
      4. 5.3 Solutions and benefit assessment
      5. 5.4 The urban heat island mitigation impact screening tool (MIST)
      6. 5.5 Conclusions
    2. Chapter 6: Redevelopment of brownfield sites
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Management practices aimed at remediating and redeveloping brownfields
      4. 6.3 Sustainability outcomes of brownfield redevelopment
      5. 6.4 Case studies
      6. 6.5 Sources of further information and advice
    3. Chapter 7: Urban agriculture: opportunities and constraints
      1. Abstract:
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Site availability for urban agriculture
      4. 7.3 Crops and yields
      5. 7.4 Food security
      6. 7.5 Demands on and benefits for urban water infrastructure
      7. 7.6 Benefits for urban energy infrastructure
      8. 7.7 Waste and composting
    4. Chapter 8: Redevelopment of brownfield sitesBuilding-integrated agriculture: a new approach to food production
      1. Abstract:
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Ecological performance of building-integrated agriculture (BIA)
      4. 8.3 Community impact of BIA
      5. 8.4 Other forms of urban agriculture
      6. 8.5 Case studies
      7. 8.6 Sustainability challenges and future trends
      8. 8.7 Sources of further information and advice
  10. Part III: Wind: urban air pollution and emissions control
    1. Chapter 9: Metropolitan effects on atmospheric patterns: important scales
      1. Abstract:
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over metropolitan areas
      4. 9.3 Local-versus regional-scale effects of urbanization on atmospheric patterns
      5. 9.4 Interplay between metropolitan and global climate effects
      6. 9.5 Conclusions and future trends
      7. 9.6 Sources of further information and advice
      8. 9.7 Acknowledgements
    2. Chapter 10: The science of smog: a chemical understanding of ground level ozone and fine particulate matter
      1. Abstract:
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Ground level ozone chemistry
      4. 10.3 Fine particulate matter chemistry
      5. 10.4 Challenges facing smog control
      6. 10.5 Megacity smog: examples from Beijing and Mexico City
      7. 10.6 Summary and future trends
      8. 10.7 Sources of further information and advice
    3. Chapter 11: Air pollution in the urban atmosphere: sources and consequences
      1. Abstract:
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Categories of pollutants
      4. 11.3 Sources of air pollution
      5. 11.4 Environmental and human health effects
      6. 11.5 Future trends and sustainability challenges
      7. 11.6 Sources of further information and advice
    4. Chapter 12: Controlling emissions of pollutants in urban areas
      1. Abstract:
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 Mobile sources of pollution
      4. 12.3 Reducing pollution from mobile sources
      5. 12.4 Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbon monoxide (CO) from stationary sources and their control
      6. 12.5 Nitrogen oxides (NOx) reduction from stationary sources
      7. 12.6 Sulfur oxides (SOx) and particulate matter (PM) removal from coal-fired power plants
      8. 12.7 Sustainability challenges and future trends
    5. Chapter 13: Passive systems to improve air quality and reduce heat retention in the urban environment
      1. Abstract:
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 Photocatalytic materials
      4. 13.3 Current research into TiO2-based building materials
      5. 13.4 Urban vegetation
      6. 13.5 Sustainability challenges and future trends
      7. 13.6 Sources of further information and advice
  11. Part IV: Water: urban water resources, reuse and managemen
    1. Chapter 14: Integrated urban water management: water use and reuse
      1. Abstract:
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Alternative urban water sources and water quality considerations
      4. 14.3 Treatment and infrastructure considerations for harvested rainwater and stormwater runoff
      5. 14.4 Treatment and infrastructure considerations for water reuse
      6. 14.5 Sustainability challenges
      7. 14.6 Future trends
    2. Chapter 15: Rainwater harvesting: using urban roof runoff for residential toilet flushing
      1. Abstract:
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Analysis of roof runoff harvesting systems for flushing toilets in different cities
      4. 15.3 Results of the analysis
      5. 15.4 Discussion of factors influencing rainwater harvesting system performance
      6. 15.5 Conclusions
    3. Chapter 16: Urban water supply: modeling watersheds and treatment facilities
      1. Abstract:
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Systems analysis of urban water infrastructure
      4. 16.3 Prospects for future urban water supply
      5. 16.4 Energy use in the water industry
    4. Chapter 17: Water and wastewater treatment: chemical processes
      1. Abstract:
      2. 17.1 Introduction
      3. 17.2 Chemical treatment of water and wastewater
      4. 17.3 Considerations in plant design
      5. 17.4 Challenges and future trends
      6. 17.5 Sources of further information and advice
    5. Chapter 18: Water and wastewater treatment: biological processes
      1. Abstract:
      2. 18.1 Introduction
      3. 18.2 Biological treatment options for wastewater
      4. 18.3 Biological treatment options for water
      5. 18.4 Issues with environmental residuals
      6. 18.5 Sustainability challenges and future trends
  12. Part V: Fire: urban energy supply and management
    1. Chapter 19: Solar energy in the built environment: powering the sustainable city
      1. Abstract:
      2. 19.1 Introduction: the potential of solar energy
      3. 19.2 Solar energy in metropolitan areas
      4. 19.3 Solar energy on the building scale
      5. 19.4 Photovoltaic solar systems
      6. 19.5 Solar thermal systems
      7. 19.6 Biological solar systems
      8. 19.7 Incentives for solar energy projects
    2. Chapter 20: Wind energy in the built environment
      1. Abstract:
      2. 20.1 Introduction
      3. 20.2 Wind energy basics
      4. 20.3 Wind flow in metropolitan areas
      5. 20.4 Wind power technologies
      6. 20.4.1 Horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs)
      7. 20.4.2 Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs)
      8. 20.4.3 Building-integrated wind turbines
      9. 20.4.4 Large horizontal axis wind turbines
      10. 20.4.5 State of the market for small urban wind turbines
      11. 20.4.6 Rooftop wind turbine performance
      12. 20.5 Important considerations for urban wind energy
      13. 20.6 Conclusions and future trends
      14. 20.7 Sources of further information and advice
    3. Chapter 21: The role of waste-to-energy in urban infrastructure
      1. Abstract:
      2. 21.1 Introduction
      3. 21.2 Characterization of urban wastes
      4. 21.3 Hierarchy of waste management
      5. 21.4 Effect of global waste management on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
      6. 21.5 Thermal treatment of post-recycling municipal solid wastes (MSW)
      7. 21.6 Economic aspects of urban waste management
      8. 21.7 Examples of cities approaching sustainable waste management
    4. Chapter 22: Smart energy for cities: decentralized supply resources and their link to the modern grid
      1. Abstract:
      2. 22.1 An introduction to decentralized energy
      3. 22.2 Costs and benefits of decentralized energy supply systems
      4. 22.3 Decentralized technologies for supplying power and thermal energy
      5. 22.4 A smarter electric grid
      6. 22.5 An alternative view for our future urban energy system
      7. 22.6 Conclusions and future trends
      8. 22.7 Sources of further information and advice
    5. Chapter 23: Bioenergy for the urban environment
      1. Abstract:
      2. 23.1 Introduction
      3. 23.2 Conversion technologies: biomass to heat, power and transportation fuels
      4. 23.3 Tools for modelling biomass availability
      5. 23.4 Ensuring bioenergy sustainability
      6. 23.5 Future trends
      7. 23.6 Acknowledgements
  13. Part VI: Sustainable urban development, transport and planning
    1. Chapter 24: Planning for more sustainable urban development
      1. Abstract:
      2. 24.1 Introduction
      3. 24.2 The nature of urban planning
      4. 24.3 Key aspects of urban sustainability planning
      5. 24.4 The challenge of public participation
      6. 24.5 Future trends
      7. 24.6 Conclusions
      8. 24.7 Sources of further information and advice
    2. Chapter 25: Sustainable urban transport planning
      1. Abstract:
      2. 25.1 Sustainable urban mobility and land use
      3. 25.2 Transport choices in urban areas
      4. 25.3 From car ownership to mobility services: new approaches in transportation
      5. 25.4 Smart growth: linking land use planning and mobility
      6. 25.5 Recommendations for urban transportation
    3. Chapter 26: The psychological needs of city dwellers: implications for sustainable urban planning
      1. Abstract:
      2. 26.1 Introduction
      3. 26.2 Individual differences in city dwellers’ needs
      4. 26.3 The need for quiet, unpolluted, natural and aesthetically pleasing areas
      5. 26.4 The need for security
      6. 26.5 The need for social interaction
      7. 26.6 Conclusions
    4. Chapter 27: Possible futures for sustainable building design
      1. Abstract:
      2. 27.1 Introduction
      3. 27.2 Reconsidering building systems relationships to facilitate sustainable building design
      4. 27.3 Three approaches to sustainable design and corresponding case studies
      5. 27.4 Conclusions
    5. Chapter 28: Moving toward urban sustainability: using lessons and legacies of the past
      1. Abstract:
      2. 28.1 Introduction
      3. 28.2 Crisis, transition and transformation in urban development
      4. 28.3 Environmental crises and transitions in New York City
      5. 28.4 Conclusions
    6. Chapter 29: A vision of suburban sustainability: the Long Island Radically Rezoned project
      1. Abstract:
      2. 29.1 Introduction
      3. 29.2 The inherent efficiency of cities
      4. 29.3 The new model of sustainability
      5. 29.4 Case study: Long Island Radically Rezoned – a regenerative vision for a living island
  14. Index