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Methodology of Teaching Science

Book Description

Methodology of Teaching Science will provide readers with a solid foundation on which to build expertise in teaching of the subject. This text does a comprehensive examination by introducing students to science as a school subject. It covers aspects like instructional planning, unit planning, teaching aids, curriculum planning and science laboratories. It also outlines the role of a science teacher in developing a students' scientific aptitude and approach.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. About the Author
  5. Preface
  6. 1. Science as a School Subject
    1. Introduction
    2. Nature of Science
      1. Science as a Process
      2. Science as a Product
    3. Importance and Values of Science
    4. Science Education in India
    5. Summary
    6. Questions
  7. 2. Aims and Objectives of Teaching Science
    1. Introduction
    2. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
      1. I. Cognitive Domain (Knowledge and Intellectual Skill)
      2. II. Affective Domain
      3. III. Psychomotor Domain
    3. Writing the Teaching Objectives in Behavioural Terms
      1. Behavioural Objectives in Cognitive Domain
      2. Behavioural Objectives in Affective Domain
      3. Behavioural Objectives in Psychomotor Domain
    4. The Importance and Need for Writing the Objectives in Behavioural Terms
    5. Summary
    6. Questions
  8. 3. Instructional Planning in Science Teaching
    1. Introduction
    2. Need for Instructional Planning
    3. Types of Instructional Planning
    4. Steps in Instructional Planning
      1. 1. Content Analysis
      2. 2. Presentation of the Content
      3. 3. Teaching Aids
      4. 4. Specific Tasks for One Period
    5. Summary
    6. Questions
  9. 4. Methods of Teaching Science
    1. Introduction
    2. Selection of an Appropriate Method
    3. Methods of Teaching Science
      1. 1. Lecture Method
      2. 2. Demonstration Method
      3. 3. Lecture-cum-Demonstration Method
      4. 4. Laboratory Method
      5. 5. Heuristic Method
      6. 6. Project Method
      7. 7. Problem Solving Method
      8. 8. Assignment Method
      9. 9. Question Answer Method
      10. 10. Role Playing Method
      11. 11. Brain Storming Method
    4. Summary
    5. Questions
  10. 5. Unit Planning and Lesson Planning
    1. Introduction
    2. Unit Planning
    3. Lesson Planning
    4. Summary
    5. Questions
  11. 6. Teaching Aids in Science
    1. Introduction
    2. Need and Importance of Teaching Aids
    3. Types of Teaching Aids
      1. I. On the Basis of the Sense Organs Involved
      2. II. On the Basis of the Size of Learner Groups
      3. III. On the Basis of Learners’ Control over Teaching Aids
      4. IV. On the Basis of the Experience Provided by an Aid
    4. Dale's Cone of Experience
    5. Effective Use of Teaching Aids
    6. Summary
    7. Questions
  12. 7. Curriculum in Science
    1. Introduction
    2. Aims of Science Education and Curriculum Organization—Critical Analysis
      1. I. Primary Stage
      2. II. Middle Stage
      3. III. Secondary Stage
      4. IV. Senior Secondary Stage
    3. Principles of Curriculum Construction
      1. I. Principle of Child Centeredness
      2. II. Principle of Integration of Science
      3. III. Principle of Flexibility
      4. IV. Principle of Community Centeredness
      5. V. Principle of Activity Centeredness
      6. VI. Principle of Creativity
      7. VII. Principle of Preservation of Culture
    4. Summary
    5. Questions
  13. 8. Science Laboratory
    1. Introduction
    2. Importance of a Science Laboratory
    3. Characteristics of a Good Science Laboratory
    4. Ideal Science Laboratory Design
    5. Guidelines for Teachers
    6. Maintenance of Records
    7. Laboratory Discipline
    8. Common Accidents and Their Remedies
      1. 1. Burns
      2. 2. Cuts
      3. 3. Eye Injuries
      4. 4. Poison
      5. 5. Inhalation of Gases
      6. 6. Fire
    9. Precautions in a Science Laboratory
    10. Summary
    11. Questions
  14. 9. Evaluation in Science
    1. Introduction
    2. Measurement Versus Assessment Versus Evaluation
      1. I. Measurement
      2. II. Assessment
      3. III. Evaluation
    3. Purpose of Evaluation
    4. Techniques of Evaluation
      1. I. Tools to Measure Cognitive Outcomes
      2. II. Tools to Measure Non-Cognitive Outcomes
    5. How to Construct a Test?
      1. I. Planning the Test
      2. II. Framing the Questions
      3. III. Administering and Scoring the Test
    6. Types of Evaluation
      1. I. Diagnostic Test
      2. II. Remedial Teaching
    7. Summary
    8. Questions
  15. 10. Science Textbook
    1. Introduction
    2. The Need of the Science Textbook
    3. Features of a Good Textbook of Science
      1. I. External Features
      2. II. Internal Features
    4. Evaluation of a Science Textbook
      1. Textbook Evaluation by Rating Scale
    5. Summary
    6. Questions
  16. 11. Science Teacher
    1. Introduction
    2. What Does a Science Teacher Do?
    3. How to Be an Effective Science Teacher?
    4. Summary
    5. Questions
  17. 12. Co-curricular Activities in Science
    1. Introduction
    2. Science Fairs/Exhibition
      1. I. Objectives of Science Fairs
      2. II. Organization of a Science Fair
    3. Science Museums
      1. I. Objectives of a Science Museum
      2. II. Organization of a Science Museum
    4. Science Clubs
      1. I. Objectives of Science Clubs
      2. II. Organization of a Science Club
      3. III. Activities of a Science Club
      4. IV. Some Investigatory Projects of a Science Club
    5. Science Educational Tour
      1. I. Objectives of Science Educational Tours
      2. II. Organization of a Science Educational Tour
    6. Important Considerations for Planning Co-curricular Activities
    7. Role of a Teacher in Science Co-curricular Activities
    8. Summary
    9. Questions
  18. Appendices
  19. Copyright