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Medical Imaging: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications

Book Description

Medical imaging has transformed the ways in which various conditions, injuries, and diseases are identified, monitored, and treated. As various types of digital visual representations continue to advance and improve, new opportunities for their use in medical practice will likewise evolve. Medical Imaging: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications presents a compendium of research on digital imaging technologies in a variety of healthcare settings. This multi-volume work contains practical examples of implementation, emerging trends, case studies, and technological innovations essential for using imaging technologies for making medical decisions. This comprehensive publication is an essential resource for medical practitioners, digital imaging technologists, researchers, and medical students.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editor-in-Chief
  5. Associate Editors
  6. Editorial Advisory Board
  7. Preface
  8. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: History of the T-Scan System Development from 1984 to the Present Day
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SECTION I: THE T-SCAN I SYSTEM
      4. SECTION II: THE T-SCAN II SYSTEM FOR WINDOWS®
      5. SECTION III: THE T-SCAN III SYSTEM WITH TURBO RECORDING
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 2: An Overview of Machine Learning in Medical Image Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER: MACHINE LEARNING APPLICATIONS IN MEDICAL IMAGE ANALYSIS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. APPENDIX
    3. Chapter 3: Biomedical Image Processing Overview
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. MEDICAL IMAGING MODALITIES
      4. 3. MINING MEDICAL IMAGE
      5. 4. IMAGE MINING TECHNIQUES
      6. 5. BIOMEDICAL IMAGE PROCESSING
      7. 6. IMAGE INTERPRETATION
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 4: Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MEDICAL IMAGING
      5. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT)
      6. PRESENT SCENARIO OF MEDICAL IMAGING
      7. ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE TOMOGRAPHY (EIT)
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 5: Automatic MRI Brain Image Segmentation Using Gravitational Search-Based Clustering Technique
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. VALIDATION AND DISCUSSIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 6: Fuzzy Logic in Healthcare
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: FUZZY LOGIC BASICS
      4. FUZZY LOGIC IN THE MEDICAL DOMAIN
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 7: Conceptualizing a Real-Time Remote Cardiac Health Monitoring System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BIO-MEDICAL SENSOR DESIGN
      4. BIO-SENSOR CIRCUIT INTERFACE
      5. INTERNET-OF-THINGS BASED SENSORY ARCHITECTURE
      6. COMMUNICATIONS ARCHITECTURE
      7. VISUALIZATION OF THE ACQUIRED SENSORY DATA
      8. IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 8: Acute Coronary Syndrome
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RISK STRATIFICATION
      5. TREATMENT OVERVIEW
      6. PHARMACOTHERAPY: ANTIPLATELET AGENTS
      7. PHARMACOTHERAPY: ANTICOAGULANTS
      8. PHARMACOTHERAPY: ADJUNCT AGENTS
      9. REVASCULARIZATION
      10. POST-MI CARE
      11. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. ADDITIONAL READING
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 9: Dementia and Other Neurocognitive Disorders
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DEMENTIA AND ITS SYMPTOMS
      5. MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT
      6. ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE
      7. RECENT ADVANCES AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. MANAGEMENT
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 10: Non-Invasive Data Acquisition and Measurement in Bio-Medical Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. NON INVASIVE MEASUREMENTS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 11: Review of fMRI Data Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. MACHINE LEARNING AND CHALLENGES IN fMRI
      4. 3. MACHINE LEARNING APPROACHES IN COGNITIVE CLASSIFICATION
      5. 4. ENSEMBLES TECHNIQUES
      6. 5. HYBRID TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATION
      7. 6. DISCUSSION
      8. 7. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
      9. 8. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 12: A Review on Brain Imaging Techniques for BCI Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DIFFERENT IMAGING TECHNIQUES FOR BCI APPLICATIONS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 13: Metal Artifact Reduction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. EXISTING MAR METHODS
      4. 3. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY
      5. 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE
      7. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 14: Fuzzy Logic for Breast Cancer Diagnosis Using Medical Thermogram Images
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THERMAL RADIATION THEORY
      5. PREPARATION OF PATIENT
      6. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      7. FUZZY LOGIC TOOLBOX
      8. EXPERIMENTS
      9. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ADDITIONAL READING
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 15: Multimodality Medical Image Fusion Using M-Band Wavelet and Daubechies Complex Wavelet Transform for Radiation Therapy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE SURVEY
      4. MULTIMODALITY MEDICAL IMAGE FUSION SCHEME
      5. PERFORMANCE METRICS FOR COMPARISON
      6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    16. Chapter 16: Biomedical Imaging Techniques
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. IMAGING TECHNIQUES
      5. OTHER IMAGING TECHNIQUES
      6. NEED FOR SEVERAL IMAGING MODALITIES
      7. IMAGE QUALITY, IMAGE PROCESSING, AND VISUALIZATION OF IMAGES
      8. RADIATION EXPOSURE AND RADIATION PROTECTION IN MEDICAL IMAGING
      9. GENERAL APPLICATIONS OF MEDICAL IMAGING
      10. FUTURE ASPECTS OF MEDICAL IMAGING
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    17. Chapter 17: Bag-of-Features in Microscopic Images Classification
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS (RESULTS AND DISCUSSION)
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    18. Chapter 18: Automated Text Detection and Recognition in Annotated Biomedical Publication Images
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. METHODOLOGY
      4. 3. EXPERIMENTS PERFORMED
      5. 4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
      6. 5. SUMMARY AND FUTURE SCOPE
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. APPENDIX: FEATURES INVESTIGATED FOR CHARACTER RECOGNITION
  9. Section 2: Development and Design Methodologies
    1. Chapter 19: Research and Developments in Medical Image Reconstruction Methods and Its Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RECENT ADVANCES IN BIOMEDICAL IMAGING SYSTEMS
      4. THE FUTURE OF MEDICAL VISUALISATION
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR RESEARCH
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. APPENDIX: LINKING WITH OTHER MODALITIES
    2. Chapter 20: Methods of Skull Implants Modeling with Use of CAx and Haptic Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MODELING METHODS OF SKULL BONE IMPLANTS
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 21: Texture-Based Evolutionary Method for Cancer Classification in Histopathology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. PROPOSED FRAMEWORK
      5. EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 22: Intensity-Based Classification and Related Methods in Brain MR Images
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THRESHOLDING
      5. CLUSTER ANALYSIS
      6. APPLICATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 23: Segmentation of Lung Nodules in CT Scan Data
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      5. 4. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF EXISTING NODULE DETECTION METHODS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 24: Development of Ultrasound Imaging CAD Tool for Assessment of Pathologies in Supraspinatus Tendon
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CHALLENGES AND ISSUES
      5. BRIEF OVERVIEW OF METHODS
      6. VALIDATION METHOD
      7. DEVELOPMENT OF CAD TOOL
      8. SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM
      9. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT RESULTS AT DIFFERENT STAGES
      10. SUMMARY OF PROPOSED CAD TOOL
      11. FUTURE RECOMMENDATIONS
      12. CONTROVERSIES
      13. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      14. REFERENCES
      15. ADDITIONAL READING
      16. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 25: Active Contour Model for Medical Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. ACTIVE CONTOUR MODEL
      5. ALGORITHM ANALYSIS AND FLOWCHART
      6. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF ACTIVE CONTOUR EVOLUTION USING GREEDY APPROACH ON AN IMAGE MATRIX
      7. TRADITIONAL CHALLENGES
      8. INVESTIGATION RESULTS IN TOWARDS IMPROVEMENTS
      9. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 26: Automatic Localization of the Optic Disc Center in Retinal Images Based on Angle Detection in Curvature Scale Space
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. SIMPLE ANATOMY OF THE RETINA
      4. 3. METHODOLOGY
      5. 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 27: Modified Distance Regularized Level Set Segmentation Based Analysis for Kidney Stone Detection
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. PROBLEM STATEMENT
      4. 3. METHODOLOGY
      5. 4. IMAGE SEGMENTATION
      6. 5. ENERGY OPTIMIZATION FOR SEGMENTATION
      7. 6. LIFTING SCHEME WAVELET PROCESSING
      8. 7. ANN CLASSIFICATION
      9. 8. IMPLEMENTATION AND RESULTS
      10. 9. CONCLUSION AND SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK
      11. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 28: Medical Image Fusion in Wavelet and Ridgelet Domains
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. PROPOSED FUSION METHODOLOGY
      4. 3. IMAGE QUALITY EVALUATION OF FUSED IMAGES
      5. 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 29: Classification of Magnetic Resonance Image and Segmentation of Brain Tissues for Tumor Detection
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
      4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 30: Chronic Wound Characterization Using Bayesian Classifier under Telemedicine Framework
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. TELEMEDICINE FRAMEWORK FOR WOUND CHARACTERIZATION
      4. 3. TELE-WOUND MONITORING SYSTEM
      5. 4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULT
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 31: Denoising Ultrasound Medical Images
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM
      4. 3. DE-NOISING WITH BLOCK THRESHOLDING ON WAVELETS
      5. 4. ULTRASOUND IMAGE DE-NOISING SIMULATIONS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 32: Endoscopic Imaging Results
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. VIDEO CONCEPTS AND FRAMEWORKS
      5. PROPOSED ARCHITETURE
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
  10. Section 3: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 33: Nanotechnology, Metal Nanoparticles, and Biomedical Applications of Nanotechnology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
      4. SYNTHESIS OF NANOPARTICLES
      5. BIOSYNTHESIS OF METALLIC NANOPARTICLES USING BACTERIA
      6. BIOSYNTHESIS OF METALLIC NANOPARTICLES USING FUNGI
      7. BIOSYNTHESIS OF METALLIC NANOPARTICLES USING PLANTS
      8. BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS
      9. NANOROBOTICS AND DRUG DELIVERY
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      14. APPENDIX
    2. Chapter 34: Nanotechnology Applications in Cardiology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NANOTECHNOLOGY AND CARDIOVASCULAR SCIENCE
      4. NANOTECHNOLOGY MATRICES EMPLOYED FOR CARDIOVASCULAR CONSTRUCTS
      5. NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED IMAGING IN CARDIOLOGY
      6. NANOTECHNOLOGY MATERIALS FOR ENHANCED MRI AND ULTRASONOGRAPHY-BASED IMAGING
      7. SPECIFIC MATRICES FOR NANOPARTICLES USED IN CARDIOVASCULAR IMAGING
      8. NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR SCAFFOLDING PLATFORMS AND TISSUE RECONSTRUCTION
      9. MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES USED FOR NANOSCAFFOLD CONSTRUCTION
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 35: Precision and Reliability of the T-Scan III System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 36: Joint Vibration Analysis (JVA)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DESCRIPTION OF THE JOINT VIBRATION ANALYSIS TECHNOLOGY
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 37: NoSQL Technologies for Real Time (Patient) Monitoring
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SECTION 1: WORKING WITH MEDICAL DATA
      4. SECTION 2: DATA STORAGE FOR DEMENTIA PATIENT MONITORING
      5. SECTION 3: FROM RELATION TO NOSQL APPROACHES
      6. SECTION 4: IMPLEMENTATION OUTLOOK
      7. SECTION 5: USE CASES FOR MEDICAL STORAGE
      8. SECTION 6: LESSONS LEARNED, FUTURE RESEARCH, AND CHALLENGES
      9. SECTION 7: CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 38: GPU Based Modified HYPR Technique
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THE OBJECTIVE: PROPOSED METHODOLOGY
      4. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
      5. 4. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 39: Computer Assisted Methods for Retinal Image Classification
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ROLE OF COMPUTER ASSISTED METHODS IN RETINAL IMAGE ANALYSIS: DETECTION OF EXUDATES AND GRADING OF MACULOPATHY
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 40: Computer Aided Diagnosis System for Breast Cancer Detection
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DIAGNOSTIC PERFORMANCE OF DIGITAL MAMMOGRAPHY WITH COMPUTER-ASSISTED SOFTWARE TOOLS
      5. COMPUTER AIDED DIAGNOSIS SYSTEM FOR BREAST CANCER
      6. DEVELOPMENT OF GUI OF COMPUTER AIDED DIAGNOSIS SYSTEM
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 41: Mobile Platforms Supporting Health Professionals
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. A TECHNOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURE FOR mHEALTH APPLICATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 42: Computer Aided Modeling and Finite Element Analysis of Human Elbow
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-COMPONENT CAD MODEL OF HUMAN ELBOW STRUCTURE
      4. PREPROCESSING OF CAD MODEL
      5. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF ELBOW
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 43: GPU-Based Level Set Method for MRI Brain Tumor Segmentation Using Modified Probabilistic Clustering
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
      3. INTRODUCTION
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. PROPOSED LEVEL SET METHOD
      6. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 44: A Freehand 3D Ultrasound Imaging System Using Open-Source Software Tools with Improved Edge-Preserving Interpolation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. MATERIALS AND METHODS
      5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 45: The Introduction and Evaluation of Mobile Devices to Improve Access to Patient Records
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: THE IMPETUS FOR CHANGE
      4. MOBILE ACCESS: PROJECT OVERVIEW
      5. PHASE I: INTRODUCTION TO MOBILITY
      6. PHASE II: ACTING ON KEY FINDINGS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. APPENDIX 1
      13. APPENDIX 2
    14. Chapter 46: Compressed Sensing and Its Application in CT and EEG
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION TO COMPRESSED SENSING
      3. SIGNAL MODELS
      4. CONDITIONS FOR SPARSE SIGNAL RECOVERY
      5. RECONSTRUCTION ALGORITHMS
      6. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY
      7. CT IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION
      8. COMPRESSED SENSING IN CT
      9. INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY
      10. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSIONS
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ENDNOTE
  11. Section 4: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 47: Application of Phage Biotechnology in Nanobiotechnology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND HISTORY OF PHAGE DISPLAY
      3. BIOLOGY OF PHAGE USED IN CONVENTIONAL DISPLAY
      4. NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY CONCEPT
      5. NOVEL RNA PHAGE DISPLAY AND NANOPARTICLES AGGREGATION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 48: Survey of Medical Image Compression Techniques and Comparative Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. AD HOC COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES
      5. DICTIONARY BASED SCHEMES
      6. PREDICTION BASED CODING TECHNIQUES
      7. TRANSFORM BASED CODING TECHNIQUES
      8. OTHER COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES
      9. MAIN FOCUS OF THIS CHAPTER
      10. THE PROPOSED FAST EMBEDDED SIGNIFICANT AND ZERO SET CODING IN HIERARCHICAL
      11. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. ADDITIONAL READING
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 49: Diagnosis of Angina Using Neuro-Fuzzy Technique
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND OF ANGINA
      4. 3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. 4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 50: Segmentation of Renal Calculi in Ultrasound Kidney Images Using Modified Watershed Method
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. THE IORM SEGMENTATION
      5. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 51: Calcifications Attenuation in Left Coronary Artery CT Images Using FDA Domain
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FISHER DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS (FDA)
      4. PROPOSED METHOD
      5. EVALUATION CRITERIA
      6. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 52: Comprehensive Survey on Metal Artifact Reduction Methods in Computed Tomography Images
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. DISCUSSION
      4. 3. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 53: Study of Hardness and Corrosion Resistance of Electroless Ni-P-TiO2 Composite Coatings
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
      4. MEASUREMENT OF MICROHARDNESS AND CORROSION PROPERTIES OF TIO COMPOSITE COATING
      5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 54: Analysis of Valuable Techniques and Algorithms Used in Automated Skin Lesion Recognition Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FEATURES USED FOR MAKING CLASSIFIER COMPARISON
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 55: Brain Tumor Segmentation and Classification Using Intelligent Hybrid Morphology and Diffusion
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. RELATED WORK
      4. 3. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY
      5. 4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 56: A Study on Automatic Segmentation and Classification of Skin Lesions in Dermoscopic Images
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. REVIEW ON EARLY DETECTION OF MELANOMA IN SITU
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 57: Researching the Use of Communication Technologies in Higher Education Institutions in Portugal
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ANALYSIS MODEL
      5. A STUDY IN THE PORTUGUESE PUBLIC HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 58: Analysis and Comparison of Developed 2D Medical Image Database Design using Registration Scheme, Retrieval Scheme, and Bag-of-Visual-Words
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND OFFERED
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
      6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. APPENDIX
    13. Chapter 59: Image Segmentation Using Rough Set Theory
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. METHODOLOGY
      4. 3. REVIEW OF IMAGE SEGMENTATION USING ROUGH SETS
      5. 4. DIFFERENT FRAMEWORKS FOR ROUGH SET IMAGE SEGMENTATION
      6. 5. COMPARATIVE STUDY
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 60: Classification of Brain MR Images Using Corpus Callosum Shape Measurements
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. RESULTS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    15. Chapter 61: Cluster Based Medical Image Registration Using Optimized Neural Network
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. FEATURE EXTRACTION USING GLCM
      6. PROPOSED METHOD
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
  12. Section 5: Issues and Challenges
    1. Chapter 62: Automatic Diagnosis of Brain Magnetic Resonance Images Based on Riemannian Geometry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BRAIN SEGMENTATION BASED ON RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS
      4. 3. EDGE DETECTION
      5. 4. BRAIN SEGMENTATION
      6. 5. BRAIN EXTRACTION
      7. 6. GEODESIC DISTANCE COMPUTATION
      8. 7. GEODESIC METRIC BASED ON THE PIXEL VALUES
      9. 8. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 63: Evaluations on the Applicability of Generic and Modular Image Processing Chains for Quantitative 3D Data Analysis in Clinical Research and Radiographer Training
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. MATERIAL AND METHODS
      4. 3. RESULTS
      5. 4. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 64: Overview of Clinical Decision Support Systems in Healthcare
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ISSUES WITH CLINICAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. APPENDIX
    4. Chapter 65: The Limitations of Traditional Non-Digital Occlusal Indicators When Compared to the T-Scan Computerized Occlusal Analysis Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SECTION I: THE LIMITATIONS OF SUBJECTIVE NON-DIGITAL INTRAORAL OCCLUSAL INDICATORS USED IN CLINICAL PRACTICE
      4. SECTION II: THE MEASUREMENT CAPABILITY OF THE T-SCAN COMPUTERIZED OCCLUSAL ANALYSIS SYSTEM
      5. SECTION III: DISCUSSION
      6. SECTION IV: THE BENEFITS OF USING COMPUTERIZED OCCLUSAL ANALYSIS OVER USING NON-DIGITAL OCCLUSAL INDICATORS
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 66: Promoting Critical Thinking for All Ability Levels in an Online English as a Second Language Course
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHOD
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 67: Neuroimaging Approaches for Elderly Studies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND ON NEUROIMAGING MODALITIES
      4. STRUCTURAL NEUROIMAGING
      5. BACKGROUND ON BRAIN PLASTICITY
      6. STRUCTURAL NEUROIMAGING IN AGING AND ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE
      7. FUNCTIONAL NEUROIMAGING IN AGING AND ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 68: Critical Thinking as a Multifaceted Phenomenon
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. INTERDISCIPLINARITY IMPORTANCE IN CRITICAL THINKING INVESTIGATION AND EXPLANATION
      5. COGNITIVE PARADIGM AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 69: Authentication and Error Resilience in Images Transmitted through Open Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. PROPOSED APPROACH
      5. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND RESULTS
      6. COMPARATIVE DISCUSSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. STANDARDIZATION REVIEW
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 70: An Approach for Automatic Detection and Grading of Macular Edema
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FUNDUS PHOTOGRAPHY
      4. RETINOPATHY
      5. DIABETIC RETINOPATHY (DR)
      6. MACULAR EDEMA
      7. LITERATURE SURVEY
      8. LOCALIZATION OF ABNORMALITIES
      9. OPEN ISSUES AND MOTIVATION
      10. METHODS FOR AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF MACULAR EDEMA
      11. PREPROCESSING
      12. BLOOD VESSEL REMOVAL
      13. OD DETECTION AND MASKING
      14. MATERIALS/ DATABASE USED
      15. RESULTS
      16. CONCLUSION
      17. REFERENCES
      18. ADDITIONAL READING
      19. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 71: Isocenter Verification in Radiotherapy Clinical Practice Using Virtual Simulation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODS
      5. RESULTS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 72: An Approach for the Semantic Interoperability of SNOMED
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY
      4. SNOMED CT
      5. IMPLEMENTATION
      6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
  13. Section 6: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 73: Advanced Approaches to Diagnose and Treat the Chronic Autoimmune Disorders
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. BIOSENSING TECHNIQUES
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 74: T-Scan 8 Recording Dynamics, System Features, and Clinician User Skills
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SECTION I: RECORDING OCCLUSAL DATA DYNAMICS
      4. SECTION II: T-SCAN 8 SYSTEM SOFTWARE FEATURES
      5. SECTION III: FIVE ROUTINELY EMPLOYED DIAGNOSTIC OCCLUSAL ANALYSIS RECORDINGS MADE WITH THE T-SCAN 8 SYSTEM
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 75: Multimodal Indexing and Information Retrieval in Medical Image Mammographies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 76: New Diagnostic and Monitoring Method for Osteoporosis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. OSTEOPOROSIS AND MONITORING METHODS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 77: Lung Disease Classification by Novel Shape-Based Feature Extraction and New Hybrid Genetic Approach
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OBJECTIVE OF THE CHAPTER
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. DATA COLLECTION
      7. PREPROCESSING TECHNIQUES
      8. GRAY SCALE CONVERSION
      9. MEDIAN FILTER
      10. MORPHOLOGICAL SMOOTHENING
      11. FEATURE EXTRACTION METHODS
      12. MOMENT INVARIANTS
      13. PROPOSED MULTISCALE FILTER BASED METHOD
      14. PROPOSED M FEATURE EXTRACTION METHOD
      15. FEATURE SELECTION
      16. WRAPPER METHODS
      17. HYBRID GENETIC ALGORITHM
      18. PROPOSED HYBRID GENETIC ALGORITHM FEATURE SELECTION
      19. WORKING OF THE PROPOSED HYBRID GENETIC ALGORITHM
      20. ADVANTAGES OF THE PROPOSED WORK
      21. CLASSIFIERS
      22. SVM CLASSIFIER
      23. MULTILAYER PERCEPTRON NEURAL NETWORK CLASSIFIER
      24. BAYES NET CLASSIFIER
      25. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
      26. PERFORMANCE MEASURES
      27. CONCLUSION
      28. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      29. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 78: Preoperative and Intraoperative Spatial Reasoning Support with 3D Organ and Vascular Models
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
      5. RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. APPENDIX A
      10. APPENDIX B
      11. APPENDIX C
      12. APPENDIX D
      13. APPENDIX E
    7. Chapter 79: The Combination of Adaptive Filters to Improve the Quality of Medical Images in New Wavelet Domain
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. NEW GENERATION WAVELET TRANSFORMS
      5. THE COMBINATION OF ADAPTIVE FILTERS TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF MEDICAL IMAGES
      6. EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. APPENDIX: TABLES
    8. Chapter 80: New Imaging and Computational Technology as a Guide for Catheter Ablation of Incessant Tachyarrhythmias
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      4. RESULTS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 81: Multimodal Indexing and Information Retrieval System Based on Mammographic Image Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. OPTIMIZATION OF SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 82: Application of Carbon Nanotubes in Nanomedicine
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PREPARATION OF CNTs FOR USE IN MEDICINE
      4. APPLICATIONS OF CNTs IN MEDICINE
      5. TOXICITY OF CARBON NANOTUBES
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. APPENDIX
    11. Chapter 83: A New Heuristic Function of Ant Colony System for Retinal Vessel Segmentation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. RELATED WORK
      4. 3. BACKGROUND
      5. 4. BASELINE APPROACH AND ITS IMPROVEMENTS
      6. 5. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      7. 6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      8. REFERENCES